An engraving of Nemesis (published 1844)
|Owner:||East India Company|
|Builder:||Birkenhead Iron Works|
|Class and type:||Paddle frigate|
|Tons burthen:||660 bm|
|Length:||184 ft (56 m)|
|Beam:||29 ft (8.8 m)|
|Draught:||6 ft (1.8 m)|
|Propulsion:||Twin 60 horsepower George Forrester & Co. steam engines|
|Armament:||2 × 32-pounder + 4 × 6-pounder guns, + 1 × Congreve rocket launcher|
Nemesis was the first British ocean-going iron warship. Launched in 1839, she was used to great effect in the First Opium War under Captain Richard Collinson and Captain William Hutcheon Hall. The Chinese referred to her as the "devil ship".
Nemesis was built by British shipbuilding company Birkenhead Iron Works in three months. She had a length of 184 feet (56 m), a beam of 29 feet (8.8 m), a draught of 6 feet (1.8 m), and a burthen of 660 tons. She was powered by two sixty horsepower Forrester engines. She was armed with two pivot-mounted 32-pounder and four 6-pounder guns. The steam- and sail- powered ship was particularly effective in China because her shallow draught allowed her to travel into rivers to pursue and engage other vessels and targets.
Her watertight bulkheads were the first to be used in a warship. They enabled her to survive the hull damage she sustained during sea trials and en route to China in 1840.[a] That year, Nemesis became the first iron ship to sail around the Cape of Good Hope, aided by techniques developed the year before by Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal, to adjust a compass for the effect of an iron hull. The adjustments were not particularly effective, with the result that the ship's compass performed poorly throughout its career.
Nemesis arrived off the coast of China in late 1840, although when she set sail from Liverpool it was publicly intimated that she was bound for Odessa to keep the voyage a secret. A British officer wrote that the outbreak of the First Opium War "was considered an extremely favourable opportunity for testing the advantages or otherwise of iron steam-vessels." She first saw action in the Second Battle of Chuenpi on 7 January 1841 against the Chinese fleet at the Bocca Tigris forts. In the Battle of First Bar (27 February), Nemesis sank Cambridge, an old, but re-armed East Indiaman that the Chinese had purchased. Due to Nemesis's shallow draught, Nemesis was able to move through shallow water during the Broadway expedition on 13–15 March and aided in the capture of Canton on 18 March. Based in Chusan, she also saw action at Taisam in February 1842, in a successful skirmish associated with repulse of a much larger Chinese attack on Ningbo.
She then operated from Bombay, chiefly to Karachi.
In May 1846 she attacked a flotilla of Sooloo pirate prows in the Bruni river, Borneo. Around the end of 1846 as a result of mob rioting in Canton which had started in July, she was posted by Sir John Davis to cover the East India Company's factory there. She was then withdrawn before February 1847, despite protests from traders. In early 1853, she helped the company's steamer Zenobia expel Burmese troops from Bassein province. She sailed from Shanghai on 1 February 1854, bound for Belfast.
James Clavell's novel Tai-Pan refers to a groundbreaking iron ship called Nemesis taking part in the First Opium War. However, the fictionalized vessel is a Royal Navy ship that arrived to assist in the shallow Chinese rivers that would be traversed to gain access to inland China. Flood of Fire, by Amitav Ghosh, contains a brief account of Nemesis in her role during the early battles of the First Opium War. In the book Storm and Silence by Robert Thier, it is mentioned as belonging to the East India Company's owner, a fictional character Lord Dalgliesh, the antagonist of the five-novel series, made popular through Wattpad.
- "Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. Accessed 26 January 2010.
- Paine, Lincoln P. (2000). Warships of the World to 1900. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 115. ISBN 0-395-98414-9.
- Marks, Robert B. (2007). The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 116. ISBN 0-7425-5419-8.
- "The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia". Parbury, Allen, and Company. 1842: 300. Cite journal requires
- Fay, Peter Ward (1975). The Opium War 1840-1842. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 260–263.
- The Times, 30 March 1840
- Hall, William Hutcheon; Bernard, William Dallas (1845). Narrative of the Voyages and Services of the Nemesis from 1840 to 1843 (2nd ed.). Henry Colburn. p. 3.
- Headrick, Daniel R. (1981). The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press, New York. p. 47. ISBN 0-19-502832-5.
- Headrick 1981, pp. 48–49
- Brown, David K (1978). "Nemesis The First Iron Warship". Warship. Conway Maritime Press. 2: 283–285.
- Hall & Bernard 1845, p. 1
- British Library: Nemesis.
- "The Sooloo Pirates.- By the arrival at Singapore" (Issue 19689). The Times (London, England). 25 October 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "China - Canton" (Issue 19437.). The Times (London, England). 4 January 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "China" (Issue 19465). The Times (London, England). 5 February 1847. p. 6. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "India and China" (Issue 21392). The Times (London, England). 2 April 1853. p. 5. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Shipping Intelligence" (Issue 21701). The Times (London, England). 29 March 1854. p. 10. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "1893 Chicago Exhibition". Grace's Guide. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- She "touched" a rock near Lands End after leaving Liverpool and was docked at Portsmouth in March 1840 to check for damage
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nemesis.|
- The Nemesis — Great Britain's Secret Weapon in the Opium Wars, 1839-60
- Narrative of the Voyages and Services of the Nemesis from 1840 to 1843 by W. D. Bernard at Project Gutenberg