|22nd Jain Tirthankara|
|Kalyanaka / Important Events|
|Chyavana date||Asho Vad 12|
|Chyavana place||Sauripura (Dvaraka)|
|Birth date||Shravan Sud 5, 3228 BCE|
|Birth place||Sauripura (Dvaraka)|
|Diksha date||Shravan Sud 6|
|Diksha place||Sauripura (Dvaraka)|
|Kevalgyan date||Bhadarva Vad Amaas|
|Moksha date||Ashadh Sud 8, 2228 BCE|
|Height||10 bows (30 metres)|
|Part of a series on|
Neminatha (Devanagari: नेमिनाथ) was the twenty-second tirthankara (ford-maker) of the present descending cycle (avsarpani). According to Jain beliefs, he lived 84,650 years before the 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanatha. His full name was Aristanemi which is an epithet of the sun-chariot. He was the youngest son of King Samudravijaya and Queen Shivadevi. He was born at Sauripura (Dvaraka) in the Harivamsa clan. His birth date is the 5th day of Shravana Shukla in the Indian calendar. He became a Siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma.
Secular scholars accept the existence of Jainism as far back before BCE, but for Jains the story goes back much further than Parshvanatha. Jain texts mention the names of twenty-one Tirthankaras before him. Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara, was the son of Samudravijaya and grandson of Andhakavrishni. Jains and some Hindus consider Neminatha to be the cousin of Krishna - the son of Samudravijaya, brother of Krishna's father Vasudeva.
In the Chandogya Upanishads, the sage Ghora Angirasa relates the life of a man to the Soma sacrifice, and the daksina (alms) to austerity, liberality, simplicity, non-violence and truthfulness. In the process, he contributes the first recorded mention of ahimsa in the sense of non-violent behaviour. These values are common to Jainism and some claim Ghora Angirasa as a Jain sadhu instructing Krishna. The word Ghora Angirasa seems to be an epithet given to him because of the extreme austerities he undertook. It may be possible to suggest that Neminatha was his early name and when he had obtained Moksha after hard austerities, he might have been given the name of Ghora Angirasa[original research?].
Neminatha was a very handsome but a shy young man. On being taunted by Satyabhama, the wife of Krishna, Neminatha blew Panchajanya, the mighty counch of Krishna. It was believed that no one could lift this "jewel" except Krishna, let alone blow it. After this event, Krishna decided to test Neminatha's strength and challenged him for a (friendly) duel. Neminatha, being a Tirthankara, defeated Krishna (Vasudeva) without any effort.
According to both religions, Krishna negotiated his marriage with Rajamati (Rajul), the daughter of Ugrasena, but Neminatha, empathizing with the animals which were to be slaughtered for the marriage feast, left the procession suddenly and renounced the world. Some writers of the Jain scriptures say that Tirthankara Neminatha was the master of Krishna.
Tirumalai hill having colossal statue of Lord Neminatha
- Ancient Jain temple of Neminath, Dharwad, Karnataka
- Ancient Jain temple of Neminath, Bandora, Goa dated 1425 AD
- Sarasvati 1970, p. 444.
- Zimmer 1953, p. 224.
- Tukol 1980, p. 31
- Zimmer 1953, p. 226.
- Zimmer 1953, p. 225.
- Doniger 1993, p. 225.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica s.v. "Jainism" has: "Jainism originated is oldest religion on earth in the Ganges basin of eastern India"
- Helen, Johnson (2009) . Muni Samvegayashvijay Maharaj, ed. Trisastiśalākāpurusacaritra of Hemacandra: The Jain Saga (in English. Trans. From Prakrit). Part III. Baroda: Oriental Institute. ISBN 978-81-908157-0-3. pp. 1–266
- Kumar 2001, pp. 4–5.
- Schmidt, Hanns-Peter (1968). The Origin of Ahimsa (in "Melanges d'Indianism a la memoire de Louis Renou). Paris: Editions E de Boccard. p. 653.
- Jain 2009, p. 88.
- Doniger 1993, p. 226.
- Protected monuments in Karnataka, Archaeological Survey of India
- TNN (24 November 2008), Singular pre-Portuguese monument crumbling from neglect Paul Fernandes finds that the Jain basti at Bandora requires conservation, Goa: The Times of India
- Shenoy, Balaji (11 February 2015), Ruins of Neminath Jain Basti at Bandora, The Navhind Times
- Kerkar, Rajendra; TNN (31 October 2014), Jain heritage dwindles as govt sits pretty, The Times of India
- Jinasena, Acharya; Jain (Sahityacharya), Dr. Pannalal (2008) [783 AD], Harivamsapurana [Harivamsapurana], Bhartiya Jnanpith (18, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110003), ISBN 978-81-263-1548-2
- Doniger, Wendy (1993), Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-1381-0
- Ahluwalia, Shashi, Meenakshi (1992), Living faiths in modern India, Indian Publishers' Distributors, p. 404
- Shah, Umakant Premanand (1987), Jaina-Rupa Mandana: Jaina Iconography 1, India: Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-208-X
- Tukol, T. K. (1980), Compendium of Jainism, Dharwad: University of Karnataka
- Sarasvati, Swami Dayananda (1970), An English translation of the Satyarth Prakash, Swami Dayananda Sarasvati
- Jain, Bhawan (1967), Jain Journal Volumes 2-3, Jain Bhawan
- Permanent World Parliament of Religions, Fraternities, and Philosophies,, Sivanand (Swami.) (1956), World Parliament of Religions Commemoration Volume, Sivanandanagar, Rishikesh, India: The Yoga-Vedanta Forest University Press, p. 659
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1953), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-8120807396
- Facets of Jainology by Vilas Adinath Sangave Published 2001 by Popular Prakashan
- Article of Dr.Pran Nath The Times of India 19 March 1935 (said to suggest a link between Nebuchadnezzar I and Neminath)
- Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Published 1947
- World Parliament of Religions Commemoration Volume: Issued in commemoration of the World Parliament of Religions held at Sivanandanagar, Rishikesh, in April, 1953, Published The Yoga-Vedanta Forest University Press, 1956
- Living faiths in modern India, Authors Shashi Ahluwalia, Meenakshi Ahluwalia, Published 1992 by Indian Publishers' Distributors
- Jain Journal, Volumes 2-3, Published by Jain Bhawan 1967