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Nemosis is a process of cell activation and death in human fibroblasts.[1] [2] [3] [4] Initially discovered as programmed necrosis,[2] the name nemosis, is a derivative from the Goddess Nemesis in Greek mythodology. This name was adopted for fibroblast activation based on its initiation by direct cell–cell interactions as opposed to preference for extracellular matrix, ECM, contacts. Contacts between normal diploid fibroblasts induce cell activation leading to programmed cell death, PCD. This type of PCD has features of necrosis rather than apoptosis.

Nemosis of fibroblasts, or mesenchymal cells in general, generates large amounts of mediators of inflammation, such as prostaglandins,[2] as well as growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor.[1] It is thus indicated to contribute to processes like acute and chronic inflammation, and cancer. Factors secreted by nemotic fibroblasts also break down the ECM. Such factors include several matrix metalloproteinases,[3] and plasminogen activation.[2]


  1. ^ a b Esko Kankuri; Dana Cholujova; Monika Comajova; Antti Vaheri; Jozef Bizik (2005). "Induction of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor by fibroblast clustering directly promotes tumor cell invasiveness". Cancer Research. 65 (21): 9914–9922. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1559. PMID 16267016. 
  2. ^ a b c d Jozef Bizik; Esko Kankuri; Ari Ristimäki; Alain Taieb; Heikki Vapaatalo; Werner Lubitz; Antti Vaheri (2004). "Cell-cell contacts trigger programmed necrosis and induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression.". Cell Death and Differentiation. 11 (2): 183–195. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401317. PMID 14555963. 
  3. ^ a b Vappu Sirén; Pertteli Salmenperä; Esko Kankuri; Jozef Bizik; Timo Sorsa; Taina Tervahartiala; Antti Vaheri (2006). "Cell-cell contact activation of fibroblasts increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinases". Annals of Medicine. 38 (3): 212–220. doi:10.1080/07853890500494999. PMID 16720435. 
  4. ^ Esko Kankuri; Olga Babusikova; Kristina Hlubinova; Pertteli Salmenperä; Carla Boccaccio; Werner Lubitz; Ari Harjula; Jozef Bizik (2007). "Fibroblast nemosis arrests growth and induces differentiation of human leukemia cells". International Journal of Cancer. 122 (6): 1243–52. doi:10.1002/ijc.23179. PMID 18027855. 

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