Kōdai-in

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Kōdai-in
Kita no mandokoro
高台院
Kodai-in Nene cropped.jpg
Kōdai-in in nun's robe
ReligionBuddhism
TempleKōdai-ji
Other namesNene
Toyotomi Yoshiko
Dharma namesKōdai-in Kogetsuni
Posthumous nameHikari no Tenshi
Personal
NationalityJapanese
BornSugihara Yasuko
1546 (1546)
Owari Province, Japan
DiedOctober 17, 1624(1624-10-17) (aged 77–78)
Kōdai-ji, Kyoto, Japan
Resting placeOtama-ya, Kōdai-ji, Kyoto, Japan
Spouse
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
(m. 1561; died 1598)
Childrennone
Parents
Senior posting
Based inKyoto, Japan
ConsecrationKōdai-ji

Kōdai-in (高台院) (born Sugihara Yasuko (杉原 寧子); 1546 – October 17, 1624), formerly known as Nene (ねね), One (おね), Nei (ねい), or Nemoji, was a Buddhist nun and founder of the temple Kōdai-ji in Kyoto, Japan. She was formerly the principal samurai wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi under the name of Toyotomi Yoshiko (豊臣 吉子).[1] She is also known by the title of "Kita no mandokoro".

Early life[edit]

She was born Sugihara Yasuko in Owari Province in about 1546. She was the second daughter of Sugihara Sadatoshi [ja] and his wife Asahi-dono [ja]. It has been rumored that Maeda Toshiie held some romantic interest in Nene prior to her marriage.

Hideyoshi's wife[edit]

In about 1561, she married Hashiba Hideyoshi, a man who would later become one of the three great unifiers of Japan, although at the time of their marriage he had yet to gain much fame. Nene was his principal wife and also one of his favorite wives. In 1585, after Hideyoshi was appointed to the post of Imperial Regent (Kampaku), Nene took on the title of "Kita no mandokoro", by which she is most commonly known in English.

As the wife of Hideyoshi, Nene is most famous for being one of his closest aides and confidantes. The daughter of a samurai, she had many familial connections that netted Hideyoshi several retainers. Among these retainers were Sugihara Ietsugu (Nene's uncle), Kinoshita Iesada (Nene's brother), Kobayakawa Hideaki (Nene's nephew) and Asano Nagamasa (Nene's brother-in-law). The last of these characters would serve as an important official in Hideyoshi's later administration. Nene was known to have been an intelligent woman who, at times, advised Hideyoshi on matters of governance by sending him letters. When Hideyoshi repealed the tax exemptions he had granted to the residents living in his headquarters at Nagahama, Nene appealed to him to reinstate the exemptions, and he did. It is also recorded that Hideyoshi frequently wrote letters to Nene to tell her about how his campaigns were going. Hideyoshi did this after his invasion of Sassa Narimasa's territory in Japan's Hokuriku region and after his campaign against the Shimazu clan.

When Hideyoshi unified Japan, Nene often went with him to attend parties. She was courteous and respectful to her guests on every occasion. When Emperor Go-Yozei visited Hideyoshi's mansion with his entourage in 1588, Nene freely distributed a plethora of gifts to Hideyoshi's visitors. She also received the rank of Juichii from the Emperor himself.

Though adored, Nene often found herself competing with other women for Hideyoshi's attention. In a letter to Nene, Oda Nobunaga also noted that Hideyoshi was somewhat dissatisfied with Nene. Hideyoshi took up several concubines. Nene did not bear any children.[1]

Letter from Oda Nobunaga[edit]

...It has been quite sometime since I last saw you, but your beauty grows day by day. Tokichiro [Hideyoshi] complains about you constantly and it is outrageous. While that "bald rat" [Hideyoshi] flusters to find another good woman, you remain lofty and elegant. Do not be envious. Show Hideyoshi this letter...

Hideyoshi's widow[edit]

Nene worried about Hideyoshi often when he was on his deathbed. Eventually, as Hideyoshi was on his last throes, she even petitioned the Imperial Court to sponsor a sacred dance ritual to pray for and expedite Hideyoshi's recovery.

After Hideyoshi died in 1598, Nene became a nun and assumed the dharma name of Kōdai-in Kogetsuni. In 1606 with the help of Tokugawa Ieyasu, she established a Buddhist temple Kōdai-ji in Kyoto, to which she moved. It became the burial area for her husband, his mother, and later Toyotomi Hideyori. During the contest between Toyotomi Hideyori and Tokugawa Ieyasu for supremacy, Kōdai-in took the side of Ieyasu.

Death[edit]

After her death in 1624 and was buried within the temple compound, she was posthumously given the name of Hikari no Tenshi or "Angel of Light".[2]

Her remains would later be unearthed to make way for the sanctuary known as Otama-ya. Upon its completion, her remains was interred in there, placed under the wooden statue of herself, alongside with the statue of Hideyoshi.

Legacy[edit]

The life of this prominent resident of Kyoto is still commemorated in a short street which bears her name. Nene's Street (ねねの道, Nene-no-Michi) remains lined with structures built in traditional Kyoto style. Nene-no-Michi is located in Higashiyama Ward in eastern Kyoto near Kōdai-ji, Maruyama Park and Yasaka Shrine.[3]

Honours[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Matsudaira Ietada" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 702.
  2. ^ Nenzi, Laura. (2008). Excursions in Identity: Travel and the Intersection of Place, Gender, and Status in Edo Japan, p. 89.
  3. ^ Rowthorn, Chris. (2005). Kyoto: City Guide, p. 95; JapanVisitors: Kodaiji Temple/Nene-no-Michi.

Further reading[edit]

  • Berry, Mary Elizabeth. (1982). Hideyoshi. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-39025-6
  • Nenz Detto Nenzi, Laura. (2008). Excursions in Identity: Travel and the Intersection of Place, Gender, and Status in Edo Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3117-2
  • Rowthorn, Chris. (2005). Kyoto: City Guide. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-085-2 OCLC: 224361206
  • Yoshikawa, Eiji. (1992). Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-1570-9 (cloth)