Neo-racism is forms of constructive or indirect racism where—acting under the auspices of non-racism or anti-racism—policies are implemented that are ignorant of racial and ethnic minority rights, resulting in limiting, prohibiting and reducing rights of freedom of association, commercial activity and freedom of intellectual, political or artistic expression. Alternatively, Étienne Balibar describes this racism as having as its dominant theme not biological heredity, "but the insurmountability of cultural differences, a racism which, at first sight, does not postulate the superiority of certain groups or peoples in relation to others but 'only' the harmfulness of abolishing frontiers, the incompatibility of lifestyles and traditions".
- Ê. Balibar and I. Wallerstein. Race, nation, classe: les identités ambiguës (1988). Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities (1991).