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Developer(s) Neo Technology
Initial release 2007; 11 years ago (2007)[1]
Stable release
3.3.0 / October 24, 2017; 2 months ago (2017-10-24)[2][3]
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written in Java
Type Graph database

Neo4j is a graph database management system developed by Neo4j, Inc. Described by its developers as an ACID-compliant transactional database with native graph storage and processing,[4] Neo4j is the most popular graph database according to DB-Engines ranking.[5]

Neo4j is available in a GPL3-licensed open-source "community edition", with online backup and high availability extensions licensed under the terms of the Affero General Public License. Neo also licenses Neo4j with these extensions under closed-source commercial terms.[6]

Neo4j is implemented in Java and accessible from software written in other languages using the Cypher Query Language through a transactional HTTP endpoint, or through the binary "bolt" protocol.[7][8][9][10]


Version 1.0 was released in February 2010.[11]

Neo4j version 2.0 was released in December 2013.[12]

Neo4j version 3.0 was released in April 2016.

In November 2016 Neo4j successfully secured $36M in Series D Funding led by Greenbridge Partners Ltd[13]

Licensing and editions[edit]

Neo4j comes in 3 editions: Community; Enterprise; and Government. It is dual-licensed: GPLv3; and AGPLv3 / commercial. The Community Edition is free but is limited to running on 1 node only due to the lack of clustering and is without hot backups.[14]

The Enterprise Edition (which requires buying a license unless the application built on top of it is open-sourced) unlocks these limitations, allowing for clustering, hot backups, and monitoring. The Government Edition extends the Enterprise Edition adding additional government specific services including FISMA-related certification and accreditation support.[citation needed]

Data structure[edit]

In Neo4j, everything is stored in the form of either an edge, a node, or an attribute. Each node and edge can have any number of attributes. Both the nodes and edges can be labelled. Labels can be used to narrow searches. As of version 2.0, indexing was added to Cypher with the introduction of schemas.[15] Previously, indexes were supported separately from Cypher.[16]

Neo4j, Inc.[edit]

Neo4j is developed by Neo4j, Inc., based in the San Francisco Bay Area, United States, North America, and also in Malmö, Sweden, Europe. The Neo4j, Inc. board of directors consists of Rod Johnson (founder of the Spring Framework), Chris Barchak (Partner at Conor Venture Partners), Magnus Christerson (Vice President of Intentional Software Corp), Nikolaj Nyholm (Partner at Sunstone Capital), Guarav Tuli (Principal at Fidelity Growth Partners), and Johan Svensson (CTO of Neo4j Inc).[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tweet from core developer on initial release date
  2. ^ Github releases
  3. ^ Release Notes
  4. ^ Neo Technology. "Neo4j Graph Database". Retrieved 2015-11-04. 
  5. ^ "DB-Engines Ranking of Graph DBMS". DB-Engines. February 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-28. 
  6. ^ Emil Eifrem (April 13, 2011). "Graph Databases, Licensing and MySQL". Archived from the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  7. ^ "Bolt Protocol". 
  8. ^ Todd Hoff (June 13, 2009). "Neo4j - a Graph Database that Kicks Buttox". High Scalability. Possibility Outpost. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  9. ^ Gavin Terrill (June 5, 2008). "Neo4j - an Embedded, Network Database". InfoQ. C4Media Inc. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  10. ^ "5.1. Transactional Cypher HTTP endpoint". Retrieved 2015-11-04. 
  11. ^ "The top 10 ways to get to know Neo4j". Neo4j Blog. February 16, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  12. ^ "Neo4j 2.0 GA - Graphs for Everyone". Neo4j Blog. December 11, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  13. ^ "Neo Technology closes $36 million in funding as graph database adoption soars". SiliconANGLE. Retrieved 2016-11-21. 
  14. ^ "The Neo4j Editions". 
  15. ^ "The Neo4j Manual v2.1.5". 
  16. ^ "The Neo4j Manual v1.8.3". 
  17. ^ Neo Technology. "Staff - Neo4Jj Graph Database". Retrieved 2015-02-18. 

External links[edit]