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5.6 / 24 March 2023
Neo4j is a graph database management system developed by Neo4j, Inc. Described by its developers as an ACID-compliant transactional database with native graph storage and processing, Neo4j is available in a non-open-source "community edition" licensed with a modification of the GNU General Public License, with online backup and high availability extensions licensed under a closed-source commercial license. Neo also licenses Neo4j with these extensions under closed-source commercial terms.
Neo4j is implemented in Java and accessible from software written in other languages using the Cypher query language through a transactional HTTP endpoint, or through the binary "Bolt" protocol. The "4j" in Neo4j is a reference to its being built in Java, however is now largely viewed as an anachronism.
Version 1.0 was released in February 2010.
Neo4j version 2.0 was released in December 2013.
Neo4j version 3.0 was released in April 2016.
In November 2016, Neo4j successfully secured $36M in Series D Funding led by Greenbridge Partners Ltd.
In November 2018, Neo4j successfully secured $80M in Series E Funding led by One Peak Partners and Morgan Stanley Expansion Capital, with participation from other investors including Creandum, Eight Roads and Greenbridge Partners.
In June 2021, Neo4j announced another round of funding, $325M in Series F.
|Latest release||End of|
|1.0||2010-02-23||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0||—||2011-08-23|
|1.1||2010-07-30||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1||—||2012-01-30|
|1.2||2010-12-29||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2||—||2012-06-29|
|1.3||2011-04-12||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3||—||2012-09-12|
|1.4||2011-07-08||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4||—||2013-01-08|
|1.5||2011-11-09||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.5||—||2013-03-09|
|1.6||2012-01-22||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6||—||2013-07-22|
|1.7||2012-04-18||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.7||—||2013-10-18|
|1.8||2012-09-28||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8||—||2014-03-28|
|1.9||2013-05-21||Old version, no longer maintained: 1.9.9||2014-10-13||2014-11-21|
|2.0||2013-12-11||Old version, no longer maintained: 2.0.4||2014-07-08||2015-06-11|
|2.1||2014-05-29||Old version, no longer maintained: 2.1.8||2015-04-01||2015-11-29|
|2.2||2015-03-25||Old version, no longer maintained: 2.2.10||2016-06-16||2016-09-25|
|2.3||2015-10-21||Old version, no longer maintained: 2.3.12||2017-12-12||2017-04-21|
|3.0||2016-04-16||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0.12||2017-10-03||2017-10-31|
|3.1||2016-12-13||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.1.9||2018-06-05||2018-06-13|
|3.2||2017-05-11||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.2.14||2019-02-26||2018-11-31|
|3.3||2017-10-24||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.3.9||2018-11-02||2019-04-28|
|3.4||2018-05-17||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.4.17||2019-11-19||2020-03-31|
|3.5||2018-11-29||Old version, no longer maintained: 3.5.35||2022-08-11||2022-05-27|
|4.0||2020-01-15||Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0.12||2021-07-06||2021-07-14|
|4.1||2020-06-23||Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.12||2022-08-11||2021-12-22|
|4.2||2020-11-17||Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2.19||2022-08-11||2022-05-16|
|4.3||2021-06-17||Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.23||2022-12-21||2022-12-16|
|4.4||2021-12-02||Older version, yet still maintained: 4.4.19||2023-03-28||2025-06-30|
|5.0||2022-10-06||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.0||—||2022-10-24|
|5.1||2022-10-24||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.1||—||Release of 5.2|
|5.2||2022-11-21||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.2||—||Release of 5.3|
|5.3||2022-12-15||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.3||—||Release of 5.4|
|5.4||2023-01-26||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.4||—||Release of 5.5|
|5.5||2023-02-16||Old version, no longer maintained: 5.5||—||Release of 5.6|
|5.6||2023-03-24||Current stable version: 5.6||—|
Licensing and editions
Neo4j comes in five editions. Two are on-premises editions, Community (free) and Enterprise, and three are cloud-only editions: AuraDB Free, AuraDB Professional, and AuraDB Enterprise.
It is dual-licensed: GPL v3 (with parts of the code under AGPLv3 with Commons Clause), and a proprietary license. The Community Edition is free but is limited to running on one node only due to the lack of clustering and is without hot backups.
The Enterprise Edition unlocks these limitations, allowing for clustering, hot backups, and monitoring. The Enterprise Edition is available under a closed-source Commercial license.
In Neo4j, everything is stored in the form of an edge, node, or attribute. Each node and edge can have any number of attributes. Both nodes and edges can be labelled. Labels can be used to narrow searches. As of version 2.0, indexing was added to Cypher with the introduction of schemas. Previously, indexes were supported separately from Cypher.
Neo4j is developed by Neo4j, Inc., based in San Mateo, California, United States, and also in Malmö, Sweden. The Neo4j, Inc. board of directors consists of Michael Treskow (Eight Roads), Emanuel Lang (Greenbridge), Christian Jepsen (Sunstone), Denise Persson (CMO of Snowflake), David Klein (One Peak), Nathalie Kornhoff-Brüls (Eurazeo), Patrick Pichette (Inovia Capital and former CFO of Google), and Emil Eifrem (CEO of Neo4j).
- ^ Neubauer, Peter [@peterneubauer] (17 Feb 2010). "@sarkkine #Neo4j was developed as part of a CMS SaaS 2000-2007, became released OSS 2007 when Neo Technology spun out" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- ^ https://neo4j.com/release-notes/database/neo4j-5/.
- ^ Neo Technology. "Neo4j Graph Database". Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- ^ Philip Rathle (November 15, 2018). "Simplicity Wins: We're Shifting to an Open Core Licensing Model for Neo4j Enterprise Edition". Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- ^ Emil Eifrem (April 13, 2011). "Graph Databases, Licensing and MySQL". Archived from the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- ^ "Bolt Protocol".
- ^ Todd Hoff (June 13, 2009). "Neo4j - a Graph Database that Kicks Buttox". High Scalability. Possibility Outpost. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ Gavin Terrill (June 5, 2008). "Neo4j - an Embedded, Network Database". InfoQ. C4Media Inc. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ "5.1. Transactional Cypher HTTP endpoint". Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- ^ Dr. Jim Webber (June 8, 2020). "A Personal History of Neo4j". Neo4j. YouTube. Retrieved 2022-06-09.
- ^ "The top 10 ways to get to know Neo4j". Neo4j Blog. February 16, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ "Neo4j 2.0 GA - Graphs for Everyone". Neo4j Blog. December 11, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- ^ "Neo4j 3.0.0 - Neo4j Graph Database Platform". Release Date. April 26, 2016. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
- ^ "Neo Technology closes $36 million in funding as graph database adoption soars". SiliconANGLE. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- ^ "Graph database platform Neo4j locks in $80 mln Series E". PE Hub Wire. Archived from the original on 2019-04-26. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
- ^ "Neo4j Series F funding".
- ^ a b "Neo4j Supported Versions". Neo4j Graph Database Platform. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
- ^ a b "Release Notes Archive". Neo4j Graph Database Platform. Retrieved 2023-03-28.
- ^ "The Neo4j Editions".
- ^ "The Neo4j Manual v2.1.5".
- ^ "The Neo4j Manual v1.8.3".
- ^ Neo4j. "Staff - Neo4j Graph Database". Retrieved 2020-06-19.