Temporal range: Pleistocene
Neochoerus pinckneyi was a North American species of capybara. While capybaras originated in South America, formation of the Isthmus of Panama three million years ago allowed some of them to migrate north as part of the Great American Interchange. Capybaras and porcupines are the only caviomorph rodents that reached temperate North America during this exchange (a much greater diversity of North American rodents invaded South America). At 90 to 113 kg (200 to 250 pounds), 40% larger than the living capybara, N. pinckneyi is one of the largest rodent species ever discovered, surpassed only by the recently discovered Josephoartigasia monesi, several species of Phoberomys, and possibly the Pleistocene giant beaver. Remains have been found in southern North America and throughout Central America. During the Pleistocene, they extended their range, from Arizona to Florida to South Carolina.
- Kurtén, Björn and Anderson, Elaine. 1980. Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 274. ISBN 0-231-03733-3
- Pleistocene Fauna of South Texas
- Baskin, Jon A.; Thomas, Ronny G. "South Texas and the Great American Interchange" (PDF). Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions. 57: 37–45.