Neoclassical realism is an approach to foreign policy analysis. Initially coined by Gideon Rose in a 1998 World Politics review article, it is a combination of classical realist and neorealist – particularly defensive realist – theories.
Neoclassical realism holds that the actions of a state in the international system can be explained by systemic variables – such as the distribution of power capabilities among states – as well as cognitive variables – such as the perception and misperception of systemic pressures, other states' intentions, or threats – and domestic variables – such as state institutions, elites, and societal actors within society – affecting the power and freedom of action of the decision-makers in foreign policy. While holding true to the neorealist concept of balance of power, neoclassical realism further adds that states' mistrust and inability to perceive one another accurately, or state leaders' inability to mobilize state power and public support can result in an underexpansion or underbalancing behaviour leading to imbalances within the international system, the rise and fall of great powers, and war:
- Appropriate balancing occurs when a state correctly perceives another state's intentions and balances accordingly.
- Inappropriate balancing or overbalancing occurs when a state incorrectly perceives another state as threatening, and uses more resources than it needs to in order to balance. This causes an imbalance.
- Underbalancing occurs when a state fails to balance, out of either inefficiency or incorrectly perceiving a state as less of threat than it actually is. This causes an imbalance.
- Nonbalancing occurs when a state avoids balancing through buck passing, bandwagoning, or other escapes. A state may choose to do this for a number of reasons, including an inability to balance.
Notable neoclassical realists
Persons mentioned as neoclassical realists, and the year of the release of the work associated with this classification include:
- William Wohlforth (1993)
- Thomas J. Christensen (1996)
- Alastair J. H. Murray (1997)
- Gideon Rose (1998)
- Randall Schweller (1998)
- Fareed Zakaria (1998)
- Robert Jervis (1999)
- Colin Dueck (2006)
- Asle Toje (2010)
- Tom Dyson (2010)
- Baylis, John, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens (eds.) The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations.(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) p.231
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- Further reading
- Christensen, Thomas. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 (Princeton: University Press, 1996)
- Dyson, Tom. "Neoclassical Realism and Defence Reform in Post-Cold War Europe" (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
- Lobell, Steven E.; Ripsman, Norin M. and Taliaferro, Jeffrey W. (eds.) Neoclassical Realism, the State, and Foreign Policy(Cambridge: University Press, 2009)
- Rose, Gideon. "Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy," World Politics, 51 (October 1998), pp.144-172
- Schweller, Randall. "Unanswered Threats: Political Constraints on the Balance of Power (Princeton: University Press, 2006)
- Toje, Asle and Kunz, Barbara (eds.) Neoclassical Realism in European Politics: Bringing Power Back In (Manchester: University Press, 2012)
- Wohlworth, William. The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions during the Cold War (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993)
- Zakaria, Fareed. From Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America's World Role (Princeton: University Press, 1998)