||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Classification and external resources|
Neonatal hypoglycemia is a condition of decreased blood sugar or hypoglycemia in a neonate. Untreated low blood sugar levels in newborn children poses a higher risk for injury to the brain that could lead to developmental problems later in life. Such children are often admitted to neonatal units for active treatment, resulting in separation from the mother and inadequate breast feeding during this time.
Neonatal hypoglycemia can be found in the following conditions:
- Decreased substrate availability
- Intrauterine growth retardation
- Inborn errors of metabolism (e.g. fructose intolerance)
- Glycogen storage disease
- Prolonged fasting without IV glucose
- Infant of diabetic mother
- Erythroblastosis fetalis
- Exchange transfusion
- Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
- Islet cell hyperplasia
- Maternal ß-mimetic tocolytic agents
- High umbilical arterial catheter
- Abrupt cessation of IV glucose
- Other endocrine abnormalities
- Adrenal insufficiency
- Increased glucose utilization
- Cold stress
- Neonatal infection
- Increased work of breathing
- Perinatal asphyxia
- Other conditions
- Congenital heart disease
- CNS abnormalities
40% dextrose (a form of sugar) gel applied directly to the infant's mouth is a simple and effective treatment to improve the sugar levels. This also helps keeping mothers and infants together, and improving the rate of full breast feeding at the time of discharge from hospital.
- "Neonatal Hypoglycemia : Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual" (PDF). UCSF Children's Hospital. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Weston, PJ; Harris, DL; Battin, M; Brown, J; Hegarty, JE; Harding, JE (4 May 2016). "Oral dextrose gel for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 5: CD011027. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011027.pub2. PMID 27142842. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Koh TH, Eyre JA, Aynsley-Green A (1988). "Neonatal hypoglycaemia--the controversy regarding definition". Arch. Dis. Child. 63 (11): 1386–8. doi:10.1136/adc.63.11.1386. PMC . PMID 3202648.
- Cornblath M, Schwartz R, Aynsley-Green A, Lloyd JK (1990). "Hypoglycemia in infancy: the need for a rational definition. A Ciba Foundation discussion meeting". Pediatrics. 85 (5): 834–7. PMID 2330247.
- Cornblath M, Hawdon JM, Williams AF, Aynsley-Green A, Ward-Platt MP, Schwartz R, Kalhan SC (2000). "Controversies regarding definition of neonatal hypoglycemia: suggested operational thresholds". Pediatrics. 105 (5): 1141–5. doi:10.1542/peds.105.5.1141. PMID 10790476.
- McGowan, JE (1 July 1999). "Neonatal Hypoglycemia". Pediatrics in Review. 20 (7): 6e–15. doi:10.1542/pir.20-7-e6.
- "Postnatal Glucose Homeostasis in Late-Preterm and Term Infants" (PDF). Pediatrics. 127 (3): 575–579. 28 February 2011. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3851.
- Neonatal hypoglycemia: initial and follow up management, Guideline
- Management of Neonatal Hypoglycemia, NNF Clinical Practice Guidelines.
- Neonatal Hypoglycemia : Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual, The Regents of the University of California, 2004.
- Hypoglycemia in the Newborn, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital
- Glucose Infusion Rate Calculator
- TPN Cheat Sheet
- Newborn Hypoglycemia Guideline: British Columbia Reproductive Care Program