Nepali Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Nepali Congress
नेपाली काँग्रेस
AbbreviationNC
PresidentSher Bahadur Deuba
PresidiumCentral Working Committee
Vice-presidentPurna Bahadur Khadka
Dhanraj Gurung
General SecretaryGagan Kumar Thapa
Bishwa Prakash Sharma[1]
SpokespersonDr. Prakash Sharan Mahat[2]
FounderBishweshwar Prasad Koirala and others
Founded9 April 1950 (72 years ago) (1950-04-09)
Merger ofNepali National Congress
Nepal Democratic Congress
HeadquartersB.P. Smriti Bhawan,
B.P. Nagar, Lalitpur[3]
Think tankPolicy Research and Training Centre[4]
Student wingNepal Student Union
Youth wingNepal Tarun Dal
Women's wingNepal Woman Association
Labour wingNepal Trade Union Congress
Peasant's wingNepal Kisan Sangh[5]
Membership (July 2021)Increase852,711 (2021)[6][7]
IdeologySocial democracy[8]
Third Way[9]
Political positionCentre-left[10]
International affiliationSocialist International
Progressive Alliance
Colours 
House of Representatives
63 / 275
National Assembly
10 / 59
Provincial Assemblies
114 / 550
Chief Ministers
2 / 7
Mayors/Chairs
329 / 753
Councillors
13,730 / 35,011
Election symbol
BJP Election Symbol
Party flag
Nepali Congress flag.svg
Website
nepalicongress.org

The Nepali Congress (Nepali: नेपाली कांग्रेस Nepali pronunciation: [neˈpali ˈkaŋres]; abbr. NC) is the largest social democratic political party in Nepal. As per the results of recent local election, Nepali Congress stands as the single largest party of Nepal in local levels. It is the current ruling party of Nepal since July 2021.[11] With more than one million active members, the party remains the largest party in Nepal by membership and is the only mass based party in Nepal.[12][13][14]

The only party in Nepal to have been elected with a majority, NC formed a majority government post three elections; in 1959, 1991 and 1999.[15] Similarly, it emerged as the single largest party from the 2013 Constituent Assembly election, and played a leading role in the promulgation of the Constitution of Nepal in 2015.[16] In addition, all the elections of Nepal were conducted by Nepali Congress led government as per the commitment of party towards democracy in Nepal.

The party was formed in 1950 by the merger of the Nepali National Congress and the Nepal Democratic Congress along democratic socialist lines. NC prime ministers led four governments between the fall of the Rana dynasty and the start of the Panchayat era, including the first democratically elected government of Nepal, after the 1959 general election.[17] Starting in the 1990s, the party followed other mainstream, centre-left social democratic parties in moving closer to the political centre through the Third Way.[8]

Background[edit]

In 1947, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, published an appeal for a unified struggle of Nepali people against the Rana regime. That same year, some Nepalese got together in Benaras and formed an organization by the name All Indian Nepali National Congress (Nepali: भारतीय नेपाली राष्ट्रिय कांग्रेस) where an ad-hoc committee was established. The initial officers were chairman Devi Prasad Sapkota, vice-president Balchandra Sharma, general secretary Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, and public minister Gopal Prasad Bhattarai, publicity minister. Its Working Committee included Batuk Prasad Bhattarai, Narayan Prasad Bhattarai, and Narendra Regmi, while its coordinator was Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala.[18]

Around the same time, Nepalese located in Calcutta formed another organization by the name All Indian Nepali Gorkha Congress (Nepali: अखिल भारतीय गोर्खा कांग्रेस) whose chairman was Dharma Narayan Pradhan. Koirala traveled extensively to places such as Benaras, Calcutta, Darjeeling, Assam, Bhaksu, and Dehradhun, and established contact with the Nepalese there. He met with Ganesh Man Singh during the same period. Nepalese representatives from different areas of Nepal and India organized one session in Calcutta. Koirala, Dilli Raman Regmi, Dharma Narayan Pradhan, and Dhan Man Singh Pariyar were present. In the same session, dropping Akhil Bharatiya from its name, the organization was named Nepali National Congress. Tanka Prasad Acharya, who was facing a life-sentence in Kathmandu, was made its chairman. The flag was square-shaped with white, blue, and red colors in succession, with the moon and the sun in its center.[18]

The major four proposals passed by the session were to assist Indians in their independence movement, support Vietnam struggling for freedom against French colonization, ask for the immediate release of imprisoned members of the Nepal Praja Parishad, and initiate a non-violence movement in Nepal for the establishment of an accountable ruling system. The organization's modus operandi was chosen, and attached itself to the civil conscience process in Nepal by establishing Tanka Prasad Acharya as its chairman.[18]

History[edit]

Nepali Congress formation, 1946–1950[edit]

The Nepali Congress Party was formed by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. The Nepali National Congress was founded by Matrika Prasad Koirala in Calcutta, India on 25 January 1946. The Nepal Democratic Congress was founded by Subarna Shumsher Rana in Calcutta on 4 August 1948. The two parties merged on 10 April 1950 to form the Nepali Congress and Koirala became its first president.[19] The party called for an armed revolution against the Rana regime.

During the Bairgania Conference in Bairgania, Bihar, on 27 September 1950 the Nepali Congress announced an armed revolution against the Rana regime. The president of the party also announced the liquidation of operations in India and that the party would operate only inside Nepal.[20]

After King Tribhuvan took refuge inside the Indian Embassy on 6 November 1950. The Congress Liberation Army decided to take this opportunity to launch attacks against the regime before the King "left Nepalese soil". Matrika and Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala and Subarna Shamsher Rana flew to Purnia, Bihar. They called the commanders posted at different locations inside Nepal to prepare for armed strikes near the Nepal-India border.[20]

On 11 November 1950, at midnight Birgunj was attacked, and by 12 November it fell to the Nepali Congress and the first "People's Government" was declared.[20] The liberation army was able to control most of the eastern hills of Nepal and the town of Tansen in Palpa. After pressure by the Indian government and the mass movement by the Nepali Congress and other political parties, the Rana government finally submitted to their demands and King Tribhuvan returned to the throne, replacing King Gyanendra, who had been crowned king after King Tribhuvan left for India.

Nepali Congress leaders meeting King Tribhuvan

Transitional government, 1951–1959[edit]

After the fall of the Rana government, the Nepali Congress led three of the five governments formed before the elections. Matrika Prasad Koirala, the first commoner to become Prime Minister, led the government from 1951 to 1952 and 1953–1955 and Subarna Shamsher Rana led the government from 1958 to 1959. The much delayed elections were finally held in February 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal after the Nepali Congress won 74 of 109 seats in the parliament.[21]

Panchayat government, 1960–1990[edit]

Following a royal coup by King Mahendra in 1960, many leaders of the party, including Koirala, Rana and General Secretary Hora Prasad Joshi, were imprisoned or exiled; others took political refuge in India. Although political parties were prohibited from 1960 to 1989 and remained outlawed during the Panchayat system under the aegis of the Associations and Organizations (Control) Act of 1963, the Nepali Congress persisted. The party placed great emphasis on eliminating the feudal economy and building a basis for socioeconomic development. It proposed nationalizing basic industries and instituting progressive taxes on land, urban housing, salaries, profits and foreign investments. While in exile, the Nepali Congress served as the nucleus around which other opposition groups clustered and instigated popular uprisings in the Hill and Terai regions. During this time, the Nepali Congress refused the overtures of a radical faction of the Communist Party of Nepal for a tactical alliance.

The Nepali Congress demonstrated endurance, but defection, factionalism, and external pressures weakened it over time. Nevertheless, it continued to be the only organized party to press for democratization. In the 1980 government system referendum, it supported the multiparty system in opposition to the panchayat system. The party boycotted the 1981 general election and rejected the new government. The death in 1982 of Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala further weakened the party.

After the party boycotted the 1986 general election to the Rastriya Panchayat, its members were allowed to run in the 1987 Nepalese local elections. In defiance of the demonstration ban, the Nepali Congress organized mass rallies with the communist factions in January 1990 that ultimately triggered the pro-democracy movement.

Post-Panchayat government, 1991–2002[edit]

After the Jana Andolan I, party president Krishna Prasad Bhattarai was invited to form an interim coalition government. In the 1991 general election, the Nepali Congress won 110 of 205 seats but Bhattarai lost his seat and yielded the position of prime minister to Girija Prasad Koirala who held his seat until 1994.[22]

During the 1994 general election, the Nepali Congress lost its majority to Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist). The CPN (UML) lacked a majority and formed a minority government. After 46 parliamentarians from the CPN (UML) quit to form the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), the Nepali Congress formed their own government with the Rastriya Prajatantra Party and Nepal Sadbhawana Party. After CPN (UML) offered Lokendra Bahadur Chand the position of prime minister, the Rastriya Prajatantra Party led a government with the CPN (UML). Internal problems within the Rastriya Prajatantra Party caused one faction led by Surya Bahadur Thapa to lead a government with Nepali Congress and Nepal Sadbhawana Party.[21][22]

Girija Prasad Koirala again became the Prime Minister in April 1998, leading a Congress minority government after Rastriya Prajatantra and Nepal Sadbhawana quit the government. Eventually, they got support from the CPN (ML) and after their withdrawal the CPN (UML) and Nepal Sadbhawana.[21][22]

During the 1999 general election, Girija Prasad Koirala stepped aside in favour of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, who returned as Prime Minister when the Nepali Congress won 111 out of 205 House seats. Bhattarai resigned as prime minister on 16 March 2000 after conflicts between himself and supporters of Girija Prasad Koirala. In the party's first open leadership election, the parliamentarians selected Girija Prasad Koirala as their leader by 69-43 votes over Sher Bahadur Deuba. Accordingly, King Birendra designated Girija Prasad Koirala as prime minister on 20 March.[21][22]

On 8 August 2000, Koirala dismissed the Minister of Water Resources, Khum Bahadur Khadka, for calling for Koirala's resignation. Although Koirala beat back another challenge by Deuba's supporters at a party convention in January 2001, he resigned as Prime Minister on 19 July. Deuba then defeated Secretary General Sushil Koirala, 72–40, for the party leadership and was designated prime minister by the king.[21][22]

In May 2002, the party's disciplinary committee expelled Deuba for failing to consult the party before seeking a parliamentary extension of the country's state of emergency. Deuba's supporters then expelled Koirala at a general convention in June. Deuba registered his faction as the Nepali Congress (Democratic),[23] following a decision by the Election Commission that the Koirala faction held ownership of the name Nepali Congress, taking 40 of the party's lower house representatives with him.[22]

King Gyanendra's rule, 2002–2006[edit]

In the months following the King's October 2002 decisions to dissolve the House of Representatives and replace Prime Minister Deuba with Rastriya Prajatantra's Lokendra Bahadur Chand, the party joined the CPN (UML) and other, smaller parties in challenging the constitutionality of the moves. The party played a significant role in the formation of the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), which launched a series of street protests against the King's regression. The Seven Party Alliance had earlier avoided the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) CPN-M and their violent methods, signed a 12-point understanding in Delhi in November 2005. The agreement contained three key commitmentsm, namely that the SPA endorsed CPN-M's fundamental demand for elections to a constituent assembly; the Maoists reciprocated with an assurance that they accepted a multi-party system, which was the SPA's prime concern. The SPA and the Maoists agreed to launch a peaceful mass movement against the monarchy.[21]

Constituent Assembly, 2006–2015[edit]

On 26 April 2006, the king reinstated the dissolved parliament and formed a small government under the premiership of Girija Prasad Koirala, the president of the Nepali Congress. In November 2006, the government and the CPN-M signed a Comprehensive Peace Accord in India and the Nepalese Civil War formally ended.[22]

On 24 September 2007, the Nepali Congress (Democratic) and Nepali Congress unified as a single party with the 2008 Constituent Assembly election looming. Girija Prasad Koirala remained president of the newly unified party. The party placed second with 110 out of 575 elected seats in the Constituent Assembly election, winning only half as many seats as CPN-M.[22]

The party joined the coalition government headed by Madhav Kumar Nepal in May 2009. Girija Prasad Koirala angered some in the party by nominating his daughter Sujata Koirala to be Foreign Minister. In June, in a contested election for leader of the party's parliamentary group, Ram Chandra Poudel defeated Deuba.[22] The 12th General Convention of the Nepali Congress was held in Kathmandu from 17 to 21 September 2010. The convention elected Sushil Koirala as the party president.[24]

After the Constituent Assembly of Nepal was dissolved by Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai after failure to draft a new constitution before the deadline.[25] In the resulting 2013 Constituent Assembly election, the party emerged as the largest party winning 196 of the 575 elected seats.[26] Along with CPN (UML), under the leadership of Sushil Koirala, they formed a new coalition government.[27] The new Constitution of Nepal was promulgated under his leadership on 20 September 2015.[28]

Federal Nepal, 2015–2020[edit]

A map showing the vote-share won by the Nepali Congress in the 2017 provincial elections

Sushil Koirala resigned as prime minister on 10 October 2015 after losing support from CPN (UML).[29] Nepali Congress joined the government again in August 2016 under the leadership of Bimlendra Nidhi, after backing Pushpa Kamal Dahal to become prime minister.[30] According to their agreement, Dahal resigned on 24 May 2017[31] paving the way for Deuba to become prime minister for a fourth time on 6 June 2017.[31]

On 22 April 2017, the Akhanda Nepal Party led by Kumar Kahadka joined the Nepali Congress ahead of the 2017 local elections.[32][33] Nepali Congress won 11,456 seats including 266 mayoral or chairman positions. The party also won mayor posts in Lalitpur and Biratnagar.[34][35] Ahead of the 2017 general and provincial elections, Nepal Loktantrik Forum led by former Nepali Congress leader, Bijay Kumar Gachhadar merged into the party.[36] Similarly, a group from Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal led by MP Abhishek Pratap Shah, a group from CPN (UML) led by MP Mohan Singh Rathore and Rabin Chaudhary, a goroup from Rastriya Janata Party Nepal led by MP Jangi Lal Ray, a group from CPN (Maoist Centre) led by former Minister and MP Sambhu Lal Shrestha joined the party ahead of the 2017 election.[37][38][39][40]

The party won 63 seats to the House of Representatives becoming the second largest party.[41] The party could win only 23 seats under first past the post and many influential leaders including Ram Chandra Paudel, Ram Sharan Mahat, Bimalendra Nidhi, Krishna Prasad Sitaula, and Arjun Narsingh KC lost in their constituencies.[42][43] The party won 113 seats in provincial assemblies and became the largest opposition in six out of seven provinces. The party won 13 seats in the 2018 National Assembly election.[44] After the National Assembly election, Deuba resigned as prime minister on 15 February 2018, paving the way for a new government under CPN (UML).[45] The party's under performance in the election caused many elements inside the party to call for Deuba's resignation.[46] Prakash Man Singh stood against Deuba for the election of the parliamentary party leader, but Deuba won the vote 44–19.[47][48][49]

Political crisis of 2020–2021[edit]

Nepali Congress was back to centre of Nepalese politics since the political crisis 2020 which it had lost after deciding from the position of singe largest party of nation. This happened after split in Nepal Communist Party and Janata Samajbadi Party due to personal interest and difference in ideology of core leaders.[50][51]

The internal crisis led to dissolution of parliament (both house of representative and lower house of parliament) by Khadga Prasad Oli twice within six months. It was approved by the president but Supreme court denied the legality of such decision by Oli. After the supreme court's historic decision, both the parliaments were reinstated.[52][53]

After facing the vote for confidence in parliament, Oli lost the vote for confidence.[54][55] Again he dissolved the parliament on 22 May 2021 and it was approved by president unanimously against the signatures submitted claiming majority to Nepali Congress.[56] Still, 146 sitting members of HOR filed a case in supreme court against the decision and approval of president. Previously, they had submitted majority signatures to president asking to appoint Sher Bahadur Deuba as the next prime-minister of Nepal. On 12 July 2021, the Supreme Court stated the decision of parliament dissolution was unlawful.[57] Similarly, it ordered the appointment Deuba as the next Prime Minister of Nepal citing article 76(5) of the Constitution of Nepal within 28 hours.[58] It stated that the decision made by the president was against the norms of the constitution.[59] On 13 July 2021, President Bidya Devi Bhandari appointed Sher Bahadur Deuba as the Prime Minister without including any article of Constitution and stating as per the order of Court. This created cold dispute and people alleged President Bhandari of forgetting her limits and being tilted to ex-PM Oli.[60] After Deuba declined to take the oath as per the appointment letter, the letter was changed and stated that Deuba was made PM in accordance with article 76(5), marking Deuba's fifth term as PM.

This process of vote of confidence was keenly watched by people from within and outside the country. On 18 July 2021, Minister for Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of Nepal and Nepali Congress leader Gyanendra Bahadur Karki registered a proposal for vote of confidence in the first meeting of reinstated House of Representatives. Here, CPN(UML) got divided when only 69% MP from UML voted against Deuba. People's Socialist Party, Nepal remained united in voting for the Deuba despite ongoing process of party division.[61] Hence, the government got vote of confidence with no party purely as opposition, a first in the history of Nepal.

Out of total 249 present for the vote, 165 voted for Deuba while 1 remained undecided.[62] This includes 83 from CPN (UML) who voted against Deuba. 37 of them were either absent or voted in favour of Deuba. 22 MPs from Madhav Nepal faction and some rebel from Oli faction from CPN (UML) voted for Deuba.[63] This was a historic win with nearly 66.3% of votes of total present in parliament.[64] It was totally unexpected with just 61 voters from Nepali Congress. It was a big set back to Oli when 38 CPN (UML) MPs didn't vote against Deuba. This was seen as a result of Oli's "autocratic" rule and dissolution of the house twice.[65]

In addition to this, Nepali Congress joined the government of Karnali on 6 June with an agreement of a roatational government.[66] Within a week, Congress also joined the Province No. 2 government, as a result of an internal split in PSPN. Similarly, on 12 June Congress formed a coalition government Gandaki under its own leadership.[67] On 12 August, Congress joined a coalition government in Lumbini formed under the leadership of CPN (Maoist Centre), with a provision of rotational government to be formed in the next few months.[68] On 3 November 2021, Nepali Congress formed Karnali government under its own leadership sworning Jeevan Bahadur Shahi as chief minister of the province.[69]

General Secretary and Youth Leader Gagan Thapa

From 13 to 15 December 2021, Nepali Congress conducted it's 14th general convention of Nepali Congress in presence of 8 Laks 59 thousand active members and nearly 5,000 delicates re electing Sher Bahadur Deuba as party president from second round.[70] The party elected Purna Bahadur Khadka and Dhanraj Gurung vice president of the party. Popular youth leaders Gagan Thapa and Bishwa Prakash Sharma were elected to executive post of general secretary of the party.[71][72]

Nepalese election year, 2022-present[edit]

On 13 May 2022, the Sher Bahadur Deuba led government held local level elections, in which the ruling Nepali Congress swept the polls winning the posts of chiefs in 329 local units out of a total of 753, up from 266 in the last local elections held in 2017.[73][74] The party secured wins in two metropolitan cities, Lalitpur and Biratnagar, as well as wins in four sub-metropolitan cities of Butwal, Nepalgunj, Janakpur and Itahari. The NC secured the highest vote among contesting parties in the elections.

Ideology[edit]

The party was founded on the principle of democracy and socialism. In 1956, the party adopted democratic socialism as its ideology for socio-economic transformation.[8] Its foreign policy orientation was to nonalignment and good relations with India.[75] It initially favoured mainstream social democratic policies, but in the late 20th century, began moving closer to the political centre, starting in the 1990s, abandoning some of its previous social democratic policies in favor of those similar to the Third Way.[9]

Electoral performance[edit]

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Leader Constituency votes Party list votes Seats Position Resulting government
No. % % change No. % % change No. +/-
1959 B. P. Koirala 666,898 37.20
74 / 109
1st Government
1991 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 2,742,452 37.75 Increase0.55
110 / 205
Increase 36 Steady 1st Government
1994 Girija Prasad Koirala 2,545,287 33.38 Decrease4.37
83 / 205
Decrease 27 Decrease 2nd In opposition
1999 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 3,214,068 37.29 Increase3.91
111 / 205
Increase 28 Increase 1st Government
2008 Girija Prasad Koirala 2,348,890 22.79 Decrease14.50 2,269,883 21.14
115 / 575
Increase 4 Decrease 2nd In opposition
2013 Sushil Koirala 2,694,983 29.80 Increase7.01 2,418,370 25.55 Increase4.41
196 / 575
Increase 81 Increase 1st Coalition government with CPN (UML)RPP
2017 Sher Bahadur Deuba 3,590,793 35.75 Increase5.95 3,128,389 32.78 Increase7.23
63 / 275
Decrease 133 Decrease 2nd Coalition government withCPN(MC)

Provincial election[edit]

Election Leader (s) Constituency votes Party list votes Seats Position
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats +/-
2017 Sher Bahadur Deuba 3,635,179 34.35 41 2,869,418 31.81 72
113 / 550
2nd

Local election[edit]

Election Leader(s) Council Head Council Deputy Councillors Position
# +/- # +/- # +/-
2017 Sher Bahadur Deuba
266 / 753
223 / 753
11,454 / 35,038
2nd
2022 Sher Bahadur Deuba
329 / 753
Increase 59
301 / 753
Increase 77
13,730 / 35,011
Increase 2,274 Increase 1st

Presence in Provincial assemblies[edit]

After the 2017 provincial elections, Nepali Congress was in opposition in all seven provinces. This was mainly as a result of the formation of a left alliance between CPN (UML) and CPN (Maoist Centre) prior to the elections which led to a setback for Congress, particularly in the hilly region. Similarly, FSF-N and RJP-N formed a pro-Madhesh alliance which led to setback in Province No. 2, which had long remained a stronghold region for Congress since 1990. The left alliance later merged to form Nepal Communist Party, while the Madheshi alliance merged to form People's Socialist Party, Nepal. Both of these parties faced internal turmoil and split in 2021 to form the erstwhile parties, largely due to difference in vision and ideologies.[76][77] This resulted in Congress forming coalition governments with the CPN (Maoist Centre) and a faction of PSPN in most states. As of August 2021, Congress leads a coalition government in Gandaki, while it is a senior coalition partner in the governments of Province No. 2, Lumbini and Karnali.

Provincial Assembly Election year Votes Seats Present as
No. of votes in PR % of votes in PR No. Position
Province No. 1 2017 586,246 33.76 (2nd)
21 / 93
2nd In government with CPN-Socialist and CPN Maoists center
Madhesh 370,550 24.11 (1st)
22 / 107
2nd Coalition government with CPN (Maoist Centre)PSPN
Bagmati 559,249 29.57 (2nd)
21 / 110
2nd In government with CPN-S and CPN-(Maoist Centre)
Gandaki 364,797 38.13 (2nd)
15 / 60
2nd Coalition government with CPN (Maoist Centre)PSPN
Lumbini 530,844 32.93 (2nd)
19 / 87
2nd Coalition government with CPN (Maoist Centre)PSPN
Karnali 162,003 32.78 (2nd)
6 / 40
3rd Coalition government with CPN (Maoist Centre)
Sudurpashchim 295,729 37.38 (1st)
12 / 53
3rd Coalition Government with CPN (Maoist Centre)

Leadership[edit]

Presidents[edit]

Vice-presidents[edit]

General secretaries[edit]

Prime Ministers of Nepal[edit]

No. Prime Minister Portrait Terms in Office Legislature Cabinet Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Matrika Prasad Koirala Matrika Prasad Koirala.jpg 16 November 1951 14 August 1952 272 days Appointed by King Tribhuvan M.P. Koirala, 1951
2 Subarna Shamsher Rana[a] BP Koirala.jpg 15 May 1958 27 May 1959 1 year, 12 days Appointed by King Mahendra
3 Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala BP Koirala.jpg 27 May 1959 26 December 1960 1 year, 213 days 1st House of Representatives B.P. Koirala, 1959 Morang–Biratnagar West
4 Krishna Prasad Bhattarai Krishna bhattarai.jpg 19 April 1990 26 May 1991 1 year, 37 days Appointed by King Birendra
31 May 1999 22 March 2000 296 days 4th House of Representatives Parsa 1
5 Girija Prasad Koirala The Prime Minister of Nepal, Shri Girija Prasad Koirala being seen off by the Union Minister of Water Resources, Prof. Saif-ud-din Soz at Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi on April 06, 2007 (cropped).jpg 26 May 1991 30 November 1994 3 years, 188 days 2nd House of Representatives Morang 1
15 April 1998 31 May 1999 1 year, 46 days 3rd House of Representatives Sunsari 5
22 March 2000 26 July 2001 1 year, 126 days 4th House of Representatives
25 April 2006 28 May 2008 2 years, 33 days Interim Legislature
6 Sher Bahadur Deuba Sher Bahadur Deuba 2006.jpg 12 September 1995 12 March 1997 1 year, 181 days 3rd House of Representatives Dadeldhura 1
26 July 2001 4 October 2002 1 year, 70 days 4th House of Representatives
7 June 2017 15 February 2018 253 days 2nd Constituent Assembly Deuba, 2017
13 July 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 67 days 1st Federal Parliament Deuba, 2021
7 Sushil Koirala Sushil Koirala Photograph.png 11 February 2014 12 October 2015 1 year, 243 days 2nd Constituent Assembly Sushil Koirala, 2013 Banke 3

List of Deputy Prime Ministers[edit]

No. Deputy PM Portrait Term in office Assembly Constituency Prime Minister
Start End Tenure
1 Shailaja Acharya 15 April 1998 31 May 1999 1 year, 46 days 3rd House of Representatives Morang 5 Girija Prasad Koirala
2 Ram Chandra Paudel Ramchandra paudel.jpg March 2000 July 2002 1 years, 4 months 4th House of Representatives Tanahun 2 Girija Prasad Koirala
3 Sujata Koirala Sujata Koirala.jpg 12 October 2009 6 February 2011 1 year, 117 days 1st Constituent Assembly Party list Madhav Kumar Nepal
4 Prakash Man Singh 25 February 2014 12 October 2015 1 year, 229 days 2nd Constituent Assembly Kathmandu 1 Sushil Koirala
5 Bimalendra Nidhi Bimalendra Nidh in New Delhi on August 20, 2016 (cropped).jpg 4 August 2016 7 June 2017 307 days Legislature Parliament Dhanusha 3 Pushpa Kamal Dahal
6 Gopal Man Shrestha 7 June 2017 15 February 2018 253 days Legislature Parliament Party list Sher Bahadur Deuba

Chief Ministers[edit]

No. Chief Minister Portrait Terms in Office Legislature Cabinet Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Krishna Chandra Nepali CM- K.C.Nepali.jpg 12 June 2021[78] Incumbent 1 year, 98 days Provincial Assembly of Gandaki Province Krishna Chandra Nepali cabinet Nawalparasi East 1(A)
2 Jeevan Bahadur Shahi 2 November 2021 Incumbent 320 days Provincial Assembly of Karnali Province Jeevan Bahadur Shahi cabinet Humla 1(B)
  1. ^ As Chairman of the Council of Ministers

Sister organizations[edit]

According to the website of Nepali Congress, the following are its sister organizations.[79]

  • Nepal Student Union (नेपाल विद्यार्थी संघ)
  • Nepal Tarun Dal (नेपाल तरुण दल)
  • Nepal Democratic Fighter Society (नेपाल प्रजातान्त्रिक सेनानी समाज)
  • Nepal Peasants' Union (नेपाल किसान संघ)
  • Nepal Adivasi Janajati Sangh (नेपाल आदिवासी जनजाति संघ)
  • National Democratic Handicapped Association (राष्ट्रिय प्रजातान्त्रिक अपाङ्ग संघ)
  • Nepal Tamang Association (नेपाल तामाङ संघ)
  • Nepal Thakur Society (नेपाल ठाकुर समाज)
  • Nepal Woman Association (नेपाल महिला संघ)
  • Nepal Dalit Sangh (नेपाल दलित संघ)
  • Nepal Ex Army Association (नेपाल भूतपूर्व सैनिक संघ)
  • Nepal Press Union (नेपाल प्रेस युनियन)
  • Nepal Civil Service Employees' Union (नेपाल निजामती कर्मचारी युनियन)
  • Nepal Cultural Association (नेपाल सांस्कृतिक संघ)
  • Nepal Teachers Association (नेपाल शिक्षक संघ)
  • Nepal Trade Union Congress (नेपाल ट्रेड युनियन कांग्रेस)
  • Nepal Prajatantra Senani Sangh (नेपाल प्रजातान्त्रिक सेनानी संघ)
  • Nepal Indigenous Nationality Association (नेपाल आदिवासी जनजाती संघ )

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Central Working Committee". Nepali Congress. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Prakash Sharan Mahat appointed Nepali Congress Spokesperson". prakashsmahat.com. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Contacts". Nepali Congress. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  4. ^ "१६ देशमा कांग्रेस केन्द्रीय नीति अनुसन्धान तथा प्रशिक्षण प्रतिष्ठान विस्तार".
  5. ^ http://www.nepalicongresskavre.org.np/%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B2-%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8-%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%98%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AD%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%87/[bare URL]
  6. ^ "Nepali Congress claims its membership size nearly doubled in the past 5 years - OnlineKhabar English News". 27 July 2021.
  7. ^ "NC's 14th General Convention: Over 852,000 verified as active members".
  8. ^ a b c "Nepali Congress, An Introduction". Archived 8 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Nepali Congress. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  9. ^ a b Acharya, Meena (2003). "Monarchy, Democracy, Donors, and the CPN-Maoist Movement in Nepal: A Lesson for Infant Democracies". Himalaya. 23 (2).
  10. ^ Sharma, Gopal (6 June 2017). "Nepali Congress leader Deuba elected PM for fourth time". Reuters. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  11. ^ Bagale, Sanjib. "PM Deuba passes floor test with 165 votes". Setopati. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  12. ^ "कांग्रेसले महाधिवेशन सकिएको चार महिनामै खुलायो सदस्यता". ekantipur.com (in Nepali). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  13. ^ "कांग्रेसले पुर्‍यायो १० लाख सदस्य, बन्यो नेपालको 'सबैभन्दा ठूलो' पार्टी". nepalkhabar (in Nepali). Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  14. ^ "Achieving 'mass-based' status". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  15. ^ "Previous Election Facts and Figures". 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  16. ^ "Sovereign people make CA polls historic". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  17. ^ "Previous Election Facts and Figures". 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  18. ^ a b c Adhikari, Surya Mani (2002). Nepali Congress ko Itihas. Kathmandu: Bhudi Puran Prakashan. pp. 31–34. ISBN 978-99933-44-65-0.
  19. ^ Surendra., Bhandari (28 April 2014). Self-determination & constitution making in Nepal : constituent assembly, inclusion, & ethnic federalism. ISBN 9789812870056. OCLC 879347997.
  20. ^ a b c "Remembering the revolution". Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Brass, Paul R. (6 August 2013). Routledge handbook of South Asian politics: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. ISBN 9780415716499. OCLC 843078091.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tom, Lansford (22 April 2015). Political handbook of the world 2015. ISBN 9781483371573. OCLC 912321323.
  23. ^ "Nepali Congress split formalised (THT 10 years ago)". The Himalayan Times. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
  24. ^ UWB (23 September 2010). "Nepali Congress: New Leadership, Old Challenges". United We Blog!. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  25. ^ "Nepal parties resign as constitution deadline passes". BBC News. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  26. ^ DPA. "Nepali Congress emerges largest party in parliament". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  27. ^ "Sushil Koirala wins vote to be Nepal's prime minister". BBC News. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  28. ^ "Nepal's new constitution endorsed through Constituent Assembly - Xinhua | English.news.cn". news.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  29. ^ "Nepal's Koirala resigns as PM and seeks re-election". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  30. ^ Sharma, Bhadra (3 August 2016). "Nepal Elects Pushpa Kamal Dahal as New Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Nepal PM resigns ahead of final round of local elections". The Economic Times. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  32. ^ Samiti, Rastria Samachar (22 April 2017). "Akhanda Nepal Party Samanantar joins Nepali Congress". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Akhanda Party Nepal unites with Nepali Congress". Inheadline. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  34. ^ "Biratnagar's mayor plans to restore lost glory of the city". My Republica. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  35. ^ "NC wins mayor, deputy mayor in Lalitpur metro". Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Gachhadar's Nepal Loktantrik Forum merges with Nepali Congress". Outlook India. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Shambhu Lal Shrestha appointed Livestock Development Minister". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  38. ^ "फोरमका उपमहासचिव अभिषेक प्रताप शाहले पार्टी छोडे, कांग्रेसमा जाने घोषणा". Himal Khabar. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  39. ^ नागरिक. "राजपा महामन्त्री जंगीलाल कांग्रेसमा". nagariknews.nagariknetwork.com (in Nepali). Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  40. ^ "एमालेमा पहिरो, २ निवर्तमान सांसद सहितका नेता कांग्रेसमा प्रवेश". Naya Pusta. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  41. ^ "Landslide win for Nepal's Reds - Watching The World | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Left gets 116 seats as FPTP vote count concludes in Nepal". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  43. ^ "NC senior leader Poudel defeated in Tanahun 1". The Himalayan Times. 10 December 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Nepal's National Assembly gets full shape - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  45. ^ "Nepal PM Sher Bahadur Deuba resigns". The Economic Times. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Deuba 'in no mood' to resign as NC chief". Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  47. ^ "Prakash Man Singh: Determined to change party leadership if no improvement – OnlineKhabar". english.onlinekhabar.com. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  48. ^ "NC's voting for PP leader begins". My Republica. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  49. ^ "Deuba elected NC PP leader". Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  50. ^ Afp (9 March 2021). "Nepal ruling party splits". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  51. ^ "JSPN leaders agree to split - OnlineKhabar English News". 6 July 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  52. ^ "Observer Research Foundation". ORF.
  53. ^ "Nepal's Supreme Court orders reinstatement of Parliament". Aljazeera.
  54. ^ "Nepal Prime Minister Oli loses vote of confidence in Parliament". The Kathmandu Post.
  55. ^ "PM Oli loses confidence vote". The Himalayan Times.
  56. ^ "Nepal's parliament dissolved, president calls for fresh elections | DW | 22 May 2021". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  57. ^ "Sher Bahadur Deuba: Nepal's Supreme Court orders appointment of Sher Bahadur Deuba as Prime Minister". The Times of India. 21 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  58. ^ "Nepal SC orders to appoint Sher Bahadur Deuba as PM within next 28 hours". Hindustan Times. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  59. ^ रातोपाटी. "संवैधानिक इजलासले भन्यो- राष्ट्रपतिको निर्णय संविधान र ऐन प्रतिकुल". RatoPati (in Nepali). Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  60. ^ "After brief delay, Sher Bahadur Deuba takes oath as Nepal's PM for fifth time". Hindustan Times. 13 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  61. ^ "Janata Samajbadi Party decide to split a little more than a year after merger". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  62. ^ "Deuba wins vote of confidence in the reinstated House". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  63. ^ "देउवालाई विश्वासको मत दिने यी हुन् एमालेका २२ सांसद". Online Khabar. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  64. ^ "Nepal's new PM Sher Bahadur Deuba wins vote of confidence in Parliament". The Hindu. PTI. 18 July 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  65. ^ "In ordinance, Oli shows yet another authoritarian streak". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  66. ^ SAMITI, RASTRIYA SAMACHAR (6 June 2021). "NC picks ministers for Karnali govt". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  67. ^ "Krishna Chandra Nepali Pokharel of Nepali Congress appointed Gandaki CM - OnlineKhabar English News". 12 June 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  68. ^ "लुम्बिनी प्रदेश सरकारको नेतृत्व कांग्रेस र माओवादी आलोपालो". ekantipur.com (in Nepali). Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  69. ^ "Karnali: Jeevan Bahadur Shahi takes oath as new CM - OnlineKhabar English News". 3 November 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  70. ^ "निधिको प्रक्षेपण : पहिलो चरणमा कसैले जित्दैन, त्यसपछि कोइराला, निधि र सिंह एक ठाउँमा". ekantipur.com (in Nepali). Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  71. ^ Republica. "NC's 14th General Convention: Over 852,000 verified as active members". My Republica. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  72. ^ "Nepali Congress". nepalicongress.org. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  73. ^ "Nepali ruling party wins most in local elections-Xinhua". english.news.cn. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  74. ^ "स्थानीय तह निर्वाचन इ-बुलेटिन •वर्ष १ • अंक ४३ • २०७९ जेठ १२ गते बिहिबार" (PDF). Election Commission of Nepal. 26 May 2022.
  75. ^ Subho, Basu (2010). Paradise lost?: State Failure in Nepal. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739146644. OCLC 670122356.
  76. ^ "Ruling party fight was for power-sharing and it has become apparent, experts and analysts say". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  77. ^ "उपेन्द्र पक्षलाई निर्वाचन आयोगले दियो आधिकारिकता, महन्थले नयाँ दल दर्ता गर्न सक्ने". Lokaantar (in Nepali). Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  78. ^ Online, T. H. T. (12 June 2021). "NC's Krishna Chandra Nepali appointed Gandaki CM". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  79. ^ www.nepalicongress.org. "NepaliCongress.org- Nepali Congress Official website | Political party of Nepal". nepalicongress.org. Retrieved 25 June 2017.

External links[edit]