Nepali language

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Nepali
Khas kura • Gorkhali • Nepalese • Parbatiya
नेपाली (Nepali)
खस कुरा (Khas kura)
गोरखाली (Gorkhali)
पार्बतिया (Parbatiya)
Nepali word in devanagiri.svg
The word "Nepali" written in Devanagari
Native toNepal and India
RegionKarnali Province[a]
EthnicityKhas[b][1]
Native speakers
16 million (2011 census)[2]
9 million L2 speakers (2011 census)[2]
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Nepali
Official status
Official language in
   Nepal
 India
Regulated byNepal Academy
Language codes
ISO 639-1ne
ISO 639-2nep
ISO 639-3nep – inclusive code
Individual code:
npi – Nepali
Glottolognepa1254
nepa1252  duplicate code
Linguasphere59-AAF-d
Nepali language map.svg
Map showing distribution of Nepali speakers in South Asia. Dark red is areas with a Nepali-speaking majority or plurality, light red is where Nepali speakers are more than 20% of the population
A Nepali speaker, recorded in Myanmar.

Nepali (English: /nɪˈpɔːli/;[3] Devanagari: नेपाली, [ˈnepali]) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language at the federal level in Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India due to the Nepalese community in the Northeast. Also known by the endonym Khas kura[1] (Devanagari: खस कुरा), the language is also called Nepalese, Gorkhali or Parbatiya in some contexts. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan.[4] In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim and in the Darjeeling District and Kalimpong district of West Bengal. It has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram and Uttarakhand. It is also spoken in Myanmar and by the Nepali diaspora in the Middle East and worldwide.[5] Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages. Historically, Sanskrit is the most significant source of vocabulary for the Nepali language.[6] According to exclusive phonological evidences observed by lexicographer Sir Ralph Turner, Nepali language is closely related to Punjabi, Lahnda, Hindi and Kumaoni while it appears to share some distinguishing features with the other Indo-Aryan languages like Rajasthani, Gujarati and Bangla.[6] Ethnologist Brian Houghton Hodgson stated that the Khas or Parbattia language is an "Indian Prakrit" brought by colonies from south of the Nepalese hills, and the whole structure including the eigth-tenth portion of the vocabulary of it is "substantially Hindee".[7]

The origin of modern Nepali language is believed to be from Sinja valley of Jumla. Historically, the language only spoken by the Khas people of Karnali Region, which gets its name Khas Speech (Khas Kurā). The language was officially known as Gorkhali (language of the Gorkha Kingdom) before it changed its name to Nepali.[1] An archaic dialect of the language is spoken in Karnali.[8]

Name[edit]

The initial name of Nepali language is Khasa Bhāṣā (Nepali: खस भाषा), which literally means Khas language. The language is known as Khasa Bhāṣā in the Karnali where an archaic dialect of the language is spoken.[9] The indigenous nationalities refer to the language as Khasa Bhāṣā.[10][11][12][13] The language was also named as Gorakhā bhāṣā (Nepali: गोरखा भाषा), which literally means Language of Gorkhas, during the Shah dynasty.[14][15][16][17] [18]Gorkha Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Gorkha Language Publishing Committee), a government institution established in 1913 (B.S. 1970) for advancement of Gorkha Bhasa, renamed itself as Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti (Nepali Language Publishing Committee) in 1933 (B.S. 1990), which is currently known as Sajha Prakashan.[18] The language is also known as Parvate Kurā (Nepali: पर्वते कुरा), which literally means talks of the hills.[15][19][20][21][22] The name Pāṣyā Bolī (Nepali: पाष्या बोली) was also briefly used during the regime of Jung Bahadur Rana.[23]

Nepali language is known as Khae Bhāe (Nepal Bhasa: 𑐏𑐫𑑂 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂, खय् भाय्) in the Newar community,[24] Jyārdī Gyoī (Tamang:ज्यार्दी ग्योई) or Jyārtī Gyot (Tamang:ज्यार्ती ग्योत्) in the Tamang community,[25][26] Khasanta (Chepang:खस्‌अन्‍त) in the Chepang community,[27] Roṅakeka (Lhowa:रोङकेक) in the Lhowa community[28] and Khase Puka (Dungmali:खसे पुक) in Dungmali community.[11]

In 1955 (B.S. 2012), a publication Nepāla ki ? Goraṣā ! opposed adoption of the name Nepal for Gorakhā bhāṣā.[29] In Nepal, there have been efforts to revert the name of the language as Khas, citing that the term Nepali refers to the people of Nepal and referring Khas language as Nepali discriminates indigenous and Madeshi with the label of non-Nepali.[30] The term Nepali languages can be used to refer all languages of Nepal's origin. There are campaigns in Nepal demanding all languages of Nepal to be named under the umbrella term Nepali.[31] Indian Gorkhas have also opposed the name Nepali for the language, campaging the name Gorkha be re-instated.[32]

Literature[edit]

Bhanubhakta Acharya, Aadi Kavi in Nepali-language literature

Nepali developed a significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. This literary explosion was fuelled by Adhyatma Ramayana; Sundarananda Bara (1833); Birsikka, an anonymous collection of folk tales; and a version of the ancient Indian epic Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya (d. 1868). The contribution of trio-laureates Lekhnath Paudyal, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, and Balkrishna Sama took Nepali to the level of other world languages. The contribution of expatriate writers outside Nepal, especially in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is also notable.

Number of speakers[edit]

According to the 2011 national census, 44.6% of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as the first language.[33] and 32.8% speak Nepali as a second language.[34] The Ethnologue reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal (from the 2011 census).[34]

Nepali is traditionally spoken in the hilly regions of Nepal.[35] The language is prominently used in governmental usages in Nepal and is the everyday language of the local population. The exclusive use of Nepali in the court system and by the government of Nepal is being challenged. Gaining recognition for other languages of Nepal was one of the goals of the decades-long Maoist insurgency in Nepal.[36]

In Bhutan, native Nepali speakers, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at about 35% [37] of the population. This number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40%, constituting a majority in the south (about 242,000 people).[38]

As per the 2011 Census of India, there were a total of 2,926,168 Nepali language speakers in India.[39]

History[edit]

Earliest discovered inscription in the Khas Language
The Damupal Inscription in Dullu, Dailekh
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi, at Saka Era 1612 (1747 BS) in old Khas language using Devanagari script

The earliest evidences and inscriptions of dialects related to Nepali language supports the theory of a linguistic intrusion from West or Northwest Himalayas into Central Himalayas at the present day regions of Western Nepal during the rule of Khasas, an Indo-Aryan speaking group, who migrated from Northwest.[40] The oldest discovered inscription in the Nepali language is believed to be the Dullu Inscription, which is believed to have been written around the reign of King Bhupal Damupal around the year 981 CE. Based on changes of phonological patterns indicates that Nepali is related to other Northwest Indian languages like Sindhi, Punjabi, and Lahnda. Comparative reconstructions based on vocabulary have substantiated the relations of Nepali language to proto-Dardic, Pahari, Sindhi, Lahnda, and Punjabi.[41] Archaeological and historical investigations shows that modern Nepali language descends from the language spoken by the ancient Khasha people. There is some mention of the word "Khasha" in Sanskrit legal, historical, and literary texts like Manusmriti (circa 100 CE), Puranas(350–1500 CE) and the Rajatarangini (1148 CE).[41] The Khashas were documented to have ruled over a vast territory comprising what is now western Nepal, parts of Garhwal and Kumaon in northern India, and some parts of southwestern Tibet. King Ashoka Challa (1255–78 CE) is believed to have proclaimed himself Khasha-Rajadhiraja (emperor of the Khashas) in a copper-plate inscription found in Bodh Gaya, and several other copper-plates in the ancient Nepali language have been traced back to the descendants of the King.[41] The Ashoka Challa inscription of 1255 AD is an earliest example of the modern Nepali language. The languages on these early inscriptions are considered to be a dialect of Jumla and West Nepal rather than a predecessor of the dialect of Gorkha that became the modern Nepali language.[42]

The earliest example of the modern Nepali language is the literary manuscript "Svastanivratakatha" dated 1648 AD. Other such early literary texts in modern Nepali language includes the anonymous version of the "Khandakhadya" (dated 1649 AD), the "Bajapariksha" (1700 AD) and "Jvarotpatticikitsa" written by Banivilas Jytoirvid (1773 AD) and "Prayascittapradipa" written by Premnidhi Pant (1780 AD).[42] The 1670 AD Rani Pokhari inscription of King Pratap Malla is also one of the early example of modern Nepali language which also indicates the significant increment of Nepali speakers in Kathmandu valley.[42] The currently popular variant of Nepali is believed to have originated around 500 years ago with the mass migration of a branch of Khas people from the Karnali-Bheri-Seti eastward to settle in lower valleys of the Karnali and the Gandaki basin that were well-suited to rice cultivation. Over the centuries, different dialects of the Nepali language with distinct influences from Sanskrit, Maithili, Hindi and Bengali are believed to have emerged across different regions of the current-day Nepal and Uttarakhand, making Khasa the lingua franca.

However, the institutionalisation of the Nepali language is believed to have started with the Shah kings of Gorkha Kingdom, in the modern day Gorkha district of Nepal. In 1559 AD, a prince of Lamjung, Dravya Shah established himself on the throne of Gorkha with the help of local Khas and Magars. He raised an army of khas people under the command of Bhagirath Panta. Later, in the late 18th century, his descendant, Prithvi Narayan Shah, raised and modernised an army of Chhetri, Thakuri, Magars and Gurung people among others and set out to conquer and consolidate dozens of small principalities in the Himalayas. Since Gorkha had replaced the original Khas homeland, Khaskura was redubbed Gorkhali "language of the Gorkhas".[citation needed]

One of the most notable military achievements of Prithvi Narayan Shah was the conquest of Kathmandu Valley. This region was called Nepal at the time. After the overthrowing of the Malla rulers, Kathmandu was established as Prithvi Narayan's new capital. The Khas people originally referred to their language as Khas kurā ("Khas speech"), which was also known as Parbatiya (or Parbattia or Paharia, meaning language of the hill country).[43][44] The Newar people used the term "Gorkhali" as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors.[citation needed] The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage.[45] The census of India prior to independence used the term Naipali at least from 1901 to 1951, the 1961 census replacing it with Nepali.[46][47]

Expansion – particularly to the north, west, and south – brought the growing state into conflict with the British and the Chinese. This led to wars that trimmed back the territory to an area roughly corresponding to Nepal's present borders. After the Gorkha conquests, the Kathmandu valley or Nepal became the new center of politics. As the entire conquered territory of the Gorkhas ultimately became Nepal, in the early decades of the 20th century, Gorkha language activists in India, especially Darjeeling and Varanasi, began petitioning Indian universities to adopt the name 'Nepali' for the language.[48] Also in an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas background, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur Rana decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term "Nepal" to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, Nepal government also adopted this term fully.[citation needed] Subsequently, the Khas language came to be known as "Nepali language".[1] The earliest Nepali grammar to have survived was written by Veerendra Keshari Aryal entitled "Nepali Vyakaran" and it is dated around 1891 to 1905 AD. The grammar is based on Panini model and it equates Nepali with Prakrit and labels it as "the mountain Prakrit".[49] However, later the official institution established in 1912 for formalizing Nepali language, the "Gorkha Bhasha Prakashini Samiti", accepted the 1920 AD grammar text entitled "Candrika Gorkha Bhasha Vyakaran" authored by Pandit Hemraj Pandey as the offical grammar of the Nepali language.[49]

Nepali is spoken indigenously over most of Nepal west of the Gandaki River, then progressively less further to the east.[50]

Dialects[edit]

Dialects of Nepali include Acchami, Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali, Bheri, Dadeldhuri, Dailekhi, Darchulali, Darchuli, Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, and Soradi.[34] These dialects can be distinct from Standard Nepali. Mutual intelligibility between Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami is low.[34] The dialect of Nepali language spoken in Karnali Province is not mutually intelligible with Standard Nepali. The language is known with its old name as Khas Bhasa in Karnali. [51]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below.

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Nepali vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ʌ ʌ̃
Open a ã

Nepali distinguishes six oral vowels and five nasal vowels. /o/ does not have a phonemic nasal counterpart, although it is often in free variation with [õ].

Diphthongs[edit]

Nepali has ten diphthongs: /ui̯/, /iu̯/, /ei̯/, /eu̯/, /oi̯/, /ou̯/, /ʌi̯/, /ʌu̯/, /ai̯/, and /au̯/.

Consonants[edit]

Nepali consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨म⟩ n ⟨न/ञ⟩ (ɳ ⟨ण⟩) ŋ ⟨ङ⟩
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless unaspirated p ⟨प⟩ t ⟨त⟩ t͡s ⟨च⟩ ʈ ⟨ट⟩ k ⟨क⟩
aspirated ⟨फ⟩ ⟨थ⟩ t͡sʰ ⟨छ⟩ ʈʰ ⟨ठ⟩ ⟨ख⟩
voiced unaspirated b ⟨ब⟩ d ⟨द⟩ d͡z ⟨ज⟩ ɖ ⟨ड⟩ ɡ ⟨ग⟩
aspirated ⟨भ⟩ ⟨ध⟩ d͡zʱ ⟨झ⟩ ɖʱ ⟨ढ⟩ ɡʱ ⟨घ⟩
Fricative s ⟨श/ष/स⟩ ɦ ⟨ह⟩
Rhotic r ⟨र⟩
Approximant (w ⟨व⟩) l ⟨ल⟩ (j ⟨य⟩)

[j] and [w] are nonsyllabic allophones of [i] and [u], respectively. Every consonant except [j], [w], and /ɦ/ has a geminate counterpart between vowels. /ɳ/ and /ʃ/ also exist in some loanwords such as /baɳ/ बाण "arrow" and /nareʃ/ नरेश "king", but these sounds are sometimes replaced with native Nepali phonemes.

Final schwas may or may not be preserved in speech. The following rules can be followed to figure out whether or not Nepali words retain the final schwa.

1) Schwa is retained if the final syllable is a conjunct consonant. अन्त (anta, 'end'), सम्बन्ध (sambandha, 'relation'), श्रेष्ठ (śreṣṭha, 'greatest'/a last name).
Exceptions: conjuncts such as ञ्च ञ्ज in मञ्च (mañc, 'stage') गञ्ज (gañj, 'city') and occasionally the last name पन्त (panta/pant).

2) For any verb form the final schwa is always retained unless the schwa-cancelling halanta is present. हुन्छ (huncha, 'it happens'), भएर (bhaera, 'in happening so; therefore'), गएछ(gaecha, 'he apparently went'), but छन् (chan, 'they are'), गईन् (gain, 'she went').

Meanings may change with the wrong orthography: गईन (gaina, 'she didn't go') vs गईन् (gain, 'she went').

3) Adverbs, onomatopoeia and postpositions usually maintain the schwa and if they don't, halanta is acquired: अब (aba 'now'), तिर (tira, 'towards'), आज (āja, 'today') सिम्सिम (simsim 'drizzle') vs झन् (jhan, 'more').

4) Few exceptional nouns retain the schwa such as: दुख(dukha, 'suffering'), सुख (sukha, 'pleasure').

Note: Schwas are often retained in music and poetry to facilitate singing and recitation.

Grammar[edit]

Nepali is an SOV (subject–object–verb) language. There are three major levels or gradations of honorific: low, medium and high. Low honorific is used where no respect is due, medium honorific is used to signify equal status or neutrality, and high honorific signifies respect. There is also a separate highest level honorific, which was used to refer to members of the royal family, and by the royals among themselves.[52] The Nepali grammar is simpler compared to complex and intricate system of old Indo-Aryan languages.[6]

Writing system[edit]

Nepali is written in Devanagari script.

In the section below Nepali is represented in Latin transliteration using the IAST scheme and IPA. The chief features are: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h denoting aspirated plosives. Tildes denote nasalised vowels.

Consonants[edit]

Devanagari k.svg /kʌ/ Devanagari kh.svg /kʰʌ/ Devanagari g.svg /ɡʌ/ Devanagari gh.svg /ɡʱʌ/ Devanagari ng.svg /ŋʌ/
Devanagari c.svg /t͡sʌ/ Devanagari ch.svg /t͡sʰʌ/ Devanagari j.svg /d͡zʌ/ Devanagari jh.svg /d͡zʱʌ/ Devanagari ny.svg /nʌ/
Devanagari tt.svg /ʈʌ/ Devanagari tth.svg /ʈʰʌ/ Devanagari dd.svg /ɖʌ/ Devanagari ddh.svg /ɖʱʌ/ Devanagari nn.svg /ɳʌ/
Devanagari t.svg /tʌ/ Devanagari th.svg /tʰʌ/ Devanagari d.svg /dʌ/ Devanagari dh.svg /dʱʌ/ Devanagari n.svg /nʌ/
Devanagari p.svg /pʌ/ Devanagari ph.svg /pʰʌ/ Devanagari b.svg /bʌ/ Devanagari bh.svg /bʱʌ/ Devanagari m.svg /mʌ/
Devanagari y.svg /jʌ/ Devanagari r.svg /rʌ/ Devanagari l.svg /lʌ/ Devanagari v.svg /wʌ/
Devanagari sh.svg /sʌ/ Devanagari ss.svg /sʌ/ Devanagari s.svg /sʌ/ Devanagari h.svg /ɦʌ/
Devanagari ligature Kssa.svg /t͡sʰjʌ, ksʌ/ Devanagari Conjunct TRa.svg /trʌ/ Devanagari Conjunct JNya.svg /ɡjʌ/ Devanagari ri.svg /ri/

Vowels[edit]

Orthography अं अः अँ
IAST a ā i ī u ū e ai o au aṃ aḥ am̐/ã
IPA ʌ a i i u u e ʌ o ʌ ʌ̃ ʌɦʌ ʌ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant b बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बँ

Sample text[edit]

The following is a sample text in Nepali, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Nepali[edit]

धारा १. सबै व्यक्तिहरू जन्मजात स्वतन्त्र हुन् ती सबैको समान अधिकार र महत्व छ। निजहरूमा विचार शक्ति र सद्विचार भएकोले निजहरूले आपसमा भातृत्वको भावनाबाट व्यवहार गर्नु पर्छ।[53]

Transliteration (IAST)
Dhārā 1. Sabai vyaktiharū janmajāt svatantra hun tī sabaiko samān adhikār ra mahatva cha. Nijharūmā vicār śakti ra sadvicār bhaekole nijharūle āpasmā bhatṛtvako bhāvanabāṭa vyavahār garnu parcha.
Transcription (IPA)
[dʱaɾa ek sʌbʌi̯ bektiɦʌɾu d͡zʌnmʌd͡zat sotʌntɾʌ ɦun ti sʌbʌi̯ko ʌd(ʱ)ikaɾ rʌ mʌːtːo t͡sʰʌ nid͡zɦʌɾuma bit͡saɾ sʌkti ɾʌ sʌdbit͡sar bʱʌekole nid͡zɦʌɾule apʌsma bʱatɾitːoko bʱawʌnabaʈʌ bebaːr ɡʌɾnu pʌɾt͡sʌ]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1. All human-beings from-birth independent are their all equal right and importance is. In themselves, intellect and conscience endowed therefore they one another brotherhood's spirit treatment with do must.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Numbers[edit]

Nepali numbers
Numeral Written IAST IPA Etymology
0 शुन्य/सुन्ना śunya [sunːe] Sanskrit śūnya (शून्य)
1 एक ek /ek/ Sanskrit eka (एक)
2 दुई duī /d̪ui̯/ Sanskrit dvi (द्वि)
3 तीन tīn /t̪in/ Sanskrit tri (त्रि)
4 चार cār /t͡sar/ Sanskrit catúr (चतुर्)
5 पाँच pām̐c /pãt͡s/ Sanskrit pañca (पञ्च)
6 cha /t͡sʰʌ/ Sanskrit ṣáṣ (षष्)
7 सात sāt /sat̪/ Sanskrit saptá (सप्त)
8 आठ āṭh /aʈʰ/ Sanskrit aṣṭá (अष्ट)
9 नौ nau /nʌu̯/ Sanskrit náva (नव)
10 १० दश daś /d̪ʌs/ Sanskrit dáśa दश
11 ११ एघार eghāra [eɡʱäɾʌ]
12 १२ बाह्र bāhra /barʌ/ [bäɾʌ]
20 २० बीस bīs /bis/
21 २१ एक्काइस ekkāis /ekːai̯s/
22 २२ बाइस bāis /bai̯s/
100 १०० एक सय ek saya [ek sʌe̞]
1 000 १,००० एक हजार ek hajār /ek ɦʌd͡zar/
10 000 १०,००० दश हजार daś hajār [d̪ʌs ɦʌd͡zär]
100 000 १,००,००० एक लाख ek lākh /ek lakʰ/ See lakh
1 000 000 १०,००,००० दश लाख daś lākh [d̪ʌs läkʰ]
10 000 000 १,००,००,००० एक करोड ek karoḍ [ek kʌɾoɽ] See crore
100 000 000 १०,००,००,००० दश करोड daś karoḍ [d̪ʌs kʌɾoɽ]
1 000 000 000 १,००,००,००,००० एक अरब ek arab [ek ʌɾʌb]
10 000 000 000 १०,००,००,००,००० दश अरब daś arab [d̪ʌs ʌɾʌb]
1012 १०१२ एक खरब ek kharab [ek kʰʌɾʌb]
1014 १०१४ एक नील ek nīl /ek nil/
1016 १०१६ एक पद्म ek padma /ek pʌd̪mʌ/
1018 १०१८ एक शंख ek śaṅkha /ek sʌŋkʰʌ/

The numbering system has roots in Vedic numbering system, found in the ancient scripture of Ramayana.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118–119.
  2. ^ a b Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  3. ^ "Nepali | Definition of Nepali by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of Nepali". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  4. ^ Language Gulper: Languages and Ethnic Groups of Bhutan (2014).
  5. ^ "Official Nepali language in Sikkim & Darjeeling" (PDF). CensusIndia.gov.in.
  6. ^ a b c Jain & Cardona 2007, p. 545.
  7. ^ Hodgson 2013, pp. 1–2.
  8. ^ "Brief Introduction". Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  9. ^ "5 features of Nepali, Nepal's lingua franca, that you are unaware of". Online Khabar. Online Khabar. 3 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  10. ^ Thapa, Lekh Bahadur (1 November 2013). "Roots: A Khas story". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
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  15. ^ a b Maharjan, Rajendra. "एकल राष्ट्र–राज्यको धङधङी". EKantipur. Kantipur Publication Limited. Retrieved 30 October 2021.आजभन्दा करिब नौ दशकअघि मात्रै देशको नाम ‘नेपाल’ का रूपमा स्विकारिएको हो भने, पहिले खस–पर्वते–गोर्खाली भनिने भाषालाई ‘नेपाली’ नामकरण गरिएको हो ।
  16. ^ Clark, T. W. (1973). "Nepali and Pahari". Current Trends in Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 252.
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  18. ^ a b "साझा प्रकाशन एक झलक". Sajha Prakashan. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  19. ^ "पर्वते(नेपाली) भाषाको इतिहास". Nepal Patra. Retrieved 9 November 2021.नेपाली भाषा बिभिन्न समयमा बिभिन्न नामले चिनिन्थ्यो । खस कुरा, पर्वते भाषा तथा गोर्खाली भाषा आदि । यी मध्ये खस कुरा सबैभन्दा पुरानो नाम हो । खस जातीहरूले बोल्ने भाषा भएको हुनाले यसलाई खस भाषा भनिएको हो । यो भाषा पश्चिम नेपालको कर्णाली क्षेत्रमा विकशित भएर पूर्वतर्फ फैलदै गएको हो । खस कुरा पश्चिम नेपालको अर्को भाषा खाम कुरा, जुन नेपालका मगर जातीहरूले बोल्ने गर्दछन्, संगै विकशित हुँदै अगाडी बढ्यो ।
  20. ^ Baniya, Karnabahadur. सेनकालीन पाल्पाको संस्कृति : एक ऐतिहासिक विवेचना. Palpa: Tribhuvan Multiple Campus. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 9 November 2021.ISSN:2616-017x
  21. ^ "Nepali". Harvard University. Department of South Asian Studies. Retrieved 9 November 2021. long-established language dating back to the 1200s, it was previously known as Khas Kura and later Gorkha bhasa and also Parbate (‘the language of the mountain people’).
  22. ^ Shrestha, Shiva Raj. Khaptad Region in Mythology (PDF). p. 10. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  23. ^ Vasistha, Kedar. "'गोर्खा पत्रिकाहरू'को पदचाप". Gorakhapatra Online. Retrieved 9 November 2021. जङ्गबहादुरलाई पनि घिसार्ने गरिएको पाइन्छ तर उनको पालामा गोर्खा भाषा वा नेपाली भाषा नभनी पाष्या बोली वा पर्वते भाषाको प्रचलन रहेको देखिन्छ । तर उक्त सनद जारी भएको एक वर्षपछिको जङ्गबहादुरको एक पत्रमा उनले गोर्खा वा गोर्खाली वा नेपाली भाषाका नमुना भनी नभनी पाष्या (पाखे) बोली भनेका छन् ।
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  47. ^ Commissioner, India Census; Gait, Edward Albert (1902). Census of India, 1901. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 91 – via Internet Archive. Naipali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the upper classes in Nepal, whereas the minor Nepalese languages, such as Gurung, Magar, Jimdar, Yakha, etc., are members of the Tibeto-Burman family
  48. ^ Onta, Pratyoush (1996) "Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jati Improvement, Rediscovery of Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bir History" in Studies in Nepali History and Society 1(1), p. 37-76.
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Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ historically spoken in just the Karnali Province now it’s spoken as lingua franca in all of Nepal
  2. ^ historically spoken just by Khas people now it’s spoken as lingua franca in Nepal

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • पोखरेल, मा. प्र. (2000), ध्वनिविज्ञान र नेपाली भाषाको ध्वनि परिचय, नेपाल राजकीय प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान, काठमाडौँ
  • Schmidt, R. L. (1993) A Practical Dictionary of Modern Nepali.
  • Turner, R. L. (1931) A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language.
  • Clements, G.N. & Khatiwada, R. (2007). “Phonetic realization of contrastively aspirated affricates in Nepali.” In Proceedings of ICPhS XVI (Saarbrücken, 6–10 August 2007), 629- 632. [1]
  • Hutt, M. & Subedi, A. (2003) Teach Yourself Nepali.
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009). "Nepali". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181.
  • Manders, C. J. (2007) नेपाली व्याकरणमा आधार A Foundation in Nepali Grammar.
  • Dr. Dashrath Kharel, "Nepali linguistics spoken in Darjeeling-Sikkim"

External links[edit]