Nepenthes bongso

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Nepenthes bongso
Nepenthes bongso 1.JPG
A freshly opened lower pitcher
Nepenthes carunculata upper pitcher.jpg
An upper pitcher of a variant sometimes distinguished as N. carunculata, from a minor peak near Solok, West Sumatra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Nepenthaceae
Genus: Nepenthes
Species: N. bongso
Binomial name
Nepenthes bongso
Korth. (1839)[2]
Nepenthes bongso distribution.png
Distribution of N. bongso

Nepenthes bongso /nˈpɛnθz ˈbɒŋs/ is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sumatra, where it has an altitudinal distribution of 1000–2700 m above sea level.[10][11] The specific epithet bongso refers to the Indonesian legend of Putri Bungsu (literally "youngest daughter"), the spirit guardian of Mount Marapi.[10]

The species was formally described by Pieter Willem Korthals in his 1839 monograph, "Over het geslacht Nepenthes".[2]

Nepenthes carunculata[note a] is considered a heterotypic synonym of N. bongso by most authorities.[8][9][10][12] The infraspecific taxon Nepenthes carunculata var. robusta was described in 1994 by Joachim Nerz and Andreas Wistuba.[13] It is an extreme variety of this taxon with a large, flared peristome.[13]

In his Carnivorous Plant Database, taxonomist Jan Schlauer treats N. junghuhnii (sensu Macfarlane) as a possible synonym of N. bongso.[14]

Related species[edit]

Morphological differences between N. bongso, N. dubia, N. talangensis and N. tenuis (Nerz & Wistuba, 1994)[13]
Character N. bongso N. dubia N. talangensis N. tenuis
Shape of upper pitchers tubulate - infundibulate tubulous in the lower part, infundibulate above the middle tubulous to narrow infundibuliform in the lower half, ovate in the upper half wide infundibulate, contracted below the mouth
Lid orbiculate narrow cuneate broad-ovate very narrow elliptical
Length/width ratio of upper pitchers 3.3 1.9 2.3 1.75

Natural hybrids[edit]

The following natural hybrids involving N. bongso have been recorded.

In his 1928 monograph "The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies", B. H. Danser mentioned what he thought was the hybrid N. bongso × N. pectinata;[5] however, this plant material is now known to represent N. densiflora,[10] a species described by Danser 12 years later.[15]


a.^ Nepenthes carunculata is pronounced /nˈpɛnθz kəˌrʌŋkjᵿˈlɑːtə/. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word caruncula, a diminutive of caro (flesh), and refers to the fleshy seed appendages of this taxon.


  1. ^ Schnell, D; Catling, P.; Folkerts, G.; Frost, C.; Gardner, R.; et al. (2000). "Nepenthes bongso". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2000: e.T39625A10252518. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T39625A10252518.en. Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b (Dutch) Korthals, P.W. 1839. Over het geslacht Nepenthes. In: C.J. Temminck 1839–1842. Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen; Kruidkunde. Leiden. pp. 1–44, t. 1–4, 13–15, 20–22.
  3. ^ a b (Indonesian) Tamin, R. & M. Hotta 1986. Nepenthes di Sumatera: The genus Nepenthes of the Sumatra Island. In: M. Hotta (ed.) Diversity and Dynamics of Plant Life in Sumatra: Forest Ecosystem and Speciation in Wet Tropical Environments. Part 1: Reports and Collection of Papers. Kyoto University, Kyoto. pp. 75–109.
  4. ^ Ridley, H.N. 1908. Nepenthaceæ. [p. 320] In: On a collection of plants made by H. C. Robinson and L. Wray from Gunong Tahan, Pahang. The Journal of the Linnean Society: Botany 38(266): 301–336. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1908.tb02454.x
  5. ^ a b Danser, B.H. 1928. 5. Nepenthes Bongso KORTH.. In: The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 9(3–4): 249–438.
  6. ^ Kurata, S. 1973. Nepenthes from Borneo, Singapore and Sumatra. The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 26(2): 227–232.
  7. ^ Hopkins, M., R. Maulder & B.[R.] Salmon 1990. A real nice trip to Southeast Asia. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19(1–2): 19–28.
  8. ^ a b Jebb, M.H.P. & M.R. Cheek 1997. A skeletal revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae). Blumea 42(1): 1–106.
  9. ^ a b Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora Malesiana 15: 1–157.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Clarke, C.M. 2001. Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  11. ^ McPherson, S.R. & A. Robinson 2012. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Sumatra and Java. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  12. ^ McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  13. ^ a b c Nerz, J. & A. Wistuba 1994. Five new taxa of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from North and West Sumatra. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 23(4): 101–114.
  14. ^ Schlauer, J. N.d. Nepenthes junghuhnii. Carnivorous Plant Database.
  15. ^ Danser, B.H. 1940. A new Nepenthes from Sumatra. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 16: 268–271.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]