Nepenthes gymnamphora

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Nepenthes gymnamphora
Intermediate pitchers of N. gymnamphora from Sumatra
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Nepenthaceae
Genus: Nepenthes
Species: N. gymnamphora
Binomial name
Nepenthes gymnamphora
Reinw. ex Nees (1824)

Nepenthes gymnamphora /nɪˈpɛnθz ɪmˈnæmfɔːrə/ is a tropical pitcher plant native to the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. It has a wide altitudinal range of 600–2,800 metres (2,000–9,200 ft) above sea level.[3] There is much debate surrounding the taxonomic status of this species and the taxa N. pectinata and N. xiphioides.[4]

The specific epithet gymnamphora is derived from the Greek words gymnos (naked) and amphoreus (pitcher).[4]


An illustration of the type specimen of N. pectinata from Danser's monograph

The N. gymnamphora group of related taxa has been variously interpreted as comprising a single extremely variable species (N. gymnamphora);[4][5][6] two distinct species, one from Java (N. gymnamphora) and one from Sumatra (N. pectinata);[7][8] or two species, one with a wide distribution covering Java and Sumatra (N. gymnamphora) and one with a very restricted range in Sumatra (N. xiphioides).[9] An additional fourth undescribed taxon, known from Mount Sorik Merapi in Sumatra, may also fall within N. gymnamphora.[4]

Nepenthes pectinata[edit]

Nepenthes pectinata[a] was described by B. H. Danser in his seminal 1928 monograph "The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies".[10] Danser's description of N. pectinata was based on material that included upper pitchers of N. singalana.[4] This was first noted in 1994 by Jan Schlauer and Joachim Nerz, who provided a lectotype for N. pectinata: Bünnemeijer 700, a specimen collected on Mount Talakmau.[8][11]

Danser mentioned another specimen in his monograph that he identified as the natural hybrid N. pectinata × N. singalana,[10] but which actually represented a pure N. singalana.[4][8]

Nepenthes pectinata has a separate conservation status of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.[12]

Nepenthes xiphioides[edit]

Nepenthes xiphioides[b] was described by Bruce Salmon and Ricky Maulder in a 1995 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter.[9] The authors treated N. pectinata as conspecific with N. gymnamphora, and distinguished N. xiphioides from the latter based on a number of characters shown in the table below.

Morphological differences between N. gymnamphora and N. xiphioides according to Salmon & Maulder (1995)[9]
Morphological character N. gymnamphora N. xiphioides
Longitudinal leaf veins 3-6 running in outer 2/3- 4/5 of blade 2-3 running in outer 1/2 of blade
Leaf margins covered with short dense hair glabrous
Rosette leaf tendril about as long as the pitcher 2-3 times as long as the leaf
Rosette pitchers 8–12 centimetres (3–5 in) tall, 3–4 centimetres (1–2 in) broad 4–5.5 centimetres (1.6–2.2 in) tall, 1.5–2 centimetres (0.6–0.8 in) broad
Aerial pitchers present absent
Peristome teeth 3-6 times as long as broad 6-8 times as long as broad
Inflorescence mostly 2 flowered, upper most ones 1 flowered; rarely most or all of them 1 flowered 1 flowered but bearing some 2 flowered pedicels in lower 1/3
Staminal column hairy at base or over whole length glabrous

Infraspecific taxa[edit]

  • Nepenthes gymnamphora var. haematamphora Miq. (1851)
  • Nepenthes gymnamphora var. pectinata (Danser) Hort.Westphal (1999) in sched.

Natural hybrids[edit]


a.^ Nepenthes pectinata is pronounced /nɪˈpɛnθz ˌpɛktɪˈnɑːtə/. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word pectinata, meaning "comb-shaped".
b.^ Nepenthes xiphioides is pronounced /nɪˈpɛnθz zɪfˈɔɪdz/. The specific epithet is derived from the New Latin word xiphius (sword) and the Latin ending -oides (resembling), and refers to the long, thin teeth lining the inner margin of the peristome of this species.[9]


  1. ^ a b (in Latin) Blume, C.L. 1852. Ord. Nepenthaceae. In: Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum, sive stirpium exoticarum novarum vel minus cognitarum ex vivis aut siccis brevis expositio. Tom. II. Nr. 1. E.J. Brill, Lugduni-Batavorum. pp. 5–10.
  2. ^ Hooker, J.D. 1859. XXXV. On the origin and development of the pitchers of Nepenthes, with an account of some new Bornean plants of that genus. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 22(4): 415–424. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1856.tb00113.x
  3. ^ McPherson, S.R. & A. Robinson 2012. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Sumatra and Java. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clarke, C.M. 2001. Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  5. ^ a b McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  6. ^ Schlauer, J. N.d. Nepenthes gymnamphora. Carnivorous Plant Database.
  7. ^ Jebb, M.H.P. & M.R. Cheek 1997. A skeletal revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae). Blumea 42(1): 1–106.
  8. ^ a b c Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora Malesiana 15: 1–157.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Salmon, B.R. & R.G. Maulder 1995. Two New Species of Nepenthes from North Sumatra, Indonesia. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 77–85.
  10. ^ a b Danser, B.H. 1928. The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 9(3–4): 249–438.
  11. ^ Schlauer, J. & J. Nerz 1994. Notes on Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae). I. Contributions to the Flora of Sumatra. Blumea 39: 139–142.
  12. ^ Clarke, C.M., R. Cantley, J. Nerz, H. Rischer & A. Witsuba 2000. Nepenthes pectinata. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]