Nepenthes reinwardtiana

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Nepenthes reinwardtiana
Nepreinwardtiana.jpg
Pitchers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Nepenthaceae
Genus: Nepenthes
Species: N. reinwardtiana
Binomial name
Nepenthes reinwardtiana
Miq. (1852)
Synonyms

Nepenthes reinwardtiana /nˈpɛnθz ˌrnwɔːrtiˈɑːnə/ is a tropical pitcher plant native to Borneo and Sumatra[3] and to a number of smaller surrounding islands including Bangka, Natuna,[4] Nias, and Siberut.[5] Although some sources have included Peninsular Malaysia[6][7][8][9] and Singapore[7][10] within the range of this species, these records appear to be erroneous.[11][12]

Nepenthes reinwardtiana has an unusually wide altitudinal distribution of 0–2200 m,[3] being both a "lowland" and "highland" plant. There are many different colour forms, ranging from green to dark red. This species is known for the two "eye spots" on the inside surface of its pitchers.

The specific epithet reinwardtiana honours Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt. The species has been given the vernacular name Reinwardt's Pitcher-Plant.[13]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Upper pitchers of a plant identified as N. naquiyuddinii

Nepenthes naquiyuddinii[edit]

Nepenthes naquiyuddinii[note a] /nˈpɛnθz ˌnækjʊˈdɪni./ was described in 2006 by J. H. Adam and Hafiza A. Hamid.[14][15] The taxon is only known from Keningau-Kimanis Road and the foot of Mount Trus Madi, both in Sabah, Borneo, where it grows at an elevation of 1400 to 1424 m in open secondary vegetation.[14]

Although acknowledging close affinities between N. naquiyuddinii and N. reinwardtiana, Adam and Hafiza stated that the "two species exhibit many morphological differences and therefore they cannot be united into the same species".[14] However, some authors consider these differences too small for species status and treat N. naquiyuddinii as a heterotypic synonym of N. reinwardtiana.[16][17] Alternatively, N. naquiyuddinii may represent a natural hybrid involving N. fusca and N. reinwardtiana, the only species that are sympatric with it.[18]

Phylogeny[edit]

In 2001, Charles Clarke performed a cladistic analysis of the Nepenthes species of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia using 70 morphological characteristics of each taxon. The following is a portion of the resultant cladogram, showing part of "Clade 6". The sister pair of N. angasanensis and N. mikei has 79% support.[19]



unnamed

N. gracilis



N. reinwardtiana



unnamed


N. tobaica


     79%

N. angasanensis



N. mikei







Intraspecific taxa[edit]

  • Nepenthes reinwardtiana var. samarindaensis J.H.Adam & Wilcock (1993)[20]

Natural hybrids[edit]

N. fusca × N. reinwardtiana
N. reinwardtiana × N. stenophylla

The following natural hybrids involving N. reinwardtiana have been recorded.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clarke, C.M.; Cantley, R.; Nerz, J.; Rischer, H.; Witsuba, A. (2000). "Nepenthes reinwardtiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2000: e.T39692A10251831. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T39692A10251831.en. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  2. ^ Hooker, J.D. 1859. XXXV. On the origin and development of the pitchers of Nepenthes, with an account of some new Bornean plants of that genus. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 22(4): 415–424. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1856.tb00113.x
  3. ^ a b c d McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  4. ^ (Indonesian) Mansur, M. 2012. Keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan pemakan serangga dan laju fotosintesisnya di Pulau Natuna. [Diversity on insectivorous plants and its photosynthetic rate in Natuna Island.] Berita Biologi 11(1): 33–42. Abstract
  5. ^ Clarke, C.M. 2001. Appendix C: Distribution Maps. In: Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. pp. 299–307.
  6. ^ Macfarlane, J.M. 1908. Nepenthaceae. In: A. Engler. Das Pflanzenreich IV, III, Heft 36: 1–91.
  7. ^ a b Danser, B.H. 1928. The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 9(3–4): 249–438.
  8. ^ Holttum, R.E. 1940. Malayan pitcher-plants. Malayan Nature Journal 1: 35–44.
  9. ^ Shivas, R.G. 1984. Pitcher Plants of Peninsular Malaysia & Singapore. Maruzen Asia, Kuala Lumpur.
  10. ^ Green, S. 1967. Notes on the distribution of Nepenthes species in Singapore. The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 22: 53–65.
  11. ^ Adam, J.H., C.C. Wilcock & M.D. Swaine 1992. "The ecology and distribution of Bornean Nepenthes." (PDF).  Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(1): 13–25.
  12. ^ Clarke, C.M. 2006. Introduction. In: Danser, B.H. The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. pp. 1–15.
  13. ^ Phillipps, A. & A. Lamb 1996. Pitcher-Plants of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  14. ^ a b c d Adam, J.H. & Hafiza A. Hamid 2006. "Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes) Recorded from Keningau-Kimanis Road in Sabah, Malaysia.".  (2.40 MiB) International Journal of Botany 2(4): 431-436. ISSN 1811-9700 doi:10.3923/ijb.2006.431.436
  15. ^ Fong, L.F. 2007. New pitcher species. The Star, May 11, 2007.
  16. ^ Rice, B.A. 2006. Do you want to tell me about a species I missed? The Carnivorous Plant FAQ.
  17. ^ Schlauer, J. N.d. Nepenthes naquiyuddinii. Carnivorous Plant Database.
  18. ^ a b c Phillipps, A., A. Lamb & C.C. Lee 2008. Pitcher Plants of Borneo. Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Clarke, C.M. 2001. Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  20. ^ Adam, J.H. & C.C. Wilcock 1993. A new variety of Nepenthes reinwardtiana Miquel from Kalimantan, Borneo. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 50(1): 99–104.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Clarke, C.M. 1997. Nepenthes of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  22. ^ (Indonesian) Dariana 2010. Keanekaragaman Nepenthes dan pohon inang di Taman Wisata Alam Sicikeh-Cikeh Kabupaten Dairi Sumatera Utara. M.Sc. thesis, University of North Sumatra, Medan.

Further reading[edit]