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According to the Book of Mormon, a religious text of the Latter-day Saint movement, the Nephites (//) are one of four groups (including the Lamanites, Jaredites, and Mulekites) to have settled in the ancient Americas. The term is used throughout the Book of Mormon to describe the religious, political, and cultural traditions of this group of settlers.
The Nephites are described as a group of people that descended from or were associated with Nephi, the son of the prophet Lehi, who left Jerusalem at the urging of God c. 600 BC and traveled with his family to the Western Hemisphere, arriving in the Americas c. 589 BC. The Book of Mormon notes them as an initially righteous people who eventually "had fallen into a state of unbelief and awful wickedness" and were destroyed by the Lamanites c. AD 385.
Some Mormon scholars claim that the forebears of the Nephites settled somewhere in present-day Central America after departing Jerusalem. However, both the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society have issued statements that they have seen no evidence to support these claims in the Book of Mormon and no non-Mormon archaeologist or historian has supported their existence.
The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), part of Brigham Young University, has performed extensive archaeological research in this area, and publications on this subject and other historical topics are issued regularly by the FARMS organization. This research is disputed by many researchers, including Michael Coe, a scholar in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican history, as well as the Smithsonian Institution and others.
In 1973, Michael Coe addressed the issue in an article for Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought stating:
Mormon archaeologists over the years have almost unanimously accepted the Book of Mormon as an accurate, historical account of the New World peoples... Let me now state uncategorically that as far as I know there is not one professionally trained archaeologist, who is not a Mormon, who sees any scientific justification for believing the foregoing to be true, and I would like to state that there are quite a few Mormon archaeologists who join this group... The bare facts of the matter are that nothing, absolutely nothing, has even shown up in any New World excavation which would suggest to a dispassionate observer that the Book of Mormon, as claimed by Joseph Smith, is a historical document relating to the history of early migrants to our hemisphere.— Michael Coe, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought
In 1996, the Smithsonian Institution issued a statement addressing claims made in the Book of Mormon, stating that the text is primarily a religious text and that archeologists affiliated with the Institution found "no direct connection between the archeology of the New World and the subject matter of the book". The statement further says that there is genetic evidence that the Native American Indians are closely related to peoples of Asia, and that archaeological evidence indicates that the Native Americans migrated from Asia over a land bridge over the Bering Strait in prehistoric times. The statement said that there was no credible evidence of contact between Ancient Egyptian or Hebrew peoples and the New World, as indicated by the text of the Book of Mormon. The statement was issued in response to reports that the name of the Smithsonian Institution was being improperly used to lend credibility to the claims of those looking to support the events of the Book of Mormon.
Book of Mormon narrative
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It is accepted as historical fact by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) that the Nephites existed, although archaeologists and historians say there is no external evidence to corroborate the account given of Nephite history in the Book of Mormon.
Three main epochs in the Nephite history are described in the Book of Mormon, separated by two periods where Nephite society experienced particularly significant changes. The greatest amount of information about Nephite society comes from the middle epoch, from about 150 BC to 200 AD (recorded in the books of Mosiah, Alma, Helaman, 3 Nephi, and 4 Nephi).
The first major change occurred c. 150–91 BC, during the reigns of Mosiah I, Benjamin, and Mosiah II. The entire populace moved northward, the Nephite and Mulekite societies merged, the government form changed, and traditional laws were codified.
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From the time the Nephites arrived in America to the reign of Mosiah II (c. 592–91 BC), the Nephites were ruled by kings. Nephi's brother Jacob explains that subsequent kings bore the title "Nephi."
The people having loved Nephi exceedingly … were desirous to retain in remembrance his name. And whoso should reign in his stead were called by the people second Nephi, third Nephi, and so forth, according to the reigns of the kings; and thus they were called by the people, let them be of whatever name they would.— Jacob 1:10–11
This is comparable to the Roman practice of giving each emperor the title "Caesar" in honor of Julius Caesar (e.g., Augustus Caesar, Claudius Caesar). Thus, just as the later history of the Romans is sometimes called "the reign of the Caesars," the early history of the Nephites could be called "the reign of the Nephis."
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The last Nephite king was Mosiah II. About 91 BC, he declared that, instead of naming a new king, he would finish out his reign as king, after which the Nephites would elect judges to govern them. There were at least three levels of judges: one chief judge, several higher judges, and several lower judges. (Some passages speak of multiple "chief judges," probably synonymous with "higher judges"; e.g., Alma 62:47; 3 Nephi 6:21)
Judges were paid according to the amount of time they spent officiating. Mosiah II set the rate at one senine of gold (or the equivalent senum of silver) for one day's work (Alma 11:1, 3). He also arranged for checks in this system to avert corruption as much as possible. He explained:
And now if ye have judges, and they do not judge you according to the law which has been given, ye can cause that they may be judged of a higher judge. If your higher judges do not judge righteous judgments, ye shall cause that a small number of your lower judges should be gathered together, and they shall judge your higher judges, according to the voice of the people.— Mosiah 29:28-29
After announcing the governmental shift from kings to judges, Mosiah explained the principle behind this change:
The sins of many people have been caused by the iniquities of their kings… Now it is not common that the voice of the people desireth anything contrary to that which is right; but it is common for the lesser part of the people to desire that which is not right; therefore this shall ye observe and make it your law—to do your business by the voice of the people.— Mosiah 29:31, 26
The system of judges lasted for 120 years, when it was briefly overthrown for about three years (c. 30–33 AD) by an aristocratic cadre led by a man named Jacob. It was replaced by a loose system of tribes and kinships, which lasted until Jesus appeared in America and established a society that approached the ideals of Zion. This society last for about two centuries before the people fell into wickedness again.
After Fourth Nephi, no mention is made of whether the Nephites used judges or kings. Mormon mentions that "the Lamanites had a king" (Mormon 2:9). His inclusion of this detail, phrased as it is, could be seen as a contrast to the Nephites having a chief judge. Coupled with the fact that no change in government form is specifically mentioned after Fourth Nephi, it could be assumed that the Nephites continued to use judges until their destruction in c. AD 385.
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The record in the Book of Mormon is scant, but it appears that for the first couple of centuries little distinction was made between religious and civil laws. The law of Moses covered all aspects of life, both temporal and spiritual. There was no need to distinguish between religious and civil law since everyone practiced the same religion. Mosiah II seemed to refer to the civil aspect of this legal system when he refers to "the law which has been given to us by our fathers" (Mosiah 29:15, 25).
This changed when the Nephites migrated north from the land of Nephi into the land of Zarahemla. They assimilated the Mulekite society, which appears to have raised several new issues that had never been encountered before. One of which was the question of what to do when someone commits an act considered a violation by the majority but considered permissible by the individual. The answer was not to leave judgment in each individual's hands, for that would lead to anarchy. Yet the law of Moses couldn't be applied generally when many members of the new Nephite-Mulekite nation were not adherents of the Nephite religion.
Mosiah II resolved the problem by apparently establishing a distinction between civil crimes and religious crimes when Alma brought several church members to him to be judged.
And he [Alma] said unto the king: Behold, here are many whom we have brought before thee, who are accused of their brethren; yea, and they have been taken in divers iniquities. And they do not repent of their iniquities; therefore we have brought them before thee, that thou mayest judge them according to their crimes. But king Mosiah said unto Alma: Behold, I judge them not; therefore I deliver them into thy hands to be judged.— (Mosiah 26:11–12)
Mosiah allowed Alma to decide the consequences of religious infractions. Alma received a revelation that "whosoever will not repent of his sins the same shall not be numbered among my people" (Mosiah 26:32). As high priest of the Church of Christ, he could exercise this power to excommunicate unpenitent members of the Church.
Only judges could apply consequences for civil infractions. Defining exactly what constituted a civil crime (versus a religious crime) was apparently decided by Mosiah and submitted for acceptance by the vote of the people. This process is alluded to at the beginning of the book of Alma.
Mosiah … had established laws, and they were acknowledged by the people; therefore they were obliged to abide by the laws which he had made.— (Alma 1:1; see also 1:14)
The laws that Mosiah established were so significant in their impact that sixty years later, instead of referring to "the laws which have been given you by our fathers" (Mosiah 29:25), people referred to "the laws of Mosiah, or that which the Lord commanded him to give unto the people" (Hel. 4:22).
|Murder||Alma 1:14, 18; 30:10|
|Stealing||Alma 1:18; 30:10|
|Robbing||Alma 1:18; 30:10|
|Slavery||Alma 27:9; cf. Mosiah 2:13|
|Adultery||Alma 30:10. See also Hel. 7:5|
|Religious persecution||Mosiah 27:2–3|
|Paid clergy||Mosiah 27:5; Alma 1:12|
Robbing may be distinguished from stealing in that robbing is a violent crime, stealing from a person under threat of harm, rather than stealing unattended property. The nature of the prohibition against lying is difficult to nail down, but it may be akin to perjury. It is interesting that adultery was not just a religious crime, but a punishable civil offense. The Nephites clearly saw a relationship between unchastity and temporal social breakdown. It is also interesting to note that the prohibition against priestcraft apparently applied not just to Christians but to society at large, for this was one of the crimes Nehor was punished for (Alma 1:12), and Mosiah's proclamation against paid priests was given in the context of "unbelievers," "all the churches," and "every man" (Mosiah 27:1–3).
Actions that were contrary to the laws of the Church of Christ but apparently not illegal are also mentioned.
|Preaching against Christ||Alma 30:12|
The exact nature of some crimes is unknown, such as "babbling." The legal toleration of idolatry may indicate how thoroughly ingrained the practice was in local cultures, including the Mulekites. It also implies that this New World idolatry was not identical to the Old World idolatry mentioned in the books of Moses. In Canaan, idolatry was virtually inseparable from fornication and thus merited the Lord's command to His people to purge the region. In America, idolatry was apparently separate enough from adultery that the former was considered legal and tolerable, while the latter was not.
In Alma 1:32, Alma lists the vices of unbelievers. He does not distinguish between civil crimes and religious crimes, since to him they are all sins. However, it is notable that his list begins with religious crimes and ends with civil crimes. He explains that, although as chief judge he could not punish unbelievers for religious crimes, "the law was put in force upon all those who did transgress it, inasmuch as it was possible."
- For those who did not belong to their church did indulge themselves in sorceries, and in idolatry or idleness, and in babblings, and in envyings and strife; wearing costly apparel; being lifted up in the pride of their own eyes [religious crimes]; persecuting, lying, thieving, robbing, committing whoredoms, and murdering, and all manner of wickedness [civil crimes]... (Alma 1:32)
An illustration of the distinction made between civil and religious crimes occurs in Alma 30. As long as Korihor preached against beliefs like the coming of Christ, "the law could have no hold upon him" (Alma 30:12). But he was apparently arrested once his actions crossed the line into instigating others to commit civil crimes (Alma 1:18) —in this case, adultery.
In Alma 11, Mormon lists "the names of the different pieces of their gold, and of their silver" and their relative value (Alma 11:4). It is unclear what kind of system "reckoning" and "measure" refer to, although most Book of Mormon scholars[who?] now believe they were weights, not coins. Mormon explains that
the names are given by the Nephites, for they did not reckon after the manner of the Jews who were at Jerusalem; neither did they measure after the manner of the Jews; but they altered their reckoning and their measure, according to the minds and the circumstances of the people, in every generation.— (Alma 11:4)
Mormon then explains that this fluctuating system was replaced with a standard system established by Mosiah II. Such a uniformity of measuring systems would have done much to unify the newly formed society, streamline the calculation of exchange rates in long-distance trade, and increase trade revenue.
|Gold units||Silver units||Relative value
(in measures of barley)
|senine||senum||1||a measure of barley; one day's wage for a judge|
|shiblon||½||half a measure of barley|
One of the apparent purposes of this system was economy of use. A set of weights that contained one of each unit could be used to measure out increments of up to 14 units without needing two of the same weight. Thus, a Nephite merchant could use his small personal set of weights for a range of products being sold instead of relying on a large quantity of weights.
- Senine (//) = ½ seon [sean] = barley measure = any grain measure = judge's wages for a day
- Antion (//) = 3 shiblon = 1½ senine
- Seon [sean] = 2 senine = ½ shum
- Shum (//) = 2 seon [sean]
- Limnah = (//) 'the value of them all'
- Senum (//) = senine = barley measure = any grain measure
- Amnor (//) = 2 senums
- Ezrom [ezrum] (//)  = 4 senums
- Onti (//)  = 'as great as them all'
- Shiblon = ½ senum = ½ barley measure = 2 shiblum [shilum] = ⅓ antion
- Shiblum [shilum] = 2 leah = ½ shiblon
- Leah = ½ shiblum [shilum] = ¼ shiblon = ⅛ senum/senine
- Angola (Book of Mormon)
- Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- Linguistics and the Book of Mormon
- Three Nephites
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «nē´fīt»
- Book of Mormon: Helaman 4:25.
- Mormon 6, Ibid.
- John E. Clark (2004). "Searching for Book of Mormon Lands in Middle America". FARMS Review (Maxwell Institute) 16 (2): 1–54. Retrieved Oct 20, 2011.
- Terryl L. Givens, By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture that Launched a New World Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 132.
- Laura F. Willes. "LDS SCRIPTURE RESEARCH". Center for Book of Mormon Studies, Maxwell Institute, Brigham Young University.
- Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Summer 1973, pp. 41, 42 & 46
- Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution. "Statement Regarding the Book of Mormon". 1996. Letter posted online by the Institute for Religious Research.
- Jack Welch, "Weighing and Measuring in the Worlds of the Book of Mormon," FARMS, 1999. p. 36–46
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «sē´nīn»
- Alma 11:3, 7-8
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «ăn´tē-än»
- Alma 11:19
- At Alma 11:5,8-9, the Printer's MS has sean, corrected in MS to seon in vs 9, and set thus in all three verses by the 1830 edition compositor, per Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon (Provo: FARMS, 2004-2009), 3:1806, 6:3579
- Alma 11:8-9
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «shum»
- Alma 11:9
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «lĭm´nä»
- Alma 11:10
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «sē´num»
- Alma 11:7
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «ăm´nōr»
- Alma 11:11
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «ĕz´rum»
- At Alma 11:6,12, the Printer's MS has ezrum, erroneously set as ezrom by the 1830 edition compositor, per Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon (Provo: FARMS, 2004-2009), 3:1806-7, 6:3637
- Alma 11:12
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «än´tī»
- At Alma 11:6,13,22,25, the Printer's MS has anti thrice, but the first as onhi, all four corrected in MS to onti which was followed by the 1830 edition compositor, per Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon (Provo: FARMS, 2004-2009), 3:1807-8, 4:2094, 6:3579
- Alma 11:13
- Alma 11:22
- Alma 11:15,16,19
- At Alma 11:16-17, the Original and Printer's MSS have shilum, erroneously set as shiblum by the 1830 edition compositor, per Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon (Provo: FARMS, 2004-2009), 3:1810-11
- Alma 11:16-17
- Turner, Rodney (1988). "The Three Nephite Churches of Christ". In Cheesman, Paul R. The Book of Mormon: The Keystone Scripture. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University. pp. 91–99. ISBN 0-8849-4637-1.
- Fowles, John L. (1992). "The Decline of the Nephites: Rejection of the Covenant and Word of God". In Nyman, Monte S.; Tate, Charles D., Jr. The Book of Mormon: Helaman Through 3 Nephi 8, According to Thy Word. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University. pp. 81–92. ISBN 0-8849-4864-1.
- How Many Nephites?: The Book of Mormon at the Bar of Demography by James E. Smith