Nephritic syndrome

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Not to be confused with nephrotic syndrome.
Nephritic syndrome
Classification and external resources
Specialty urology
ICD-10 N00, N01, N03, N05
ICD-9-CM 580
MedlinePlus 000495

Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome)[1] is a collection of signs (known as a syndrome) associated with disorders affecting the kidneys, more specifically glomerular disorders.[2] It is characterized by having a thin glomerular basement membrane and small pores in the podocytes of the glomerulus, large enough to permit proteins (proteinuria) and red blood cells (hematuria) to pass into the urine. By contrast, nephrotic syndrome is characterized by only proteins moving into the urine. Nephritic syndrome, like nephrotic syndrome, may involve hypoalbuminemia due to protein albumin moving from the blood to the urine.[medical citation needed]

Signs and symptoms[edit]


Symptoms consistent with nephritic syndrome are:



Nephritic syndrome is caused by inflammation of glomerulus and has urine waste, furthermore the cause can be infectious, autoimmune or thrombotic.[7] The causes can be divided between age groups as follows:[5]




The pathophysiology of nephritic syndrome is dependent on where damage is done by antibody-antigen complexes (in glomerulus). In the case of IgA nephropathy, the glomerulus cannot filter IgA antibody-antigen, and this causes an inflammatory response, then release of cytokines (and growth factors), and finally results in glomerular scaring.[8]


The classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome is post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis,[9] which is a common complication of Streptococcus bacterial infections, typically of the skin.

Among the tests done to diagnose if an individual has nephritic syndrome are: blood electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, potassium test, protein in the urine, urinalysis and kidney biopsy.[5]


Treatment of nephritic syndrome is consistent with administration of hypertension and anti-inflammatory medication. Furthermore, a reduction in (K+) and salt, as well as physical rest.[5]


Because nephritic syndrome is not a disease, the prognosis depends on the underlying etiology.The prognosis of NS in children due to post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is good.[10]


  1. ^ "acute nephritic syndrome" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b Schrier, Robert W. (2010-01-01). Renal and Electrolyte Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 560. ISBN 9781608310722. 
  4. ^ Krueger, Gerhard R. F.; Buja, L. Maximilian (2013-03-12). Atlas of Anatomic Pathology with Imaging: A Correlative Diagnostic Companion. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 287. ISBN 9781447128465. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Acute nephritic syndrome: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2015-10-27. 
  6. ^ a b Madara, Bernadette; Pomarico-Denino, Vanessa (2008-07-08). Quick Look Nursing: Pathophysiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 484. ISBN 9780763749323. 
  7. ^ Schrier, Robert W. (2008-10-01). Manual of Nephrology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 144–145. ISBN 9780781796194. 
  8. ^ Goodman, Catherine C.; Fuller, Kenda S. (2014-11-05). Pathology: Implications for the Physical Therapist. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 980. ISBN 9780323291224. 
  9. ^ "Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". 
  10. ^ "Acute Nephritis; Nephrosis; Nephritic syndrome information. Patient | Patient". Patient (in en-GB). Retrieved 2015-10-27. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]