|Hematuria(one of the symptoms of Nephritic syndrome)|
|Causes||Infectious, autoimmune, or thrombotic|
|Diagnostic method||Urinalysis, kidney biopsy|
Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome) is a syndrome comprising signs of nephritis, which is kidney disease involving inflammation. It often occurs in glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by a thin glomerular basement membrane and small pores in the podocytes of the glomerulus, large enough to permit proteins and red blood cells to pass into the urine (yielding proteinuria and hematuria). By contrast, nephrotic syndrome is characterized by only proteins moving into the urine. Nephritic syndrome, like nephrotic syndrome, may involve hypoalbuminemia due to the protein albumin moving from the blood to the urine.[medical citation needed]
Signs and symptoms
Historically, nephritic syndrome has been described to present with the classical triad of hematuria, hypertension and azotemia with subsequent renal failure. This triad contrast with the classical pentad of nephrotic syndrome (Edema, proteinuria, dyslipidemia, lipiduria and hypoalbuminemia)
Symptoms and signs of nephritic syndrome are consistent with:
- Hematuria (blood in the urine)
- Proteinuria < 3.5g/d (protein in the urine)
- Blurred vision
- Azotemia (increased blood Urea and Creatinine) 
- Oliguria (low urine output <400 ml/day)
Nephritic syndrome is caused by inflammation of glomerulus, and has urine waste; furthermore the cause can be infectious, autoimmune, or thrombotic. The causes can be divided between age groups as:
- IgA nephropathy
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Henoch–Schönlein purpura
The pathophysiology of nephritic syndrome is dependent on where damage is done by antibody-antigen complexes (in the glomerulus). In the case of IgA nephropathy, the glomerulus cannot filter IgA antibody-antigen, and this causes an inflammatory response, then release of cytokines (and growth factors), and finally results in glomerular scarring.
The classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome is post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which is a common complication of Streptococcus bacterial infections, typically of the skin. Among the tests done to diagnose if an individual has nephritic syndrome are: blood electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, potassium test, protein in the urine, urinalysis and kidney biopsy.
Treatment of nephritic syndrome is consistent with administration of antihypertensives and anti-inflammatory medication. Furthermore, treatment includes a reduction in potassium (K+) and salt, as well as physical rest.
Because nephritic syndrome is not a disease, the prognosis depends on the underlying cause. The prognosis of nephritic syndrome in children due to poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is good.
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