Nephrozoa

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Nephrozoa
Temporal range: Ediacaran - Present, 558–0 Ma
Animal diversity October 2007.jpg
Diversity of nephrozoans
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Clade: ParaHoxozoa
Clade: Bilateria
Clade: Nephrozoa
Jondelius et al. , 2002
Phyla
Synonyms

Eubilateria Peter Ax, 1987

Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species. Its sister clade is the Xenacoelomorpha. The Ambulacraria (conventionally deuterostomes) was formerly[dubious ] thought to be sister to the Xenacoelomorpha, forming the Xenambulacraria as basal Deuterostomes, or basal Bilateria invalidating Nephrozoa and Deuterostomes in earlier studies.[1][2][3] The coelom, the digestive tract and excretory organs, and nerve cords developed in the Nephrozoa.[4] It has been argued that, because protonephridia are only found in protostomes, they cannot be considered a synapomorphy of this group. This would make Nephrozoa an improper name, leaving Eubilateria as this clade's name.[5]

Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[6] It seems very likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a protostome.[7][8] If so, this means that the protostome and deuterostome lineages must have split some time before Kimberella appeared — at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago.[6]


Bilateria

Xenacoelomorpha Proporus sp.png

Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia

Chordata Cyprinus carpio3.jpg

525 mya
Ambulacraria

Echinodermata Portugal 20140812-DSC01434 (21371237591).jpg

Hemichordata Balanoglossus by Spengel 1893.png

Protostomia

Ecdysozoa Long nosed weevil edit.jpg

Spiralia Grapevinesnail 01.jpg

610 mya
650 mya

References[edit]

  1. ^ Philippe, Hervé; Poustka, Albert J.; Chiodin, Marta; Hoff, Katharina J.; Dessimoz, Christophe; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Schiffer, Philipp H.; et al. (2019). "Mitigating Anticipated Effects of Systematic Errors Supports Sister-Group Relationship between Xenacoelomorpha and Ambulacraria". Current Biology. 29 (11): 1818–1826.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.009. hdl:21.11116/0000-0004-DC4B-1. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31104936. S2CID 155104811.
  2. ^ Marlétaz, Ferdinand (2019-06-17). "Zoology: Worming into the Origin of Bilaterians". Current Biology. 29 (12): R577–R579. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.006. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31211978.
  3. ^ Kapli, Paschalia; Telford, Maximilian J. (11 Dec 2020). "Topology-dependent asymmetry in systematic errors affects phylogenetic placement of Ctenophora and Xenacoelomorpha". Science Advances. 6 (10). doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc5162. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  4. ^ Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas (2016). "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89–93. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...89C. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059. S2CID 205247296.
  5. ^ "Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Third Edition. By Claus Nielsen. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press ISBN: 978-0-19-960602-3 (hc); 978-0-19-960603-0 (pb). 2012". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 87 (3): 258. September 2012. doi:10.1086/666815. ISSN 0033-5770.
  6. ^ a b Erwin, Douglas H.; Eric H. Davidson (1 July 2002). "The last common bilaterian ancestor". Development. 129 (13): 3021–3032. PMID 12070079.
  7. ^ New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications (2007), "Fedonkin, M.A.; Simonetta, A; Ivantsov, A.Y.", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia (eds.), The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 157–179, doi:10.1144/SP286.12, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 156823511CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Butterfield, N.J. (December 2006). "Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale". BioEssays. 28 (12): 1161–6. doi:10.1002/bies.20507. PMID 17120226. S2CID 29130876.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]