Nerium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Nerium oleander)
Jump to: navigation, search
Nerium
Nerium oleander flowers leaves.jpg
Nerium oleander flower and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Apocynoideae
Tribe: Wrightieae
Genus: Nerium
L.
Species: N. oleander
Binomial name
Nerium oleander
L.
Synonyms[1][2]
  • Oleander Medik.
  • Nerion Tourn. ex St.-Lag.
  • Nerion oleandrum St.-Lag.
  • Nerium carneum Dum.Cours.
  • Nerium flavescens Spin
  • Nerium floridum Salisb.
  • Nerium grandiflorum Desf.
  • Nerium indicum Mill.
  • Nerium japonicum Gentil
  • Nerium kotschyi Boiss.
  • Nerium latifolium Mill.
  • Nerium lauriforme Lam.
  • Nerium luteum Nois. ex Steud.
  • Nerium madonii M.Vincent
  • Nerium mascatense A.DC.
  • Nerium odoratissimum Wender.
  • Nerium odoratum Lam.
  • Nerium odorum Aiton
  • Nerium splendens Paxton
  • Nerium thyrsiflorum Paxton
  • Nerium verecundum Salisb.
  • Oleander indica (Mill.) Medik.
  • Oleander vulgaris Medik.

Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈl.ændər/[3] is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It is most commonly known as nerium[4] or oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea.[Note 1] It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though southwest Asia has been suggested. The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name oualilt for the flower.[5] Oleander is one of the most poisonous commonly grown garden plants.

Etymology[edit]

The origins of the taxonomic name Nerium oleander, first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are disputed.[6] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant Nerion (νἠριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, 'neros' (νἠρος), because of the natural habitat of the Oleander along rivers and streams. Oleander is more problematic to source. Merriam-Webster believes it is a Medieval Latin corruption of either arodandrum, lorandrum (Late Latin), or more plausibly rhododendron (another Ancient Greek name for the plant), with the addition of Olea because of the superficial resemblance to the Olive tree.[7][8] Another theory posited is that Oleander is the Latinized form of a Greek compound noun: 'Ollyo' (ολλύω), which means 'I kill', and the Greek noun for man, 'aner' or 'andros' (άνἠρ, άνδρος).[9] This is because of the Oleander's toxicity to humans.

Description[edit]

Nerium oleander
Nerium Oleander(Red)
A seed follicles spreading seeds

Oleander grows to 2–6 m (6.6–19.7 ft) tall, with erect stems that splay outward as they mature; first-year stems have a glaucous bloom, while mature stems have a grayish bark. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical to Eudicots. Leaves are light green and very glossy when young, before maturing to a dull dark green/greenish gray. The flowers grow in clusters at the end of each branch; they are white, pink to red,[Note 2] 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) diameter, with a deeply 5-lobed fringed corolla round the central corolla tube. They are often, but not always, sweet-scented.[Note 3] The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles 5–23 cm (2.0–9.1 in) long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds.

Habitat and range[edit]

Oleander shrub, Morocco
Oleander growing wild in a Libyan Wadi (river valley)
Nerium Oleanders, in Galveston. Yellow is unusual

N. oleander is either native or naturalized to a broad area from Mauritania, Morocco, and Portugal eastward through the Mediterranean region and the Sahara (where it is only found sporadically), to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, and as far east as Yunnan in southern parts of China.[10][11][12][13] It typically occurs around stream beds in river valleys, where it can alternatively tolerate long seasons of drought and inundation from winter rains. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. On the East Coast of the US, it grows as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas miles of oleander shrubs are planted on median strips.[14] There are estimated to be 25 million Oleanders planted along highways and roadsides throughout the State of California.[15] Because of its durability, Oleander was planted prolifically on Galveston Island in Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of 1900. They are so prolific that Galveston is known as the 'Oleander City'; an annual Oleander festival is hosted every spring.[16]

Ecology[edit]

Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth (Syntomeida epilais) feed specifically on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. Larvae of the common crow butterfly (Euploea core) also feed on oleanders, and they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to would-be predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps.[citation needed]

The flowers require insect visits to set seed, and seem to be pollinated through a deception mechanism. The showy corolla acts as a potent advertisement to attract pollinators from a distance, but the flowers are nectarless and offer no reward to their visitors. They therefore receive very few visits, as typical of many rewardless flower species.[17][18] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated.

Ornamental gardening[edit]

Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk.[19] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[13] though the leaves may be damaged. The toxicity of Oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as such it is frequently planted as a hedge along property lines and in agricultural settings. The plant is tolerant of poor soils, intense heat, salt spray, and sustained drought – although it will flower and grow more vigorously with regular water. Although it does not require pruning to thrive and bloom, Oleander can become unruly with age and older branches tend to become gangly, with new growth emerging from the base. For this reason gardeners are advised to prune mature shrubs in the autumn to shape and induce lush new growth and flowering for the following spring.[20] Unless they wish to harvest the seeds, many gardeners choose to prune away the seedpods that form on spent flower clusters, which are a drain on energy.[20]

Oleander flowers are showy, profuse, and often fragrant, which makes them very attractive in many contexts. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colors not found in wild plants having been selected, including yellow, peach and salmon. Many cultivars, like Hawaii or Turner's Carnival, are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas.[21] However, the solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. Double flowered cultivars like Mrs Isadore Dyer, Mathilde Ferrier or Mont Blanc are enjoyed for their large, rose-like blooms and strong fragrance. There is also a variegated form, 'Variegata', featuring leaves striped in yellow and white.[20]

In Mediterranean climates Oleanders can be expected to bloom from April through October, with the heaviest bloom usually occurring between May and June. Free-flowering varieties like 'Petite Salmon' or 'Mont Blanc' require no period of rest and can flower continuously throughout the year if the weather remains warm. Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, which grow to only about 10 feet at maturity.[22]

Beyond the traditional Mediterranean and Subtropical range of Oleander, the plant can also be cultivated in mild Oceanic climates with the appropriate precautions. It is grown without protection in southern England and can reach great sizes in London and to a lesser extent in Paris[23] due to the Urban heat island effect.[24][25] This is also the case with North American cities in the Pacific Northwest like Portland, Seattle, and Vancouver. Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold, but will rebound from the roots.

Therapeutic efficacy[edit]

Drugs derived from N. oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer, unsuccessfully.[26][27] According to the American Cancer Society, the trials conducted so far have produced no evidence of benefit, while they did cause adverse side effects.[28] A company called Nerium International markets anti-aging creams with extract from the Oleander as the active ingredient; its efficacy has not been scientifically verified.[29]

Toxicity[edit]

Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in large amounts. Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested.

Toxicity studies of animals administered oleander extract concluded that rodents and birds were observed to be relatively insensitive to oleander cardiac glycosides.[30] Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication".[30][31][32]

Oleander is a common cause of poisoning and death[33] in tropical and subtropical countries, with 170 cases seen at a single hospital in Sri Lanka.[34][35] However, prognosis is good if the patient can reach a hospital in time; several common drugs can be used to stabilize the patient and counteract the glycosides.[36] In reviewing oleander toxicity cases seen in-hospital, Lanford and Boor[37] concluded that, except for children who might be at greater risk, "the human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of moderate intentional consumption (suicide attempts)".[37]

Effects of poisoning[edit]

Oleandrin, one of the toxins present in oleander

Ingestion of this plant can affect the gastrointestinal system, the heart, and the central nervous system. The gastrointestinal effects can consist of nausea and vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea that may contain blood, and especially in horses, colic.[12] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. Extremities may become pale and cold due to poor or irregular circulation. The effect on the central nervous system may show itself in symptoms such as drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death.[citation needed]

Oleander sap can cause skin irritations, severe eye inflammation and irritation, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis.[38]

Treatment[edit]

Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals.[38] Induced vomiting and gastric lavage are protective measures to reduce absorption of the toxic compounds. Charcoal may also be administered to help adsorb any remaining toxins.[12] Further medical attention may be required depending on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) until the toxin is excreted.[citation needed]

Digoxin immune fab is the best way to cure an oleander poisoning if inducing vomiting has no or minimal success, although it is usually used only for life-threatening conditions due to side effects.[citation needed]

Drying of plant materials does not eliminate the toxins. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle, and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse.[39] Plant clippings are especially dangerous to horses, as they are sweet. In July 2009, several horses were poisoned in this manner from the leaves of the plant.[40] Symptoms of a poisoned horse include severe diarrhea and abnormal heartbeat. There is a wide range of toxins and secondary compounds within oleander, and care should be taken around this plant due to its toxic nature. Different names for oleander are used around the world in different locations, so, when encountering a plant with this appearance, regardless of the name used for it, one should exercise great care and caution to avoid ingestion of any part of the plant, including its sap and dried leaves or twigs. The dried or fresh branches should not be used for spearing food, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the desert rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic.[citation needed]

Folklore[edit]

The alleged toxicity of the plant makes it the center of an urban legend documented on several continents and over more than a century. Often told as a true and local event, typically an entire family, or in other tellings a group of scouts, succumbs after consuming hot dogs or other food roasted over a campfire using oleander sticks.[41] Some variants tell of this happening to Napoleon's or Alexander the Great's soldiers.[42]

There is an ancient account mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History,[43] who described a region in Pontus in Turkey where the honey was poisoned from bees having pollinated poisonous flowers, with the honey left as a poisonous trap for an invading army.[44][45][46] The flowers have sometimes been mis-translated as Oleander,[47] but Oleander flowers are nectarless and therefore cannot transmit any toxins via nectar.[17] The actual flower referenced by Pliny was Azalea/Rhododendron, which is still used in Turkey to produce a hallucinogenic honey.[48]

Cultivation history[edit]

The first oleander planting in Galveston, Texas

Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. Some scholars believe it to be the rhodon (rose), also called the 'Rose of Jericho', mentioned in the Bible (Ecclesiastes XXIV, 13)[49] dating back to between 450 and 180 BC.[50] This is because no form of the traditional rose occurs in the wild in Palestine, but pink Oleander is common.

The ancient Greeks had several names for the plant, including rhododaphne, nerion, rhododendron and rhodon.[51] Pliny confirmed that the Romans had no Latin word for the plant, but used the Greek terms instead.[43]

A 2014 article in the medical journal Perspectives in Biology and Medicine posited that Oleander was the substance used to induce hallucinations in the Pythia, the female priestess of Apollo, also known as the Oracle of Delphi in Ancient Greece.[52] According to this theory, the symptoms of the Pythia's trances (enthusiasmos) correspond to either inhaling the smoke of or chewing small amounts of Oleander leaves, often called by the generic term laurel in Ancient Greece, which led to confusion with the bay laurel that ancient authors cite.


In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful".

The plant has a leaf like that of the almond, but smaller, and the flower is red like a rose. The plant itself (which loves hilly country) forms a large bush; the root is red and large, and, if this is dried, it gives off a fragrance like wine.

In another mention, of "wild bay" (Daphne agria), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub.[53]

Oleander was a very popular ornamental shrub in Roman peristyle gardens; it is one of the flora most frequently depicted on murals in Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy. These murals include the famous garden scene from the House of Livia at Prima Porta outside Rome, and those from the House of the Wedding of Alexander and the Marine Venus in Pompeii.[54]

Carbonized fragments of Oleander wood have been identified at the Villa Poppaea in Oplontis, likewise buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79.[9] They were found to have been planted in a decorative arrangement with lemon trees alongside the villa's swimming pool.

Leaf scorch[edit]

A bacterial disease known as oleander leaf scorch has become an extremely serious threat to the shrub since it was first noticed in Palm Springs, California, in 1992. The disease has since decimated hundreds of thousands of shrubs mainly in Southern California, but also on a smaller scale in Arizona, Nevada and Texas.[55][20] The culprit is a bacterium called Xylella fastidiosa, which is spread via insects (the glassy-winged sharpshooter primarily) who feed on the tissue of oleanders and spread the bacteria. This inhibits the circulation of water in the tissue of the plant, causing individual branches to die until the entire plant is consumed.

Symptoms of leaf scorch infection may be slow to manifest themselves, but it becomes evident when parts of otherwise healthy oleanders begin to yellow and wither, as if scorched by heat or fire. Die-back may cease during winter dormancy, but the disease flares up in summer heat when the plant is actively growing, allowing the bacteria to spread through the xylem of the plant. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[56] Pruning out affected parts can slow the progression of the disease but not eliminate it.[57] This malaise can continue for several years until the plant completely dies - there is no known cure.[15] The best method for preventing further spread of the disease is to prune infected oleanders to the ground immediately after the infection is noticed.

In art and culture[edit]

'Oleanders' by Vincent van Gogh
  • Janet Fitch's 1999 novel White Oleander is centered around a young Southern California girl's experiences growing up in foster care after her mother is imprisoned for poisoning an ex-boyfriend with the plant.[58] The book was adapted into a popular 2002 film starring Michelle Pfeiffer and Alison Lohman.
  • The rock band Oleander took its name from the plant because it lines miles of highways in the band's native Sacramento.[59]
  • Oleanders were famously referenced by the band Steely Dan in their song "My Old School."

Oleander has formed the subject matter of paintings by famous artists including:

  • Gustav Klimt, who painted "Two Girls with an Oleander" between 1890-92.[60]
  • Vincent Van Gogh painted his famous "Oleanders" in Arles in 1888. Van Gogh found the flowers "joyous" and "life-affirming" because of their inexhaustible blooms and vigour.[61]
  • Anglo-Dutch artist Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema incorporated Oleanders into his classically-inspired paintings, including "An Oleander" (1882), "Courtship", "Under the Roof of Blue Ionian Weather"[62] and "A Roman Flower Market" (1868).
  • "The Rehearsal of the Flute Player and the Wife of Diomedes in the Atrium of Prince Napoleon's Pompeian House in Paris" (1861) by Gustave Boulanger features potted Oleanders in a Roman period scene.

Willa Cather, in her book The Song of the Lark, mentions oleander in this passage:

This morning Thea saw to her delight that the two oleander trees, one white and one red, had been brought up from their winter quarters in the cellar. There is hardly a German family in the most arid parts of Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, but has its oleander trees. However loutish the American-born sons of the family may be, there was never one who refused to give his muscle to the back-breaking task of getting those tubbed trees down into the cellar in the fall and up into the sunlight in the spring. They may strive to avert the day, but they grapple with the tub at last.[63]

Oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima, having been the first to bloom following the atomic bombing of the city in 1945.[64]

It is the provincial flower of Sindh province.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cf. oleaster
  2. ^ The "Yellow Oleander" is Thevetia peruviana.
  3. ^ In the past, scented plants were sometimes treated as the distinct species N. odorum, but the character is not constant and it is no longer regarded as a separate taxon.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Farrar, Linda (2002). Ancient Roman Gardens. Budding Books. ISBN 1-84015-190-0. 
  • Wilhelmina F. Jashemski & Frederick G. Meyer (2002). The Natural History of Pompeii. Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0521800549. 
  • McClintock, John (1880). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. Baker Academic. p. 129–30. ISBN 9780801061233. 
  • A. F. Hort, tr. Theophrastus Inquiry into Plants. Loeb Classical Library. p. I.9.3, IX.19.1. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, entry for Nerium oleander". Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  2. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, entry for Nerium". Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. ^ Serra, Vital Garcia-Espana (2014). "Patent Nerium Plant New Cultivar". 
  5. ^ "Archaeological Site of Volubilis". African World Heritage Fund. Retrieved 2013-05-12. 
  6. ^ "Nerium". Atlas of Florida Plants. Retrieved 2017-05-07. 
  7. ^ "Oleander: Definition of Oleander". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-25. 
  8. ^ "Oleander (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-25. 
  9. ^ a b Wilhelmina F. Jashemski & Frederick G. Meyer (2002). The Natural History of Pompeii. p. 133. 
  10. ^ Pankhurst, R. (editor). Nerium oleander L. Flora Europaea. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  11. ^ Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, and D. J. Middleton. "Nerium oleander L.", Flora of China. Harvard University. Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
  12. ^ a b c INCHEM (2005). Nerium oleander L. (PIM 366). International Programme on Chemical Safety: INCHEM. Retrieved on 2009-07-27
  13. ^ a b Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. (eds.) (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  14. ^ Tony Bizjak (2015-04-09). "Will freeway oleander survive the drought?". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 2017-05-14. 
  15. ^ a b Ron Hamilton (2009-02-05). "Oleanders are Dying in San Diego". sandiegoreader.com. Retrieved 2017-08-19. 
  16. ^ http://oleander.org/oleander-history/
  17. ^ a b Herrera, Javier (1991). "The reproductive biology of a riparian Mediterranean shrub, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 106 (2): 147–72. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1991.tb02289.x. 
  18. ^ Shmida, A., Ivri, Y., and Cohen, D. The enigma of the oleander. Eretz VeTeva, January–February 1995 (in Hebrew).
  19. ^ "Oleander Culture". Internationaloleandersociety.org. Retrieved 2017-05-14. 
  20. ^ a b c d Kathleen Norris Brenzel (2007). Sunset Western Garden Book. p. 495. 
  21. ^ "Blooming Oleanders of the American Collection". Oleanderhaus.com. 
  22. ^ Linda French (1989-07-01). "Gardening : Nerium oleander : Petite oleanders: Evergreen drought-tolerant dwarf shrubs with showy flowers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2017-05-14. 
  23. ^ Alain Delavie (2016-08-07). "Paris côté jardin Archives de mots clés Laurier Rose". Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  24. ^ "Oleander". RHS Gardening. Retrieved 2017-06-10. 
  25. ^ Helen Yemm (2008-09-19). "Gardening Advice: Thorny problems". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-06-10. 
  26. ^ Henary, H. A; Kurzrock, R; Falchook, G. S; Naing, A; Moulder, S. L; Wheler, J. J; Tsimberidou, A. M; Durand, J; Yang, P; Johansen, M. J; Newman, R; Khan, R; Patel, U; Hong, D. S (2011). "Final results of a first-in-human phase I trial of PBI-05204, an inhibitor of AKT, FGF-2, NF-Kb, and p70S6K in advanced cancer patients". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29 (15_suppl): 3023. doi:10.1200/jco.2011.29.15_suppl.3023. 
  27. ^ Newman, R. A; Yang, P; Pawlus, A. D; Block, K. I (2008). "Cardiac Glycosides as Novel Cancer Therapeutic Agents". Molecular Interventions. 8 (1): 36–49. doi:10.1124/mi.8.1.8. PMID 18332483. 
  28. ^ "Oleander Leaf". American Cancer Society. Retrieved April 2013.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)[dead link]
  29. ^ "Nerium Research and Development". Retrieved 2017-07-21. [dead link]
  30. ^ a b Szabuniewicz, M; Schwartz, WL; McCrady, JD; Camp, BJ (1972). "Experimental oleander poisoning and treatment". Southwestern Veterinarian. 25 (2): 105–14. 
  31. ^ Szabuniewicz, M; McCrady, J. D; Camp, B. J (1971). "Treatment of experimentally induced oleander poisoning". Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie. 189 (1): 12–21. PMID 5167071. 
  32. ^ Hougen, T. J; Lloyd, B. L; Smith, T. W (1979). "Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation transport in the dog". Circulation research. 44 (1): 23–31. PMID 758230. 
  33. ^ Rajapakse, S (2009). "Management of yellow oleander poisoning". Clinical Toxicology. 47 (3): 206–12. doi:10.1080/15563650902824001. PMID 19306191. 
  34. ^ Saravanapavananthan, N; Ganeshamoorthy, J (1988). "Yellow oleander poisoning--a study of 170 cases". Forensic science international. 36 (3–4): 247–50. PMID 3350448. 
  35. ^ Brewster, D (1986). "Herbal poisoning: A case report of a fatal yellow oleander poisoning from the Solomon Islands". Annals of tropical paediatrics. 6 (4): 289–91. PMID 2435239. 
  36. ^ Shaw, D; Pearn, J (1979). "Oleander poisoning". The Medical journal of Australia. 2 (5): 267–9. PMID 92752. 
  37. ^ a b Langford, Shannon D; Boor, Paul J (1996). "Oleander toxicity: An examination of human and animal toxic exposures". Toxicology. 109 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/0300-483X(95)03296-R. PMID 8619248. 
  38. ^ a b Goetz, Rebecca. J. (1998). "Oleander". Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets. Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  39. ^ Knight, A. P. (1999). "Guide to Poisonous Plants: Oleander". Colorado State University. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  40. ^ Trevino, Monica (2009). "Dozens of horses poisoned at California farm". CNN. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  41. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara (2011-07-31). "Oleander Poisoning: snopes.com". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  42. ^ Poisonous Plants of California (California Natural History Guides) Thomas C. Fuller and Elizabeth McClintock[page needed]
  43. ^ a b Pliny. Natural History. p. 24.90. 
  44. ^ Pliny. Natural History. p. 21.77. 
  45. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=FjHW2VXQVCwC&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160&dq=honey+pliny+pontus&source=bl&ots=MrZK7OKH4_&sig=Ri1sGhyzKWBzXySrKTDrInsXhcM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjN_8Pd77rXAhWqjFQKHW1DA-gQ6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=honey%20pliny%20pontus&f=false[full citation needed]
  46. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=hF0GAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA384&lpg=PA384&dq=honey+pliny+pontus&source=bl&ots=RDVvToa_H0&sig=Lydmw8WnXLvPOfZbut4lFANMrY8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjN_8Pd77rXAhWqjFQKHW1DA-gQ6AEILjAC#v=onepage&q=honey%20pliny%20pontus&f=false[full citation needed]
  47. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=3xfjyTqqR7IC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=honey+pliny+pontus+oleander&source=bl&ots=sN_JA2Litc&sig=ocGJdnSfcTqamGEH4KwY2qc3I4o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjd7ZqY8brXAhUijFQKHQ3mCqUQ6AEIODAG#v=onepage&q=honey%20pliny%20pontus%20oleander&f=false[full citation needed]
  48. ^ https://modernfarmer.com/2014/09/strange-history-hallucinogenic-mad-honey/[full citation needed]
  49. ^ Ecclesiasticus XXXIV, 13. 
  50. ^ John McClintock (1880). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. p. 129–30. 
  51. ^ John McClintock (1880). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. p. 129. 
  52. ^ Haralampos Harissis. "A Bittersweet Story: The True Nature of the Laurel of the Oracle of Delphi". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. p. 351-60. 
  53. ^ Theophrastus. Inquiry into Plants, A. F. Hort, tr. Loeb Classical Library. pp. I.9.3, IX.19.1. 
  54. ^ Farrar, Linda (1998).'Ancient Roman Gardens,' 141-2,143-9.
  55. ^ U.C. Master Gardeners (1998-11-21). "How to Battle Oleander Leaf Scorch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2017-05-14. 
  56. ^ Laura Murphy (2007-09-27). "Oleanders under attack" (PDF). UA College of Agricultural & Life Sciences. Retrieved 2017-05-14. 
  57. ^ "Oleander Leaf Scorch". University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources. 2008-04. Retrieved 2017-05-14.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  58. ^ "White Oleander". Oprah.com. 1999-05-06. Retrieved 2017-06-08. 
  59. ^ "Oleander (band)". Wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2017-06-08. 
  60. ^ "Gustav Klimt, Two Girls With An Oleander". Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. 
  61. ^ "Oleanders". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2017-06-08. 
  62. ^ Russell Ash (1992). Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Harry Abrams. 
  63. ^ Cather, Willa (1915). "IV". The Song of the Lark. Project Gutenberg. p. 26. 
  64. ^ http://arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/articles/892.pdf[full citation needed]

External links[edit]