Nero Julius Caesar

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Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus
Retrat de Neró Cèsar.jpg
Born c. AD 6
Died AD 31(or 30)
Ponza
Burial Mausoleum of Augustus
Spouse Julia
House Julio-Claudian dynasty
Father Germanicus
Mother Agrippina the Elder

Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus (c. AD 6–31) was the adopted son and heir of Tiberius, alongside his brother Drusus.

Nero was born into the prominent Julio-Claudian dynasty the son of Tiberius' general and heir, Germanicus. Nero was adopted together with his brother Drusus following the death of Tiberius' son Drusus the Younger in September AD 23. He was the heir of Tiberius until his exile by the powerful Praetorian Prefect Sejanus in AD 29. In AD 31, he died in exile on the island of Ponza. His brother Drusus also died in exile in AD 33. Their deaths allowed for the adoption and ascension of their brother, Gaius Caligula, following the death of Tiberius in AD 37.

Background and family[edit]

Nero was born around AD 6 to Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. Nero's paternal grandparents were Nero Claudius Drusus (Drusus the Elder) and Antonia Minor, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. His maternal grandparents were Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a close friend of Augustus, and Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder. Nero had seven siblings: four brothers (Tiberius and Gaius Julius, who died young; Drusus Caesar; and Gaius, nicknamed "Caligula") and three sisters (Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla).[1]

As a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was a close relative of all five Julio-Claudian emperors: his great-grandfather Augustus was the first emperor of the dynasty, his great-uncle Tiberius was the second emperor, his brother Gaius (Caligula) was the third emperor, his uncle Claudius was the fourth emperor, and his nephew Lucius Domitius (Nero) was the fifth and final emperor of the dynasty.[1]

His father was the adopted son of Tiberius, who was himself the adoptive son of Augustus, whose adoptions were the result of the death of Gaius Caesar in February AD 4. Gaius, who was the heir of Augustus, had died of illness in Syria. Germanicus was for some time considered the new heir by Augustus, but Augustus later decided in favor of his stepson Tiberius. As a result, in June AD 4, Augustus adopted Tiberius on the condition that Tiberius first adopt Germanicus. As a corollary to the adoption, Germanicus was wed to his second cousin Agrippina the Elder the following year.[1][2][3]

In AD 13 his father was appointed commander of the forces on the Rhine, from where he led three campaigns into Germany against the forces of Arminius, which had made him popular as he avenged the Roman defeat at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. In October AD 14, Germanicus received a delegation from the Senate giving it's condolences for the death of Augustus. Augustus had died in August and Tiberius became emperor, making Germanicus heir to the empire.[4][5] At the direction of Tiberius, Germanicus was dispatched to Asia to reorganize the provinces and assert imperial authority there. However, after two years in the east, Germanicus came at odds with the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso. During their feud, Germanicus fell ill and died in October AD 19.[6]

In 20, Nero married Julia (daughter of Drusus the Younger), daughter of Livilla and Drusus the Younger (Tiberius' only son by Vipsania Agrippina).[7] Though in his father's life he was betrothed to the daughter of Creticus Silanus, one-time governor of Syria.[8]

Career[edit]

Nero (on the left), saluting Tiberius (seated, on the right)(detail of the Great Cameo of France).

His mother Agrippina believed her husband was murdered to promote Drusus the Younger as heir, and feared that the birth of his twin sons would give him motive to displace her own sons. However, her fears were unfounded, with Nero being elevated by Tiberius. On 7 June AD 20, Nero was brought into the forum to receive the toga virilis, introduced into the Senate by Tiberius and Drusus the Younger, and was promised the office of quaestor five years in advance. He was excused from holding the lowest magistracy, the vigintivirate, and a congiaria of 60 denarii was distributed by Tiberius at his tirocinium. He was wed to Drusus the Younger's daughter, Julia, later that year[9] combining the families of both possible lines of succession (that of Germanicus and Drusus the Younger).[10] His brother Drusus was introduced to the Senate with similar honors in AD 23, and he too was promised the rank of quaestor five years in advance.[9][11][12]

Heir to the principate[edit]

Following the death of Germanicus, Drusus the Younger was Tiberius' new heir. He received a second consulship in AD 21 and tribunicia potestas (tribunician power) in AD 22.[9][13] At the same time, Praetorian Prefect Sejanus now came to exert considerable influence over the emperor, who referred to Sejanus as Socius Laborum ("my partner in my toils").[14] According to Tacitus and Cassius Dio, the Younger Drusus and Sejanus began bickering and entered a feud during which Drusus became ill and died of seemingly natural causes on 14 September 23.[15][16] Ancient sources say the cause of death was poison, whereas modern authors like Barbara Levick are more critical suggesting it may have been illness.[17]

The death of the Younger Drusus left no immediate threat to Sejanus. Ultimately, his death elevated Nero and his brother Drusus to the position of heirs. Essentially, this formed factions around them and their mother Agrippina on the one side and Sejanus on the other. It is impossible to know the full extent of Sejanus' power at this point, but it has been noted that Sejanus was not allowed to marry Livilla (Drusus the Younger's widow) and was thus denied entry into the imperial family.[18] Sejanus encountered little opposition from the Senate, and Tiberius expressed displeasure in the Senate, in AD 24, at the public prayers which had been offered for Nero and his brother Drusus' health.[19]

In 28, the Senate voted that altars to Clementia (mercy) and Amicitia (friendship) be raised. At that time, Clementia was considered a virtue of the ruling class, for only the powerful could give clemency. The altar of Amicitia was flanked by statues of Sejanus and Tiberius.[20] By this time his association with Tiberius was such that there were even those in Roman society who erected statues in his honor and gave prayers and sacrifices in his honor.[21] Like members of the imperial family, Sejanus' birthday was to be honored. According to author and historian Alston, "Sejanus' association with Tiberius must have at least indicated to the people that he would be further elevated."[18]

Downfall[edit]

The very next year saw a direct attack on Agrippina and Nero: Tiberius sent a letter to the Senate in which he accused Agrippina and Nero of misconduct, but was unable to convict them of any attempt at rebellion; the attitude of the former and the sexual activity of the latter were the primary accusations against them. Agrippina was popular with the people, as was the family of Germanicus, and the people surrounded the senate-house carrying likenesses of the two in protest of the letter.[22] The Senate refused to come to a resolution on the matter until it received plain direction from the emperor to do so.[23] Tiberius found it necessary to repeat his charges, and when he did, the Senate no longer delayed; and the fate of Agrippina and Nero was sealed. Nero was declared an enemy of the state, removed to the island of Pontia, and was killed or encouraged to kill himself in 31. According to Suetonius, he put an end to his own life when the executioner appeared before him with the instruments of death.[19][18][24]

Post mortem[edit]

His brother Drusus was later also exiled on similar charges of sexual misdemeanors.[25][26] Sejanus remained powerful until his sudden downfall and summary execution in October AD 31, just after the death of Nero, the exact reasons for this remain unclear.[27][28]

The deaths of Germanicus' oldest sons elevated his third son, Gaius Caesar (Caligula), to successor and he became princeps when Tiberius died in AD 37.[29] Drusus the Younger's son Tiberius Gemellus was summoned to Capri by his father Tiberius, where he and Gaius Caligula were made joint-heirs.[30] When Caligula assumed power, he made Gemellus his adopted son, but Caligula soon had Gemellus killed for plotting against him.[31]

In 37, Nero's bones were returned to Rome and interred at the Mausoleum of Augustus by Caligula.[28]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Salisbury 2001, p. 3
  2. ^ Swan 2004, p. 142
  3. ^ Levick 1999, p. 33
  4. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.3
  5. ^ Levick 1999, pp. 50–53
  6. ^ Lott 2012, pp. 342–343
  7. ^ Tacitus, The Annals III.29
  8. ^ Tacitus, The Annals II.43
  9. ^ a b c Levick 1999, p. 124
  10. ^ Shotter 1992, p. 49
  11. ^ Seager 2005, p. 100
  12. ^ Rowe 2002, p. 87
  13. ^ Rowe 2002, p. 41
  14. ^ Tacitus, Annals, IV.2
  15. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LVIII.11
  16. ^ Tacitus, Annals, IV.8
  17. ^ Levick 1999, p. 127
  18. ^ a b c Alston 1998, p. 42
  19. ^ a b Smith 1880, p. 1166
  20. ^ Tacitus, Annals, IV.74
  21. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LVIII.2
  22. ^ Rowe 2002, p. 99
  23. ^ Tacitus, Annals, V.3-4
  24. ^ Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 54
  25. ^ Alston 1998, p. 43
  26. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LVIII.3
  27. ^ Bingham 1999, p. 66
  28. ^ a b Bunson 2014, p. 388
  29. ^ Adams 2007, p. 109
  30. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 76
  31. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 23

Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

Portraiture[edit]

  • Rose, Charles Brian, Dynastic Commemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period. Cambridge, 1997, nr. 17, pp. 66–67.