||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2010)|
|Archbishop of Constantinople|
Germanicia, Syria (now Kahramanmaraş, Turkey)
Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah), Egypt
|Venerated in||Assyrian Church of the East|
|Servant of God
Germanicia, Syria (now Kahramanmaraş, Turkey)
Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah), Egypt
|Occupation||Monk, Archbishop of Constantinople|
|Known for||Christological Controversy, Nestorian Schism|
|Title||Servant of God|
Venerated in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
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Nestorius (//; in Greek: Νεστόριος; c. 386 – 450) was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 until August 431, when the emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June. His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, and were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was truly God. This brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, whom he accused of heresy.
Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431, but instead he found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and subsequently removed from his see. On his own request he retired to his former monastery in or near Antioch. In 435 Theodosius II sent him into exile in Upper Egypt, where he lived on until 450, strenuously defending his orthodoxy. His last major defender within the Roman Empire, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, finally agreed to anathematize him in 451 during the Council of Chalcedon; from then on he had no defenders within the empire. But the Church of the East never accepted his condemnation. This led later to western Christians giving the name Nestorian Church to the Church of the East, even though it never regarded him as an authoritative teacher. The discovery and publication of his Book of Heraclides at the beginning of the 20th century led to a reassessment of his theology in western scholarship. It is now generally agreed that his ideas were not far from those that eventually emerged as orthodox, but the orthodoxy of his formulation of the doctrine of Christ is still controversial. This is because the Second Council of Constantinople of AD 553 confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without the due inquiry.
Sources place the birth of Nestorius in either 381 or 386 in Germanicia in the Roman province of Syria (now Kahramanmaraş in Turkey). He received his clerical training as a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch. He was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, and gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II as Patriarch of Constantinople following the death of Sisinnius I in 428.
Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those that emphasized the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man and insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos (Greek: Θεοτόκος, "God-bearer"), and those that rejected that title because God as an eternal being could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos (Χριστοτόκος, "Christ-bearer"), but did not find acceptance on either side.
"Nestorianism" refers to the doctrine that there are two separate hypostases in the Incarnate Christ, the one Divine and the other human. The teaching of all those churches which accept the Council of Ephesus is that in the Incarnate Christ is a single hypostasis, at once God and man. This latter doctrine is known as the Hypostatic union. Nestorius's opponents charged him with detaching Christ's divinity and humanity into two persons existing in one body, thereby denying the reality of the Incarnation. It is not clear whether Nestorius actually taught this.
Eusebius, a layman who later became the bishop of the neighbouring Dorylaeum, was the first to accuse Nestorius of heresy but his most forceful opponent was Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria. All this naturally caused great excitement at Constantinople, especially among the clergy, who were clearly not well disposed towards the stranger from Antioch. Cyril appealed to Celestine of Rome to make a decision, and Celestine delegated to Cyril the job of excommunicating Nestorius if he did not change his teachings in ten days.
Nestorius had arranged with the emperor in the summer of 430 for the assembling of a council. He now hastened it on, and the summons had been issued to patriarchs and metropolitans on 19 Nov., before the pope's sentence, delivered though Cyril of Alexandria, had been served on Nestorius. Emperor Theodosius II convoked a general church council, sited at Ephesus, itself a special seat for the veneration of Mary, where the Theotokos formula was popular. The Emperor and his wife supported Nestorius while Pope Celestine I supported Cyril.
Cyril took charge of the First Council of Ephesus in 431, opening debate before the long-overdue contingent of Eastern bishops from Antioch arrived. The council deposed Nestorius and declared him a heretic.
In Nestorius' own words,
When the followers of Cyril saw the vehemence of the emperor... they roused up a disturbance and discord among the people with an outcry, as though the emperor were opposed to God; they rose up against the nobles and the chiefs who acquiesced not in what had been done by them and they were running hither and thither. And... they took with them those who had been separated and removed from the monasteries by reason of their lives and their strange manners and had for this reason been expelled, and all who were of heretical sects and were possessed with fanaticism and with hatred against me. And one passion was in them all, Jews and pagans and all the sects, and they were busying themselves that they should accept without examination the things which were done without examination against me; and at the same time all of them, even those that had participated with me at table and in prayer and in thought, were agreed... against me and vowing vows one with another against me... In nothing were they divided.
But while the council was in progress, John I of Antioch and the eastern bishops arrived, and were furious to hear that Nestorius had already been condemned. They convened their own synod, at which Cyril was deposed. Both sides then appealed to the emperor. Initially, the imperial government ordered both Nestorius and Cyril deposed and exiled. Nestorius was bidden to return to his monastery at Antioch, and Maximian was consecrated Archbishop of Constantinople in his place. Cyril was eventually allowed to return after bribing various courtiers.
In the following months, 17 bishops who supported Nestorius' doctrine were removed from their sees. Eventually, John I of Antioch was obliged to abandon Nestorius in March 433. On August 3, 435, Theodosius II issued an imperial edict that exiled Nestorius from the monastery in Antioch in which he had been staying to a monastery in the Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah), in Egypt, securely within the diocese of Cyril. The monastery suffered attacks by desert bandits, and Nestorius was injured in one such raid. Nestorius seems to have survived there until at least 450 (given the evidence of The Book of Heraclides), though we have no knowledge of when after this date he died.
Very few of Nestorius' writings survive. There are several letters preserved in the records of the Council of Ephesus, and fragments of a few others; about thirty sermons are extant, mostly in fragmentary form. The only complete treatise we have is the lengthy defence of his theological position, called The Bazaar of Heraclides, written in exile at the Oasis, which survives in Syriac translation. This must have been written no earlier than 450, as he knows of the death of the Emperor Theodosius II (29 July 450).
Though Nestorius had been condemned by the church, including by Assyrians, there remained a faction loyal to him and his teachings. Following the Nestorian Schism and the relocation of many Nestorian Christians to Persia, Nestorian thought became ingrained in the native Christian community, known as the Church of the East, to the extent that it was often known as the "Nestorian Church". In modern times the Assyrian Church of the East, a modern descendant of the historical Church of the East, reveres Nestorius as a saint, although the modern church does not subscribe to the entirety of the Nestorian doctrine as it has traditionally been understood in the West. Parts of the doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV on the occasion of his accession in 1976.
During the process of restoration of the Syro-Malabar Qurbana in 1957, Pope Pius XII of Rome requested the restoration of the Anaphorae of Mar Theodore and Mar Nestorius. The Syro-Malabar Church had historically made use of the Anaphora of Mar Nestorius until it was forcibly Latinized by the Portuguese against the expressed will of the Pope.
In the Roman Empire, the doctrine of Monophysitism developed in reaction to Nestorianism. This new doctrine asserted that Christ had but one nature, his human nature being absorbed into his divinity. This doctrine was condemned at the Council of Chalcedon, and misattributed to the non-Chalcedonian Churches. Today it is condemned as heresy in the modern Oriental Orthodox churches.
Bazaar of Heracleides
In 1895, a 16th-century book manuscript containing a copy of a text written by Nestorius was discovered by American missionaries in the library of the Nestorian patriarch in the mountains at Konak, Hakkari. This book had suffered damage during Muslim raids, but was substantially intact, and copies were taken secretly. The Syriac translation had the title of the Bazaar of Heracleides. The original 16th-century manuscript was destroyed in 1915 during the Turkish massacres of Assyrian Christians. Edition of this work is primarily to be attributed to the German scholar, Friedrich Loofs, of Halle University.
In the Bazaar, written about 451, Nestorius denies the heresy for which he was condemned and instead affirms of Christ "the same one is twofold"—an expression that some consider similar to the formulation of the Council of Chalcedon. Nestorius' earlier surviving writings, however, including his letter written in response to Cyril's charges against him, contain material that has been interpreted by some to imply that at that time he held that Christ had two persons. Others view this material as merely emphasising the distinction between how the pre-incarnate Logos is the Son of God and how the incarnate Emmanuel, including his physical body, is truly called the Son of God.
- Nestorius Ecumenical Patriarchate
- Anathematism XIV, Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Decreta
- Andrew Louth, 'John Chrysostom to Theodoret of Cyrrhus', in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p348, states 381; Nestorius – Britannica Online Encyclopedia states 386. Both are based on Socrates Scholasticus 7.29, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf202.ii.x.xxix.html.
- "Nestorius", Oxford Reference
- Chapman, John. "Nestorius and Nestorianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 21 Jan. 2014
- John I., McEnerney (1998). St. Cyril of Alexandria Letters 51–110. Fathers of the Church Series 77. Catholic University of America Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8132-1514-3.
- Andrew Louth, 'John Chrysostom to Theodoret of Cyrrhus', in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p348
- Andrew Louth, 'John Chrysostom to Theodoret of Cyrrhus', in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p. 349.
- There is an English translation of this work, Godfrey Rolles Driver and L. Hodgson, trans., Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heraclides, (Oxford, 1925), but it is notoriously inaccurate. The older French translation by F. Nau, La livre d'Héraclide de Damas, avec la concours du R. P. Bedjan et de M. Brière: suivi du texte grec des trois Homélies de Nestorius sur les tentations de Notre-Seigneur, et de trois appendices, Lettre à Cosme, Présents envoyés d'Alexandrie, Lettre de Nestorius aux habitants de Constantinople, 1969 reprint, Farnborough, England: Gregg International Publishers, is a better substitute.
- Henry Hill, Light from the East, (Toronto Canada: Anglican Book Centre, 1988) p107.
- Artemi, Eirini,«Τό μυστήριο της Ενανθρωπήσεως στούς δύο διαλόγους «ΠΕΡΙ ΤΗΣ ΕΝΑΝΘΡΩΠΗΣΕΩΣ ΤΟΥ ΜΟΝΟΓΕΝΟΥΣ» και «ΟΤΙ ΕΙΣ Ο ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ» του Αγίου Κυρίλλου Αλεξανδρείας», in Εκκλησιαστικός Φάρος, ΟΕ (2004), 145–277.
- St. Cyril of Alexandria: The Christological Controversy ISBN 0-88141-259-7 by John Anthony McGuckin—includes a history of the Council of Ephesus and an analysis of Nestorius' Christology.
- Edward Walford, translator, The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius: A History of the Church from AD 431 to AD 594, 1846. Reprinted 2008. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-88-6. http://www.evolpub.com/CRE/CREseries.html#CRE5—includes an account of the exile and death of Nestorius, along with correspondence purportedly written by Nestorius to Theodosius II.
- Bishoy Youssef (2011). "Lecture II: The Nature of Our Lord Jesus Christ." http://www.suscopts.org/messages/lectures/christlecture2.pdf
- Seleznyov, Nikolai N., "Nestorius of Constantinople: Condemnation, Suppression, Veneration, with special reference to the role of his name in East-Syriac Christianity" in: Journal of Eastern Christian Studies 62:3–4 (2010): 165–190.
- From Orthodoxwiki.org
- Dialogue between the Syrian and Assyrian Churches from the Coptic Church
- The Coptic Church's View Concerning Nestorius
- English translation of the Bazaar of Heracleides.
- Writing of Nestorius
- "The lynching of Nestorius" by Stephen M. Ulrich, concentrates on the political pressures around the Council of Ephesus and analyzes the rediscovered Bazaar of Nestorius.
- The Person and Teachings of Nestorius of Constantinople by Mar Bawai Soro.
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