Nasu language

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Nasu
Eastern Yi
Native to China
Ethnicity Nasu (Yi)
Native speakers
1.0 million (2007)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Pollard script, Yi script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
ywq – Nasu (Wulu)
ygp – Gepo (Köpu)
yig – Wusa Nasu
ywu – Wumeng Nasu
Glottolog wudi1238  Wuding-Luquan Yi = Wulu[2]
gepo1234  Gepo[3]
nesu1235  Nesu = Wusa–Wumeng[4]

Nasu (Naisu, Eastern Yi), or Nasu proper, is a Loloish language spoken by a quarter million Yi people of China. Nasu proper and Wusa Nasu are two of six Yi languages recognized by the government of China. Unlike most written Yi languages, Nasu proper uses the Pollard (Miao) script. A distinct form of the Yi script was traditionally used for Wusa, though few can still read it.

Names[edit]

According to the Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002),[5] Yi autonyms include Nasu 哪苏,[6] Tusu 兔苏,[7] Lagou 腊勾,[8] Guo 果,[9] and so forth.

Most of Yi people of the Luquan area do not have the autonym Luoluo and Nasu (transliterasted into Chinese as 纳苏) means "black", hence the Black Yi (黑彝 Hei Yi),[10] though Black Yi is an aristocratic caste distinction among the Yi People, and Black Yi Script (Heiyiwen) was a Latin script for Yi introduced by missionaries.[11]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Guangxi[edit]

Epo 峨颇 (autonyms: ŋo33 phu21, ŋo33) is an Eastern Yi language variety spoken by about 8,000 people in the following villages of Longlin, Napo, and Xilin counties in western Guangxi.[12]

  • Longlin County (5,000+ people)
    • De'e Township 德峨乡: Agao 阿稿 (main datapoint), Nadi 那地, Zhebang 者帮, Nongbao 弄保, Tangshi 塘石, etc. in 10 villages total
    • scattered in the townships of Zhelang 者浪, Zhuchang 猪场, Changfa 场发, Kechang 克场, and Yancha 岩茶
  • Napo County (2,000+ people): Dala 达腊, Zhexiang 者祥, Nianbi 念毕, Powu 坡五, etc.
  • Xilin County (about 1,000 people): Bada Town 八达镇 (Yanla 岩腊 village, etc.)

Classification[edit]

Chen (1985)[edit]

Chen, et al. (1985:108) recognizes 3 major varieties of Eastern Yi (i.e., Nasu) that are spoken in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, namely Dianqian 滇黔 (Yunnan-Guizhou), Pan 盘县 (Pan County of Guizhou), and Diandongbei 滇东北 (Northeastern Yunnan).[13] Autonyms include no55 su55 (alternatively nɤ55 su13), na33 su33 pho55 (including na33 so33 pho55, nɤ55 su33 phu55, and ni55 su33 phu55), nɒ55 pho55, and ko33 pho55.

  • Dianqian 滇黔次方言: 4 dialects
    • Shuixi 水西土语: spoken in Bijie, Qianxi, Dafang, Zhijin, Nayong, Qingzhen, and Zhenxiong counties
    • Wusa 乌撒土语 (ISO 639 yig): spoken in Weining, Shuicheng, Hezhang, Nayong, Yiliang, Huize, and Xuanwei counties
    • Mangbu 芒部土语: spoken in Zhenxiong and Hezhang counties
    • Wumeng 乌蒙土语 (ISO 639 ywu): spoken in Zhaotong and Yongshan counties
  • Pan 盘县次方言: spoken in Xingren, Pu'an, Qinglong, Shuicheng, Fuyuan, and Luoping counties
  • Diandongbei 滇东北次方言: 5 dialects
    • Luquan 武禄土语: spoken in Wuding, Luquan, Yuanmou, Xundian, Lufeng, and Huize counties
    • Qiaowu 巧武土语 (Qiaojia-Wuding): spoken in Qiaojia, Wuding, Luquan, Yuanmou, and Huize counties
    • Wuding 武定土语: spoken in Wuding, Yongren, and Lufeng counties
    • Xundian 寻甸土语: spoken in Xundian, Luquan, Huize, Songming, Luxi, Shizong, Luoping, and Mile counties
    • Kun'an 昆安土语 (Kunming-Anning): spoken in Anning and Lufeng counties

Huang (1993)[edit]

In his description of the Yi script (not the spoken language) Huáng Jiànmíng (1993) holds that the Nasu variety of Yi script is used by the groups speaking languages of the Nasu language cluster of Northern Yi in south-eastern Sìchuān, eastern Yúnnán, Gùizhōu, as well as in Guǎngxī.[14] He distinguishes two sub-groups. Nasu proper used in Wuding, Luquan and the suburbs of Kunming, and Wusa used in Guizhou and the bordering areas of Eastern Yunnan.

Bradley (1997)[edit]

David Bradley (1997) distinguishes three main dialects of Nasu:

  • Southeastern (Panxian): 150,000 speakers in southwestern Guizhou
  • Northeastern (Nesu): 300,000 speakers, comprising most of the other Nasu speakers of Guizhou, and some in extreme northeastern Yunnan and southeastern Sichuan
    • Shuixi subdialect 水西土语
    • Wusa subdialect 乌撒土语
    • Mangbu subdialect 芒部土语
    • Wumeng subdialect 乌蒙土语
  • Western (Nasu proper): 250,000 speakers all in north-central Yunnan; Black (more numerous) and Red subdialects

Lama (2012)[edit]

Lama (2012) determined that Nasu (Western) is more closely related to Gepo than it is to the others:

  • Nesu
    • Panxian (Nasepho, na˧su˧pʰo˥): North and South dialects
    • Shuixi Nesu (Dafang Nesu)
    • Nesu proper
      • Wumeng
      • Mangbu
      • Wusa (Wusa Nasu)
  • Nasu
    • Nasu proper
    • Gepo (ko˧pʰu˦): 100,000 speakers

Chen (2010)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nasu (Wulu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Gepo (Köpu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Wusa Nasu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Wumeng Nasu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Wuding-Luquan Yi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gepo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nesu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  6. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/N/NasuWusa.pdf
  7. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/T/Tushu.pdf
  8. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/L/Lagou.pdf
  9. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/G/Guopu.pdf
  10. ^ 彝族文化研究文集 1988 - Page 100 "西一带的彝族,仍有自称为"罗罗"。同时,男人自称"罗颇" ,女人自称"罗摩"。前述流行《四方八虎"图的滇东北武定、禄劝一带大多数彝族,虽己没有"罗罗》之自称,而从彝族尚黑祟虎的传统中,咯虎取黑以自称"纳苏"为《黑人"或《黑族" (彝语《纳"义为黑、大、深、 ...
  11. ^ 黃新宪 基督敎敎育与中国社会变迁 福建教育出版社, 1996. ISBN, 7533422732, 9787533422738. 1996 Page 173 "... 这对民族区域的社会变迁具有十分积极的意义。首先,提高了少数民族地区的总体文化水平。据 1951 年对滇北武定区的调查表明,聚居于各县山谷中的苗族 9 / 10 能看能写外国传教士用拉丁字母拼写的苗文;分布在山谷中的黑彝和傈傈族,凡参加基甘教者都懂传教士用拉丁字母拼写的黑彝文和栗栗文。
  12. ^ Li Shengfu 李生福. 2007. 彝语峨颇话概况. 《民族语文》2007年第6期.
  13. ^ Chen Shilin [陈士林], et al. 1985. Yiyu jianzhi [彝语简志]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  14. ^ Nathan Hill Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages IV 2012- Page 450 "The Nasu variety is used by the groups speaking languages of the Nasu language cluster of Northern Yi in the south-eastern part of Sìchuān, the eastern part of Yúnnán, Gùizhōu, as well as in Guǎngxī. Huáng Jiànmíng (1993: 152)"

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bradley, David (1997). "Tibeto-Burman languages and classification". In Tibeto-Burman languages of the Himalayas, Papers in South East Asian linguistics. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Chen Kang [陈康]. 2010. A study of Yi dialects [彝语方言研究]. Beijing: China Minzu University Press.
  • Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan (2012), Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages, thesis, University of Texas at Arlington

External links[edit]