Nederlandse Publieke Omroep
The Nederlandse Publieke Omroep logo
|Formation||8 July 1923|
|Founder||Hilversumsche Draadlooze Omroep|
|Owner||Dutch government (publicly owned)|
|Henk Hagoort (Chairman of the Board of Directors)|
The Dutch public broadcasting system (Dutch: Nederlands publieke omroepbestel) is a set of organizations that together take care of public service television and radio broadcasting in the Netherlands. It is composed of a foundation called Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (NPO), which acts as its governing body. The Dutch Media Act 2008 regulates how air time is divided and puts the administration of the public broadcasting system in the hands of the Board of Directors of NPO.
In addition to the national broadcasters, there are also regional broadcasters and local broadcasters in the Netherlands.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Finance
- 3 Objectives
- 4 History
- 5 List of broadcasters
- 6 Former broadcasters
- 7 Television
- 8 Radio
- 9 Regional broadcasters
- 10 Internet
- 11 See also
- 12 Read more
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Unlike most other countries' public broadcasting organizations – which are either national corporations (such as the BBC and France Télévisions / Radio France), federations of regional public-law bodies (for example, ARD, SRG SSR), or governmental and member-based institutions with their own channels and facilities (such as PBS) – those in the Netherlands are member-based broadcasting associations that share common facilities. This arrangement has its origins in the system developed in the Netherlands early in the 20th century and known as pillarisation. Under this system the different confessional and political streams of Dutch society (Catholics, Protestants, socialists, etc.) all had their own separate associations, newspapers, sports clubs, educational institutions, and also broadcasting organizations.
The stated aim is to give a voice to each social group in the multicultural diversity that is Dutch society. The number of hours allocated to each broadcaster corresponds, roughly, to the number of members each organization is able to recruit (although this does not apply to NOS and NTR – see below). Since 2000, the system has been financed out of general taxation rather than from broadcast receiver licence fees. This is supplemented by a limited amount of on-air advertising, which has been allowed since 1967.
Nearly all viewers in the Netherlands receive most of their TV via cable or satellite systems. Regional public TV exists in parallel to the national system described below. Commercial television began, in the Netherlands, in 1989, with the Luxembourg-based RTL 4. In 1992, the government of the Netherlands officially legalised commercial TV, and many new commercial channels have become established since then.
Every year, the Dutch public broadcasting system is allocated funds from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. In 2008 the allocation was 738 million Euro  with revenues in 2009 from advertising totalling 196 million Euro. The cost to each Dutch citizen is approximately 116 Euro per year, which is much less compared to the BBC in the United Kingdom (158 Euro, approx. 142 GBP), but more compared to VRT in Flemish Belgium (49 Euro).
The objectives of NPO are:
- Promoting cooperation and cohesion among national broadcasters
- Providing broadcasters with air time / space in the media
- Distributing the budget between broadcasters
- Providing distribution (sales) and subtitlling support for broadcasters
- Conducting independent research on the quality and consumer image of radio, television and web platforms
The closed system (1920–1960)
Public broadcasting in the Netherlands has been since the very beginning in the early 1920s split up into different broadcasting associations with its members composed of listeners and viewers. These associations were based on the different ideological sections of Dutch society, called "Verzuiling" (pillarisation). Catholics, Protestants and Socialists were the first groups to create their own sections of society, including their own schools, hospitals, unions and political parties. When radio in the Netherlands started in the 1920s the existing groups quickly created their own broadcasting associations, producing programmes for the primary radio network, Hilversum 1. The first to start was the liberal AVRO, founded as radio broadcaster Hilversumsche Draadlooze Omroep (HDO) by the NSF transmitter factory in Huizen on 8 July 1923. The first regular radio broadcasts started on 21 July 1923. Airtime was rented to the several religious and political radio organisations—the Protestant NCRV, the Roman Catholic KRO, the Socialist VARA and the liberal Protestant VPRO. Each group was faithful to its broadcasting company. For example, it was considered unthinkable for a Protestant to listen to KRO programming. The programmes were funded by the associations' members. KRO and NCRV started their own station in 1927 with a transmitter also placed in Huizen and built by the NSF.
In 1930 the government regulated equal airtime for all organisations on the two stations and the semi-public broadcasting system was born. As a result, AVRO lost most of its airtime then (50%) to VARA and VPRO.
The radio licence fee was introduced by the Nazi occupation during World War II; the different broadcasting groups were urged by the Government for more co-operation between each other, and the Netherlands Radio Union (Dutch:Nederlandse Radio Unie) was formed, producing joint programmes.
1951 saw the introduction of television and a similar joint union was founded: the Netherlands Television Foundation (Nederlandse Televisie Stichting), supplying studios and facilities for the associations. These broadcasts would air on a channel, called Nederland 1 with a second channel, Nederland 2 launching in 1964.
The closed system opens up (1960–1990)
With the arrival of illegal offshore commercial radio stations, such as Radio Veronica in 1960 and Radio Noordzee in 1964, Hilversum 3 launched in 1965 to provide a legal alternative and to steer audiences towards the public service channels. Hilversum 3 was renamed, along with the other two networks to Radio 1, Radio 2 and Radio 3 towards the late 1980s.
In 1967 a Broadcasting Act was passed into law, providing an official framework to supply the public with information, entertainment, culture and education, with time allocated to appointed broadcasting associations based on the number of members each association had. It also allowed:
- Other organisations access to the public system, including the former commercial pirate broadcasters TROS and Veronica and the evangelical Christian EO to diversify programming;
- Advertising revenue was added, handled by an independent agency called STER
- The Netherlands Radio Union (NRU) and the Netherlands Television Foundation (NTS) merged to form the NOS, charged with providing news and sport programmes as well as general co-ordination of the public system.
A new Media Act in 1988 meant that broadcasters no longer were obligated to use production facilities supplied by the NOS. These facilities were spun off into a new private company NOB. Programme quotas were introduced, which meant associations must produce:
- 25% news and information programmes
- 25% entertainment and general programming
- 20% cultural
- 5% educational
A new media regulator (Commissariaat voor de Media) was created to regulate the public and private networks with the ability to impose fines, with a programming fund designed to encourage cultural broadcasts. New rules for the cable industry were also stipulated which meant the public networks were designated must-carry status.
The start of private media (1990–2000)
In anticipation of the launch of new commercial channels broadcast by satellite, a third television network, Nederland 3 launched in April 1988, . Luxembourg-based RTL-Véronique began broadcasting in October 1989. In 1992, the government of the Netherlands legalised commercial television, and a number of new commercial channels were established. As a result the market share for public television fell from 85% to 50% by 1994. Veronica, decided to leave the public system, after 20 years, to become a commercial broadcaster. By 1996 more private channels from RTL and SBS had reduced the market share of the public networks further to 40%.
With the change in the television landscape, changes were made to strengthen the public sector. Its financial revenues were improved with an increase in advertising time and the indexation of the licence fee to the cost of living. In 1995 the programming duties of the Netherlands Broadcasting Foundation (NOS) were split in two, with the creation of the NPS (Netherlands Programming Foundation). NOS was charged with providing news, sport and coverage of important live events while the NPS provided cultural and children's programming.
The previous NOS management was replaced with a three-man board, now charged with developing strategies and responsibility for all public output. Programming co-ordinators were appointed for each of the television and radio networks and channel identities were created, largely replacing the varying on-air presentation of the pillar broadcasters. The broadcasting associations also have a degree of input through a Supervisory Board.
Market share for the public networks stabilized in 1999 at 38%, with the entry of a new broadcasting association, the first in 25 years. BNN (Bart's News Network, later Bart's Neverending Network) replaced Veronica as programme supplier to teenagers and young adults.
Diversification, expansion and the creation of the NPO (2000–2010)
Since the open system any company can become a broadcasting company and get radio and TV airtime. The only thing required is to request an official status from the government and to have enough members. Broadcast companies in the Netherlands still have to make sure every year they have enough members to keep their official status, and most of them sell TV-guides or other magazines and make every subscriber a member of their organization.
Many people question if the current system is still applicable in this age of digital broadcasting. There were plans in the run-up to the 2002 general election to change the way broadcast companies are selected, and completely abolish the member-based system. Vocal critics included Pim Fortuyn, the assassinated leader of his own right-wing party. However, currently the system is still the way it always has been, any new system will probably evolve over time.
Prior to the 2002 reorganization, the Dutch public broadcasting system was managed by the public broadcasting organization, NOS. In 2002, the Dutch Public Broadcasting System was put under control of the Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (in English: Dutch Public Broadcasting), abbreviated as NPO. According to Article 2.2 of the Dutch Media Act of 2008, NPO was appointed as the governing organization of the public broadcasting system of the Netherlands until 2020. At the head of the organization there are two bodies: The Board of Directors that administers the whole public television and radio broadcasting system and the Supervisory Board.
From September 2010, new broadcasting associations PowNed and Wakker Nederland (WNL) were approved to enter the public broadcasting system by the Minister of Culture and Education Ronald Plasterk. Another association, MAX was given full recognition and can increase its broadcasting hours, conversely, LLiNK was withdrawn and no longer has access. Meanwhile, the NPS, Teleac and the RVU institutions merged into one public broadcaster, the NTR, delivering cultural, educational, current affairs and children's programmes to the public system.
Cuts to the public system (2010 – present)
On January 18, 2010, Henk Hagoort, chairman of the NPO Management Board, announced a scaling back of the amount of broadcasting associations using the public airwaves to 15 by 2015. He also warned of the threat of political parties which could influence programming in the public broadcasting system.
In September 2010 cuts to the public system took effect, with the existing eleven full-time broadcasting associations facing decisions about their futures. Part-time Islamic broadcasters NMO, NIO and the merged SMON were all withdrawn from the public system.
In March 2012, NPO announced the closure of two of its digital television channels, Geschiedenis 24 (History 24) and Consumenten 24 (Consumer 24) on 1 April. History programmes transferred to Holland Doc 24 and consumer programmes are looked after by VARA via an online portal
In 2013, NPO became the winner of the Prix Europa award for the Best TV Fiction Script by a Newcomer (for the screenplay of the film The Deflowering of Eva Van End, written by Anne Barnhoorn in collaboration with NPO).
Future plans (from 2016)
From 2015, Netherlands Public Broadcasting will face a budget shortfall of 200 million euro. To address this, the number of broadcasting associations within the public system is to be reduced. Mergers and/or cooperations have been confirmed between existing broadcasting associations:
|1||AVROTROS||A||Popular and general entertainment|
|2||BNN-VARA||A||Youth and social awareness|
|3||KRO-NCRV + RKK||A||Catholic/Protestant-leaning|
|4||EO + IKON, ZvK & JO||B||Protestant|
|5||MAX + WNL||B||General|
|6||VPRO + BOS & HUMAN||B||Cultural, socially liberal|
|7||NOS + Omrop Fryslân, PP & Socutera||Task-based||News, sport, events, political broadcasts, regional|
|8||NTR + OHM & PowNed||Task-based||Cultural, education, diversity|
List of broadcasters
There are currently eight member-based broadcasting associations:
- AVROTROS (Algemene Vereniging Radio Omroep - Televisie en Radio Omroep Stichting) (English: General Radio Broadcasting Association - Television and Radio Broadcasting Foundation): A merger between one the oldest broadcaster in the system and the most popular general broadcaster, its mission emphasizes its liberal roots by "promoting freedom" and with a focus on entertainment. The AVRO was founded as HDO in the 1923. The TROS originated from a commercial pirate TV station. The TROS was known for giving particularly much attention to Dutch popular music and promoting Dutch artists. From 2010 it took charge of the organisation of the Netherlands participation in the Eurovision Song Contest.
- BNN-VARA (Bart's Neverending Network and Vereniging van Arbeiders Radio Amateurs) (English: Association of Worker Radio Amateurs): BNN is founded by Bart de Graaff, its programming is primarily aimed at a younger audience, often dealing with pop culture and shock value. The VARA is a large broadcaster with a left-wing labour oriented background. VARA broadcasts popular programmes such as De Wereld Draait Door.
- EO (Evangelische Omroep) (English: Evangelical Broadcasting): A Protestant Christian broadcaster, often broadcasting programs of an evangelical nature.
- KRO-NCRV (Katholieke Radio Omroep and Nederlandse Christelijke Radio Vereniging) (English: Catholic Radio Broadcasting and Dutch Christian Radio Association): The KRO is a Catholic broadcaster. Has predominantly non-religious programming and tends to be liberal. The NCRV is the main Christian broadcaster.
- MAX: airs programming aimed at viewers over 50.
- PowNed (Publieke Omroep Weldenkend Nederland En Dergelijke): Launched in 2010, the broadcaster is a spin-off of the infamous political blog GeenStijl.nl.
- VPRO (originally: Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep) (English: Liberal Protestant Radio Broadcasting): Quirky, independently minded broadcaster with a progressive liberal background. Lots of original cultural programming of an intellectual nature.
- WNL (Wakker Nederland) (English: Netherlands Awake): New broadcaster initiated by the De Telegraaf newspaper group.
In addition, there are now two official "public service broadcasters" created under the Media Act of 1988:
- NOS (Nederlandse Omroep Stichting) (English: Dutch Broadcasting Foundation): Focusing on news, parliamentary reporting and sport, NOS aims to be objective. It is responsible for the "NOS Journaal", the main (daytime/evening) news bulletins on the public channels. It coordinates the other public broadcasters and creates most of the teletext pages. Until 2002, the NOS served as the Dutch representative to the EBU. That role has now been taken over by the NPO Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (Netherlands Public Broadcasting).
- NTR A new public broadcaster formed in September 2010. Specialising in providing news and information as well as cultural, educational, children's, and ethnic programming. NTR was formed by a merger of the former public broadcasters NPS, Teleac and RVU.
Apart from the member and task based broadcasters, a small amount of airtime is given to smaller organizations, which represent religious and philosophical groups. None of these organizations have members.
- BOS (Boeddhistische Omroep Stichting): A small Buddhist broadcaster.
- Humanistische Omroep (HUMAN): A small broadcaster dedicated to secular Humanism.
- IKON (Interkerkelijke Omroep Nederland): A small broadcaster representing a diverse set of nine mainstream Christian churches.
- Joodse Omroep The new name of NIKmedia (Nederlands-Israëlitisch Kerkgenootschap): Dutch-Jewish broadcaster.
- OHM (Organisatie Hindoe Media): Small Hindu broadcaster.
- RKK (Rooms-Katholiek Kerkgenootschap): Small Roman Catholic broadcaster, actual programming produced by the KRO. Roman Catholic events and services on television are broadcast by the RKK.
- ZvK (Zendtijd voor Kerken): Small broadcaster that broadcasts church services from some smaller Protestant churches.
- Omrop Fryslân (Frisian Broadcasting): Frisian regional broadcaster allocated airtime on the national television channels.
- PP (Zendtijd voor Politieke partijen): Airtime for commercials of political parties which are represented in the Dutch parliament.
- Socutera (Stichting ter bevordering van Sociale en Culturele doeleinden door Televisie en Radio): Small broadcaster broadcasting promotions related to culture and charity.
- STER (English: Foundation for Broadcast Advertising): Independent agency handling advertising exclusively on Netherlands Public Broadcasting's television, radio and online outlets. Created by the Broadcasting Act 1967 to prevent commercial influence on programming. Currently, income from advertising forms a third of the annual Media Budget to the public system.
- Concertzender (1998–2009): Classical music. Left the national public system after Netherlands Public Broadcasting stopped financing the station in order to launch Radio 6. It continues to broadcast independently of the NPO.
- LLiNK (2005–2010): Former broadcaster. Had public access withdrawn in 2010 due to Netherlands Public Broadcasting and the Commission for Media withdrawing financial support and stopped broadcasting at the end of 2010. Made television programmes about subjects such as the environment and human rights.
- MO (Moslim Omroep) (2013-2015): Small Islamic broadcaster, withdrawn from the public system in October 2015.
- NIO (Nederlandse Islamitische Omroep) (2005–2010): Small Islamic broadcaster, withdrawn from the public system in March 2010.
- NMO (Nederlandse Moslim Omroep) (1993–2010): Small Islamic broadcaster, slightly more progressive than the NIO. Withdrawn from the public system in March 2010.
- NPS (Nederlandse Programma Stichting) (English: Dutch Programming Foundation) (1995–2010): Merged into NTR. Formerly part of the NOS, but split off in 1995. Produced cultural, factual, youth and minority-oriented programming. Produced the Dutch version of Sesame Street. It was considered to put the NOS and NPS back together in 2008, but that plan was scrapped.
- RVU (Radio Volks Universiteit) (English: Popular Radio University) (1930–2010): Was a small educational broadcaster with a non-secular non-ideological nature. Member of Educom, a partnership with Teleac/NOT, merged into NTR.
- Teleac (Televisie-academie) (English: Dutch Education Television) (1996–2010): Former larger educational broadcaster, merged into NTR. Produced courses on television and television for schools. Member of Educom, a partnership with RVU.
- Veronica (1975–1995): Former pirate radio broadcaster, entered the public system as a broadcasting association in 1975; its first programme was a classical music show on Hilversum 4. Known for targeting teenagers and young adults. Withdrew in 1995 and became a commercial company as part of the Holland Media Groep. The TV and magazine departments are now owned by Sanoma and Talpa Media Holding. The Radio department is now part of the Sky Radio Group.
The broadcasting organisations produce programmes for the three main television channels and the eight digital channels. Since 4 July 2009 the three main channels have been simulcast in 1080i high-definition. Most programming in the early stages is upscaled as in time more programmes will become available in native HD. In 2008 a temporary high-definition version of the Nederland 1 channel was created from June 2 to August 24, to broadcast Euro 2008, the 2008 Tour de France, and the 2008 Summer Olympics in HD before the launch of the permanent HD service.
- NPO 1: News, current affairs, sports and family.
- NPO 2: Arts, culture, politics, news, current affairs and religion.
- NPO 3: Oriented towards youth and innovative television.
Available via digital cable, satellite, and internet.
- NPO 101 – Youth programming
- NPO Best – Entertainment archive channel
- NPO Cultura – Arts and culture
- NPO Doc – Documentaries
- NPO Humor TV – Comedy
- NPO Nieuws – Rolling news
- NPO Politiek – Parliamentary coverage (NPO Sport when Parliament is in recess)
- NPO Zapp Xtra – Children and family programming
- BVN – (Het Beste van Vlaanderen en Nederland) (English: The Best of Flanders and the Netherlands) Entertainment channel, available worldwide by satellite and cable. Programmes are provided jointly from Netherlands Public Broadcasting, the NOS, VRT in Flanders Belgium and Radio Netherlands Worldwide.
- NPO Radio 1 – News, current affairs and sports coverage
- NPO Radio 2 – Pop music aimed at adults
- NPO 3FM – Pop, rock and dance music for a youth audience
- NPO Radio 4 – Classical music
- NPO Radio 5 – (Mon-Fri daytime) Pop music and chat, aimed at seniors, branded Radio 5 Nostalgia ; (Mon-Fri evenings and Sat/ Sun ) specialist/ethnic programmes, Religious programming, branded Radio 5 Avond / Weekend
- NPO Radio 6 – Soul, Jazz and World music with cultural information
- FunX – urban and ethnic music for a young audience. Run as a collaboration with local public radio foundations in Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague and Rotterdam. Programmes are made by the station (as opposed to the national member system), but is funded by Netherlands Public Broadcasting and takes NOS news bulletins.
Digital and web channels
The following digital and web channels are available via NPO Radioplayer. Channels are themed according to its parent network and/or the broadcasting association. Some of these channels appear on digital cable, on cable FM as well as the national DAB multiplex.
- NPO Zappelin Radio, children's radio
- NPO Radio 1 Extra
- NPO Radio 2 Liedkunst
- NPO Radio 2 Sterren.nl
- NPO Radio 2 Puur AVRO
- NPO Radio 2 Top 2000
- NPO Radio 2 In Concert
- NPO 3FM KX Radio
- NPO 3FM On Stage
- NPO 3FM BEAM
- NPO 3FM Alternative
- NPO 3FM BNN.FM
- NPO Radio 4 Jong Klassiek
- NPO Radio 4 Eigentijds
- NPO Radio 4 Baroque around the Clock
- NPO Radio 4 Film
- NPO Radio 4 De Klassieken
- NPO Radio 5 Nostalgia non-stop
- NPO Radio 5 Radio Religiosa
- NPO Radio 5 Orgelradio
- NPO Radio 5 Steenen Tijdperk Fifties
- NPO Radio 5 Steenen Tijdperk Sixties
- NPO Radio 5 Toppers van Toen
- NPO Radio 6 Jazz
- NPO Radio 6 World
- NPO Radio 6 Blues
- NPO Radio 6 Grooves
- NPO Radio 6 Jazz Jong
- NPO Radio 6 Back to the Old School
- NPO Radio 6 Soul & Jazz Zwarte Lijst
- NPO Radio 6 Easy Listening
- NPO FunX Arab
- NPO FunX Dance
- NPO FunX Latin
- NPO FunX Reggae
- NPO FunX Slow Jamz
- NPO FunX Amsterdam
- NPO FunX Rotterdam
- NPO FunX Den Haag
- NPO FunX Utrecht
- NPO FunX Hip Hop
- Radio Netherlands Worldwide – Destined for international listeners. It is an independent broadcaster and is outside of the Netherlands Public Broadcasting structure, however, like NPO it receives state funding.
In addition to the national system, each Dutch province also has a broadcasting corporation supplying its own programming to its television and radio stations.
- L1 (Limburg)
- Omroep Brabant (North Brabant)
- Omrop Fryslân (Friesland)
- Omroep Zeeland (Zeeland)
- RTV Drenthe (Drenthe)
- Omroep Flevoland (Flevoland)
- Omroep Gelderland (Gelderland)
- RTV Utrecht (Utrecht)
- RTV Noord (Groningen)
- RTV Noord-Holland (North Holland)
- AT5 (Amsterdam) (Partly commercial)
- RTV Oost (Overijssel)
- RTV Rijnmond (Greater Rotterdam region)
- RTV West (South Holland)
- Television in the Netherlands
- Digital television in the Netherlands
- Media of the Netherlands
- List of radio stations in the Netherlands
- Media act and media policy — Government.nl
- Broadcasters — Government.nl
- TV and on-demand audiovisual services in Netherlands — MAVISE
- "Welke rol speelt de NPO als organisatie binnen het Nederlandse omroepbestel?" (in Dutch). NPO (PubliekeOmroep.nl). Retrieved 2014-11-23.
- Dutch Wikipedia article
- "Met een nettoresultaat van 190 miljoen euro in 2009 levert Ster een belangrijke bijdrage aan de mediabegroting van het ministerie van OC&W."
- Fusieperikelen in omroepland in de jaren '20, 8 July 2013
- History – Publieke Omroep, 9 August, 2010
- "NTR". nps.nl.
- "Hoe verhouden de NPO en de NOS zich tot elkaar?". npo.nl.
- "NTR". nps.nl.
- Article in English
- "Over NPO". publiekeomroep.nl.
- "Prix Europa: NPO netherlands wins EBU sponsored TV award". European Broadcasting Union. 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
- "TROS en AVRO willen fuseren". NU.
- Van onze verslaggeefster Sara Berkeljon. "Patrick Lodiers: BNN en Vara willen één bedrijf worden". De Volkskrant.
- "KRO en NCRV overleggen over samenwerking". nos.nl.
- "Joodse Omroep sluit zich aan bij EO". totaaltv.nl.
- "Joodse Omroep sluit zich aan bij EO". totaaltv.nl.
- "Advies Omroeperkenningen 2016-2020" (PDF). Raad voor Cultuur.
- "BOS en VPRO gaan samenwerken". bosrtv.nl.
- "human is erkend als aspirant-omroep". vpro.nl. Text "http://www.vpro.nl/lees/nieuws/2015/human.html" ignored (help);
- Zie Uitvoeringsconvenant Friese taal en cultuur 2009, Hoofdstuk 5.4
- de website van Socutera
- "Advies Omroeperkenningen 2016-2020" (PDF). Raad voor Cultuur.
- "Llink vraagt surseance aan". nrc.nl.
- "Geen nieuw onderdak voor Moslim Omroep". villamedia.nl.
- "Nederlandse Moslim Omroep failliet". nos.nl.
- History of Teleac (English)
- Dat was tevens de eerste uitzending van Veronica in het publieke bestel. English: This was the first broadcast from Veronica in the public system
- SRG interactive. "Sky Radio". Sky Radio.
- RNW Media Network, Feb 6th, 2010
- RNW Blog – Dutch Public Broadcasting suspends plans for Radio 7, 2010-11-29
- "DAB Ensembles Worldwide - Netherlands". wohnort.org.
- Official website (Dutch)
- ThreeNL, a selection of programmes in English, by several different broadcasters
- List of public broadcasters with websites (Dutch)