Urticaceae

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Nettle family
Urtica dioica (Blüten).jpg
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Urticaceae
Juss., 1789
Synonyms

Cecropiaceae C. C. Berg[1]

The Urticaceae /ɜːrtɪˈks/ are a family, the nettle family, of flowering plants. The family name comes from the genus Urtica. The Urticaceae include a number of well-known and useful plants, including nettles in the genus Urtica, ramie (Boehmeria nivea), māmaki (Pipturus albidus), and ajlai (Debregeasia saeneb).

The family includes about 2625 species, grouped into 53 genera according to the database of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Christenhusz and Byng (2016).[2] The largest genera are Pilea (500 to 715 species), Elatostema (300 species), Urtica (80 species), and Cecropia (75 species). Cecropia contains many myrmecophytes.[3]

Urticaceae species can be found worldwide, apart from the polar regions.

Description[edit]

Urticaceae species can be shrubs (e.g. Pilea), lianas, herbs (e.g. Urtica, Parietaria), or, rarely, trees (Dendrocnide, Cecropia). Their leaves are usually entire and bear stipules. Urticating (stinging) hairs are often present. They have usually unisexual flowers and can be both monoecious or dioecious. They are wind-pollinated. Most disperse their pollen when the stamens are mature and their filaments straighten explosively, a peculiar and conspicuously specialised mechanism.

Taxonomy[edit]

Male and female flower of Urtica

The APG II system puts the Urticaceae in the order Rosales, while older systems consider them part of the Urticales, along with Ulmaceae, Moraceae, and Cannabaceae. APG still considers "old" Urticales a monophyletic group, but does not recognise it as an order on its own.

Fossil record[edit]

The fossil record of Urticaceae is scattered and mostly based on dispersed fruits. Twelve species based on fossil achenes are known from the Late Cretaceous of Central Europe. Most were assigned to the extant genera Boehmeria (three species), Debregeasia (one species) and Pouzolzia (three species), while three species were assigned to the extinct genus Urticoidea.[4] A Colombian fossil flora of the Maastrichtian stage has yielded leaves that resemble leaves of the tribe Ceropieae.[5]

Phylogeny[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships[6][7] (see also [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]):

Moraceae (outgroup)

Urticaceae
Urticeae

Laportea

Obetia

Urera pro parte

Touchardia

Urera pro parte

Poikilospermum

Girardinia

Dendrocnide

Discocnide

Nanocnide

Urtica (including Hesperocnide)

Elatostemateae

Procris

Pellionia

Elatostema

Myriocarpa + Gyrotaenia

Lecanthus

Pilea (including Sarcopilea)

Cecropieae

Coussapoa

Myrianthus

Cecropia

Leucosyke

Maoutia

Boehmerieae

Oreocnide

Phenax

Chamabainia

Gonostegia

Pouzolzia pro parte

Neodistemon

Rousselia

Hemistylus

Pouzolzia pro parte

Neraudia

Pipturus (including Nothocnide)

Boehmeria pro parte

Debregeasia

Astrothalamus

Archiboehmeria

Boehmeria pro parte

Sarcochlamys

Forsskaoleeae

Forsskaolea

Didymodoxa

Droguetia (including Australina)

Parietarieae

Parietaria

Soleirolia

Gesnouinia

Tribes and genera[edit]

Diseases[edit]

The Urticaceae are subject to many bacterial, viral, fungal, and nematode parasitic diseases. Among them are:[19]

Image gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2003-01-17). "Family: Urticaceae Juss., nom. cons". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ Chomicki G, Renner SS. (2015). "Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics". New Phytologist. 207 (2): 411–424. doi:10.1111/nph.13271. PMID 25616013.
  4. ^ Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution by Else Marie Friis, Peter R. Crane, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen - Cambridge University Press, 18. aug. 2011 - ISBN 0521592836
  5. ^ Phylogeny of the Cecropieae (Urticaceae) and the Evolution of an Ant-Plant Mutualism by Erin L. Treiber André Luiz Gaglioti Sergio Romaniuc-Neto Santiago Madriñán and George D. Weiblen - Published: February 11, 2016 - Systematic Botany 41(1):56-66. 2016 - https://doi.org/10.1600/036364416X690633
  6. ^ Wu Z-Y, Monro AK, Milne RI, Wang H, Liu J, Li D-Z. (2013). "Molecular phylogeny of the nettle family (Urticaceae) inferred from multiple loci of three genomes and extensive generic sampling". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 814–827. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.022. PMID 23850510.
  7. ^ Wu Z-Y, Milne RI, Chen C-J, Liu J, Wang H, Li D-Z. (2015). "Ancestral state reconstruction reveals rampant homoplasy of diagnostic morphological characters in Urticaceae, conflicting with current classification schemes". PLoS ONE. 10 (11): e0141821. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141821.
  8. ^ Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires JC, Morden CW. (2000). "Phylogeny of the Urticales based on three molecular data sets, with emphasis on relationships within Urticaceae". American Journal of Botany. 87 (6): 162.
  9. ^ Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires C, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW. (2002). "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnLF, and ndhF sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (9): 1531–1546. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531. PMID 21665755.
  10. ^ Hadiah JT, Quinn CJ, Conn BJ. (2003). "Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data" (PDF). Telopea. 10 (1): 235–246. doi:10.7751/telopea20035618.
  11. ^ Datwyler SL, Weiblen G. (2004). "On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): 767–777. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.5.767. PMID 21653431.
  12. ^ Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD. (2005). "Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.
  13. ^ Monro AK. (2006). "The revision of species-rich genera: A phylogenetic framework for the strategic revision of Pilea (Urticaceae) based on cpDNA, nrDNA, and morphology". American Journal of Botany. 93 (3): 426–441. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.3.426. PMID 21646202.
  14. ^ Hadiah JT, Conn BJ, Quinn CJ (2008). "Infra-familial phylogeny of Urticaceae, using chloroplast sequence data". Australian Systematic Botany. 21 (5): 375–385. doi:10.1071/SB08041.
  15. ^ Conn BJ, Hadiah JT (2009). "Nomenclature of tribes within the Urticaceae". Kew Bulletin. 64 (2): 349–352. doi:10.1007/s12225-009-9108-4. JSTOR 20649663.
  16. ^ Kim C, Deng T, Chase M, Zhang D-G, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2015). "Generic phylogeny and character evolution in Urticeae (Urticaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA regions". Taxon. 64 (1): 65–78. doi:10.12705/641.20.
  17. ^ Treiber EL, Gaglioti EL, Romaniuc-Neto S, Madriñán S, Weiblen GD. (2016). "Phylogeny of the Cecropieae (Urticaceae) and the evolution of an ant–plant mutualism". Systematic Botany. 41 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1600/036364416X690633.
  18. ^ Deng Tao, Kim C, Zhang D-G, Zhang J-W, Li Z-M, Nie Z-L, Sun H. (2013). "Zhengyia shennongensis: A new bulbiliferous genus and species of the nettle family (Urticaceae) from central China exhibiting parallel evolution of the bulbil trait". Taxon. 62 (1): 89–99. JSTOR 24389315.
  19. ^ "Common Names of Plant Diseases: Diseases of Foliage Plants (House Plants): Urticaceae". The American Phytopathological Society. 26 March 1993. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011.
  20. ^ Chase, A. R. (1983). "Influence of host plant and isolate source on Myrothecium leaf spot of foliage plants" (PDF). Plant Disease. 67 (6): 668–671. doi:10.1094/PD-67-668.
  21. ^ Nguyen, Thu Ha, Mathur, S. B., & Neergaard, Paul (1973). "Seed-borne species of Myrothecium and their pathogenic potential". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 61 (2): 347–354, IN14–IN16. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(73)80156-1.

Further reading[edit]

  • Pignatti, Sandro (1982). Flora d'Italia (in Italian). Bologna: Edagricole. ISBN 88-506-2449-2.
  • Friis, Ib (1989). Urticaceae. Flora of tropical East Africa. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 978-90-6191-352-8.

External links[edit]