Network Device Interface

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Network Device Interface (NDI) is a royalty-free software standard developed by NewTek to enable video-compatible products to communicate, deliver, and receive broadcast quality video in a high quality, low latency manner that is frame-accurate and suitable for switching in a live production environment.


NDI was developed by NewTek, and is available to anyone with a royalty-free license. NewTek has an SDK available for Windows, Linux and macOS.[1] NDI has also been ported to iOS, Android, Raspberry Pi, and FPGA.[2][3]

NDI is designed to run over existing Gigabit networks,[4] with the NDI codec[5] expected to deliver 1080i HD video at VBR data rates typically around 100 Mbit/s.[6]

NDI uses the mDNS (Bonjour / Zeroconf) discovery mechanism to advertise sources on a local area network, such that NDI receiving devices can automatically discover and offer those sources. Sources are created using an arbitrarily selected TCP port from a range of ports on the NDI send host. When a source is requested a TCP connection is established on the appropriate port with the NDI receiver connecting to the NDI sender. NDI 3.x has options to use UDP Multicast or Unicast with FEC(Forward error correction) instead of TCP, and can load balance streams across multiple Gigabit NICs without link aggregation.

NDI carries video, multichannel uncompressed audio and metadata. Metadata messages can be sent in both directions allowing the sender and receiver to message one another over the connection with arbitrary metadata in XML form.[7] This directional metadata system allows for functionality such as active tally information fed back to sources to understand that they are on-air (program / preview). NDI also allows senders to determine the number of connected receivers, so they can skip unnecessary processing and network bandwidth utilisation when there are no NDI receiver clients connected.

Comparison with other protocols[edit]

Other IP Video protocols emerging for use in professional video production (rather than IP Video used for distribution to end users) include SMPTE 2022, SMPTE2110, ASPEN (which appears to have been largely superseded by SMPTE2110) and Sony NMI. There are clear differences in the technology used by these protocols.

Parameter NDI NDI HX SMPTE 2022-6[8] SMPTE_2110[8] ASPEN[9] NMI[10]
Image Format Size / Aspect Independent Size / Aspect Independent SDI Formats only Size / Aspect Independent
Tally Feedback Yes Yes No No No
Bidirectional Device Control Yes Yes No No No
Integrated Alpha Channel Yes No No Yes
Compression NDI Codec (SHQ 2/7)[11] NDI HX (h.264) NONE * (proposed) NONE NONE / LLVC Codec
Connection Socket, Unicast / Multicast and FEC Unicast/MultiCast MultiCast MultiCast MultiCast MultiCast / ?
HD (1080i) Data Rate ~ 100 Mbit/s 8-20 Mbit/s >1.5 Gbit/s >1.1 Gbit/s >1.5 Gbit/s >1.5 Gbit/s / up to 14:1[12]
Essence Packing Discrete Audio, Metadata and Video Frame packets Delivered as Discrete Audio, Metadata and Video Frame packets Packetized Raw SDI bitstream Discrete Essence and Metadata Streams Multiple MPEG Transport Streams Frame Aligned 2022-6 / LLVC
Infrastructure Gigabit / Wireless / Load Balanced Multi NIC / 10GBit Gigabit / Wireless req. 10GBit req. 10GBit req. 10GBit req. 10GBit / Gigabit
Service Discovery Bonjour (mDNS) & NDI Access (manual) Bonjour (mDNS) & NDI Access (manual) NMOS[13] NMOS[13] JSON-RPC Plug & Play (NDCP)
API free license, SDK Libraries for Win(x86), Mac, Linux(x86 & ARM), iOS[14], FPGA reference Integrated with NDI Libraries for Win, Mac paid-for SMPTE Standards paid-for SMPTE Standards paid-for SMPTE RDD

*The TICO codec can be used to compress UHD by 4:1 so an encoded stream can be carried along a SMPTE 2022-6 channel at the same uncompressed bandwidth as HD.[15] SMPTE 2110 with TR-03 also offers the potential to use TICO.[16] This requires a proprietary encoder and decoder which are generally implemented as silicon on each end. * * NDI v1.0 was pure TCP. Later versions included options for UDP Unicast and Multicast as appropriate and FEC. NDI 4.0 adds 'Multi-TCP' transport. NDI HX is generally UDP but uses TCP control commands.


NDI was publicly revealed by NewTek on 8 September 2015 and was demonstrated at the IBC broadcast exhibition in Amsterdam that week.[17] The first device shown using NDI was the NewTek TriCaster which delivered an NDI feed from each of its SDI inputs as well as 4 output feeds from its vision mixer. TriCaster could also receive up to 2 NDI sources from other devices (increased to 12 in later releases and up to 44 in NewTek's IP Series ).[18]

NDI devices from other vendors followed during 2016. The first 3rd party products came from Gallery Sienna and included an NDI signal generator for macOS, a desktop scan converter for macOS and the NDICam camera app for iPhone which delivers a native NDI stream from iOS devices.[19][20]

NewTek had previously created a predecessor of NDI called AirSend to get video from external devices into their TriCaster products. AirSend had been implemented by a number of CG manufacturers including VizRT and Chyron. In order to quickly bring these products into the NDI space, NewTek created a new driver to replace the existing AirSend driver, which could be installed on these existing AirSend compatible devices, instantly converting them to NDI compatible devices with no change required by the original CG vendors.[21]

Another early adopter of NDI was VMix, a Windows-based vision mixer which offers NDI inputs and outputs.[22] A significant increase in the NDI installed base came when live streaming application XSplit added support for NDI.[23]

Later in 2016, NewTek delivered NDI 2.0 which added features including support for service discovery across subnets. In the first half of 2017, BirdDog began demonstrating and shipping BirdDog Studio NDI - a PoE powered portable FPGA based NDI encoder with HDMI and SDI inputs with Tally, supporting up to 1080p60 video resolutions.[3] On 12 July 2017 NewTek announced NDI 3.0 which added multicast, NDI/HX and other new features, introducing support for specific PTZ Cameras with H.264 chipsets and updated firmware.[24]

In April 2018 at the NAB Show, Microsoft announced they had added NDI support to Skype for Content Creators.[25] Other announcements at NAB2018 included NDI 3.5, and new NDI support from vendors including EVS[26] and Avid.[27]

In April 2019 ahead of NAB NewTek announced the addition of Multi-TCP mode to NDI 4.0 which is reported to leverage hardware TCP acceleration present in silicon, assisting lower spec processors with NDI transport.[28]

Version Released Features/Enhancements
1.0 April 2016 Initial Release
2.0 Sept 2016 Cross subnet support via Access Manager, ARM encoding support, iOS SDK
3.0 July 2017 NDI-HX support, Option for multicast transport with FEC, PTZ support.
3.5 June 2018 Defaults to Unicast UDP transport method with FEC.
3.6 July 2018 Packet level bonding improvements.
3.7 Sept 2018 Discovery improvements.
3.8 Nov 2018 Performance Enhancements, NDI Embedded SDK for FPGA development.
4.0 Announced NAB 2019 Multi-TCP Transport mode, HDR 16-bit support, Native synchronised recording, Discovery Server[29]

Use in Wifi and Wide Area Networks[edit]

NDI was designed to work on good quality gigabit local area networks using TCP and Bonjour (mDNS) technologies. In order to work across subnets which don't pass mDNS, NDI supports a mechanism known as NDI Access which allows manual entry of the IP address of machines on other subnet which may be running NDI sources.

Some NDI adopters have run the protocol across medium distance Fibre connections up to 15 km, although NDI's use of the TCP protocol make it less suitable for longer distance, high latency connections due to factors such as Bandwidth Delay Product and TCP packet loss recovery.[30] The NDI 3.5 libraries now default to a UDP transfer method with forward error correction that removes the latency requirements that are inherent with TCP connections. NDI|HX uses a lower data rate making it easier to use in bandwidth limited connections.[24]

To provide an extension of NDI to wide area networks, tools have been developed including the Sienna Cloud for NDI[31] protocol which uses node gateways in each LAN to bridge NDI sources across continents.[32] In July 2017, USSSA (United States Speciality Sports Association) successfully made the first truly wide area network NDI sports coverage using Cloud for NDI with 5 cameras backhauled across the public internet from a stadium, to 200 miles away into an NDI based production gallery.[33]

CPU architecture support[edit]

NDI, when running on x86 architectures, requires CPU's that include the SSSE3 (Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3) instruction set. Most Intel CPU designs starting in 2006 have this instruction set, AMD added support starting in 2011.

While not a requirement, NDI will take advantage of AVX (Advanced Vector Extensions) and AVX2 instructions sets for additional performance. While NDI itself doesn't require these instructions, applications might.[citation needed]

NDI can run on 32-bit or 64-bit CPU architectures, although performance is increased when using 64-bit, and 32-bit support may not be available in future versions of the macOS and iOS NDI Libraries.

NDI is available for ARM based systems with encode support, but not video decode.

NDI HX Devices are typically send-only and based on proprietary platforms with hardware H.264 encoder chips. Examples are NDI HX PTZ Cameras, and the NDI Connect Spark SDI to NDI HX box. The NDI Stream itself is formed at the stream consumption end via the platform specific NDI HX driver, presenting the same uncompressed data to the application software consuming the NDI source regardless of original HX source hardware and compression.

NewTek, Birddog and Magewell have all developed FPGA implementations of NDI. In April 2018 NewTek announced the Connect Spark Pro which will be their first FPGA based NDI product.

With NDI 4.0 NewTek announced the addition of a 'Multi-TCP' transport mode. This takes advantage of the hardware TCP acceleration in silicon which helps lower spec processors handle heavy network load, in contrast to UDP which does not benefit from the hardware acceleration.[34]

Metadata and Extensions to the NDI Specification[edit]

NDI Supports arbitrary metadata as XML blocks, embedded in video and audio frames, as well as stand-alone metadata frames. The content of these metadata blocks form 3 families.

  • Internal Metadata used by NDI invisibly. These messages are used for connectivity and some other fundamental tasks like Tally. They are typically invisible to NDI clients.
  • Defined Public Metadata. These messages include things like the NDI PTZ Protocol. They are defined by NewTek as part of the NDI SDK.
  • 3rd Party Metadata schemes. These messages are implemented in the same way as Defined NDI Metadata but the content is based on 3rd party designs. Over time these 3rd party metadata schemes may become widely used and perhaps adopted as officially supported.

There are 4 published examples of 3rd Party NDI Metadata Schemes:

  • In August 2018, Gallery Sienna published a proposal[35] for the carriage of C708 Closed Caption metadata via NDI. It involves capture of the appropriate line of SDI VANC data, and text based encoding to be compatible with XML. This is carried as video frame-based attached metadata. It can be passed to an equivalently compatible decoder for reconversion to SDI along with intact C708 captions. Gallery Sienna implemented this standard into their Sienna NDI SourceMulti product[36], and the proposal is also being adopted by other NDI product developers.
  • In February 2019 Gallery Sienna published a proposal[37] for the carriage of MIDI messages via NDI. This uses real time stand alone NDI Metadata frames to carry any sort of Midi message including Midi Machine Control, and controller data. NDI Midi is used within Sienna's NDI Processing Engine[38] as a generic control protocol between modules and the outside world.
  • In April 2019 Gallery Sienna published a proposal[39] for the use of the industry standard iXML Metadata protocol within NDI. iXML allows for unambiguous description of stream contents, and linkage between streams.
  • In April 2019 Gallery Sienna published a proposal[40] for the carriage of PTPv2 timing and GMID within NDI. Sienna also implemented this as a Precision_Time_Protocol converter which captures this data and feeds it as NDI into multiple NDI systems wanting to share this information, such as software to interact with AES67 devices.

Other non-published NDI Metadata schemes are also in use, for things like triggering CG animations.


The NDI Protocol has been widely adopted by a diverse variety of software and hardware vendors. The table below includes a partial list of products known to support the NDI Protocol

Vendor Product Description OS Platform
NewTek TriCaster[41] Multi Camera Production System
NewTek IP Series[42] Modular Production System
NewTek 3PLAY[43] Slow Motion & Instant Replay System
NewTek NDI Camera[44] iOS / Android based NDI Camera iOS, Android
NewTek Connect Pro[45] NDI Converter Windows
NewTek IsoCorder Pro[46] Multi Source Recorder Windows
NewTek NDI Telestrator[47] Telestrator Windows
NewTek NDI Transmit[48] WebCam Emulator Windows
NewTek NDI Studio Monitor[49] NDI Source Viewer (Windows) Windows
NewTek TalkShow[50] Skype TX Interface
NewTek LiveText[51] Computer Graphics Windows
NewTek Connect Spark [52] HDMI / SDI to NDI HX Converters [HX]
NewTek Connect Spark Pro [53] 4K HDMI to NDI Converter FPGA
NewTek PTZ1 Camera [54] NDI HX PTZ Camera [HX]
NewTek NewTek Remote Storage - Powered by SNS [55] Shared Storage
NewTek NDI Tools [56] Collection of free NDI applications Windows, MacOS
NewTek NDI Analysis[56] Command line NDI diagnostic tool Windows
Sienna NDICam[20] iPhone based NDI Camera iOS
Sienna NDI ScanConverter[57] Desktop ScanConverter macOS
Sienna NDI Monitor[58] NDI Source Viewer plus PTZ Control macOS, linux
Sienna NDI Source[59] SDI to NDI Converter macOS
Sienna NDI Outlet[60] NDI to SDI Converter (Fill & Key) macOS
Sienna WebCam for NDI [61] WebCam to NDI Converter macOS
Sienna NDI SignalGenerator [62] NDI Test Signal Generator macOS
Sienna WebNDI [63] WebBrowser with NDI Output iOS
Sienna Cloud for NDI [64] Wide Area Network for NDI (inc internet) macOS, Windows, linux
Sienna NDI Router[65] ProBel/BMD Router Emulation for NDI Network macOS, linux
Sienna NDI Processing Engine[65] (50 modules) Modular 'Glue Rack' for NDI workflows macOS, linux
Sienna NDI Recorder[66] NDI Ingest direct to disk macOS, Windows, linux
Sienna GraphicArtist[67] NDI CG using HTML5 Templates macOS
Sienna NDI WebLink [68] NDI to HTTP Bridge(HLS/JPEG) macOS, linux
Sienna NDI Source Multi[69] Multi Channel SDI to NDI Converter macOS, linux, Windows
Sienna NDI Outlet Multi[70] Multi Channel NDI to SDI Converter macOS, linux
Sienna AES67 to NDI Gateway[71] Protocol Gateway macOS, Linux, Windows
Sienna NDIntercom[72] NDI Intercom beltpack iOS
VizRT Viz Engine[73] Computer Graphics
NewTek & Vizrt NVG1[74] Computer Graphics
ENTTEC ENTTEC LED Mapper (ELM) [75] Media Server / Pixel Mapper Windows
StudioCoast vMix[76] Video Production System Windows
JVC StreamStar [77] Live Production System
JVC ProHD Studio 4000 [78] Live Production System
CombiTech VidBlasterX [79] Video Production System Windows
Broadcast Pix Flint [80] Integrated Production Switcher
Nagasoft NSCaster[81] Multi Camera Production System
Livestream Livestream Studio 4.5[82] Live Production Switcher Windows
Panasonic AV-HLC100 [83] Live Production Center
Panasonic AW-HN38,40,130 AW-UN70[84] NDI HX PTZ Cameras [HX]
Panasonic NewTek AutoLink [85] IP Camera Translator Windows
Panasonic P2 Streaming Server [86] IP Camera Receiver
Inklen MixEmergency [87] VJ Mixer macOS
Telestream Wirecast ver7 - ver12 Live Production Streaming macOS, Windows
OBS Project OBS Studio[88] Live Production Streaming Windows, macOS, Linux
FFmpeg FFmpeg 3.4 to 4.1 (removed in upcoming 4.2 release)[89][90] Encoder Windows, macOS, Linux
BlueFrame Technology Production Truck software [91] Multi Camera Switcher and Graphics macOS
Boinx mimoLive[92] Live Production and Streaming macOS
LiveU LU2000[93] Bonded Video Transceiver
Soliton Zao-S[94] Bonded Video Transceiver
ChyronHego PRIME, Lyric[95] Computer Graphics
NewBlue Titler Live Broadcast[96] Computer Graphics macOS, Windows
AGF Multimedia CharacterWorks 3[97] Computer Graphics Windows
ClassX LiveBoard [98] Computer Graphics Windows
SQD Technologies Squid [99] Computer Graphics
BannisterLake Chameleon [100] Computer Graphics
CasparCG CasparCG [101][102] Computer Graphics Windows
AJT Systems LiveBook GFX [103] Computer Graphics
Graphics Outfitters ScoreHD [104] Computer Graphics Windows
LiveXpert Live CG[105] Computer Graphics Windows
Nautilus Studio NSport[106] Computer Graphics Windows
Ventuz Director[107] Computer Graphics Windows
LevelChanger Takedown Scoring and Stats[108] Auto-generated, real-time sports graphics iOS
Ross Video Xpression[109] Computer Graphics Windows
Ross Video Dashboard[110] Workflow Orchestration Windows, macOS, Linux
Vset3D Vset3DPro [111] Virtual Set Windows
Brainstorm Multimedia Infinity Set[112] Virtual Set
Epic Unreal Engine 4[113] Game Rendering Engine
Zero Density Reality[114] Virtual Studio Windows
LiveXpert LiveMediaServer NDI[115] Video Server Windows
Gnural Net LiveToAir[116] Video Server
DV Play Solutions Ltd DV Play 7[117] Video Playout Windows
PixelPower StreamMaster[118] Video Playout Windows
PlayBox ProductionAirBox Neo[119] Video Playout
Etere Etere Full IP Solution[120] Video Playout, Transmission, Graphics, Archive, IP Multiviewer Windows
Renewed Vision ProPresenter 6 [121] Video Playout macOS, Windows
Renewed Vision PVP 3 Video Playout macOS
Pebble Beach Orca[122] Video Playout Windows coralPlay[123] Video Playout Linux
VideoLAN VLC (via Newtek Plugin) [124] Video Player Windows
Magewell Pro Convert HDMI 4K Plus [125] HDMI to NDI Converter FPGA Embedded
Magewell Pro Convert SDI 4K Plus [126] SDI to NDI Converter FPGA Embedded
BirdDog BirdDog Studio NDI [127] Portable HDMI/SDI encoder FPGA Embedded
BirdDog BirdDog Mini [128] Portable HDMI encoder FPGA Embedded
BirdDog BirdDog Comms [129] Intercom solution Windows
Adobe Premiere Pro (via NewTek Plugin)[130] Video Editing macOS, Windows
Adobe Character Animator (via NewTek Plugin) Real time Animation synthesiser macOS, Windows
Adobe After Effects (via NewTek Plugin) Motion Graphics Designer macOS, Windows
NewTek & Wowza MediaDS[131] Streaming Server
SplitMediaLabs XSplit [132] Streaming Server Windows
Streambox Streambox [133] Streaming Server
DVEO Gearbox / Brutus / MiniStreamer [134] Transcoder
Zen NDI Router[135] NDI Source Router Windows
Zen RTx [135] NDI Source Repeater Windows
Evertz SDVN [136] Data Switch
Autocue QStart [137] Teleprompter Windows
Pizazz NDI2HDMI[138] Converter
Pizazz NDI Viewfinder[138] Converter / Monitor
Capture Sweden Capture Nexum[139] Live Visualisation Windows
mogmoglogic DPX Analytics[140] Media Analyser Windows
Dataton Watchout [141] MultiScreen Display System
Quicklink Quicklink TX [142] Skype TX Interface
Derivative TouchDesigner [143] Projection Mapper Windows
PTZOptics NDI HX Cameras [144] NDI HX Cameras [HX]
Imimot Mitti [145] Video Playout macOS
Avolites Ai [146] Media Server
Medialooks Video Transport [147] Internet Transport Windows
Teracue iCue Grid [148] Multi-Room Video Presentation and Video Wall
Lumens VC-A50PN [149] NDI HX PTZ Camera [HX]
Marshall CV620-IP [150] NDI HX PTZ Camera [HX]
Zinemath ZKey [151] Depth Processing AR/VR Keying System
Intinor Direkt-router 2000IP [152] Multi-channel decoder
Microsoft Skype for Content Creators [25] Video Calling macOS, Windows
EVS X-ONE [26] Production System
Avid MediaComposer[27] NLE macOS, Windows
Matrox Video Cards [153] Video Cards
Cinegy AIR Pro 12 [154] Video Playout Windows
Panopto Panopto [155] eLearning Platform
Primestream Fork [156] Video Capture / Playout
Green Hippo Hippotizer V4[157] Media Server
ANC LiveSync [158] MultiScreen Video Player
EMS Easy Media Suite [159] Broadcast automation
FingerWorks FingerWorks Telestrator 5 [160] Telestration
EasyWorship Softouch Development, Inc.[161] Presentation software Windows
Nixus Celio [162] Computer Graphics
RT Software tOG [163] Telestration
Elgato 4K Capture Utility [164] HDMI to NDI Ingest Windows
AXEL YouPlay [165] Broadcast Production Player Windows
AXEL XTV Suite [166] Broadcast TV Automation Software Suite Windows
AXEL Digi-TV Suite [167] Complete Television Automation System Windows
AXEL DLG Plus [168] Advanced Logo Generator SD/HD Windows
BibleShow Miodrag Rechesan [169] Bible presentation software Windows
Softron Movie Recorder Multi-Channel Video Recording Software macOS
Softron OnTheAir Video Video, Audio and Still Image Playout Server macOS
ProMax Platform [170] Shared Storage
Studio Network Solutions EVO [171] Shared Storage Windows, macOS
Studio Network Solutions ShareBrowser [172] Media Asset Management Windows, macOS
Garanin Apps NTRStreamer [173] Streaming Encoder Windows
Garanin Apps RTMP MiniServer [174] RTMP to NDI converter Windows, macOS
Kiloview P1 video encoder[175] HX Converter
Kiloview P2 portable live video encoder[176] HX Converter
DeltechCGI AirGate Playout Server Multi Channel Playout System Windows
DeltechCGI LiveGate System Live Production Systems Windows ndiScope [177] Waveform/Vectorscope single analysis Windows, macOS, Linux


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