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Neubaufahrzeug in Norway in April 1940
|Place of origin||Nazi Germany|
|Used by||Nazi Germany|
|Wars||World War II|
|Mass||23.41 tonnes (23.04 long tons; 25.81 short tons)|
|Length||6.6 m (21 ft 8 in)|
|Width||2.19 m (7 ft 2 in)|
|Height||2.98 m (9 ft 9 in)|
|Armor||13–20 mm (0.51–0.79 in)|
|75 mm KwK L/24 |
105 mm howitzer
|37 mm KwK 36 (L/45) |
2× 7.92 mm MG 13/34
|Engine||290 hp BMW Va or|
300 hp Maybach HL 108 TR
|road: 120 km (75 mi)|
|Speed||road: 25 km/h (16 mph)|
The German Neubaufahrzeug (German for "new-build vehicle"—a cover name) series of tank prototypes were a first attempt to create a heavy tank for the Wehrmacht after Adolf Hitler had come to power. Multi-turreted, heavy and slow, they were not considered successful, which led to only five being produced. These were primarily used for propaganda purposes, though three took part in the Battle of Norway in 1940.
During the 1920s and 1930s, a number of countries experimented with very large, multi-turreted tanks. The British built a single example of the Vickers A1E1 Independent in 1926. This inspired the Soviet T-35, which was built in limited numbers from 1933.
Development of the Neubaufahrzeug started in 1933 when the then Reichswehr gave a contract for the development of a Großtraktor ("heavy tractor") to both Rheinmetall and Krupp. Großtraktor was a codename for the development of a heavy tank, Germany being still forbidden to develop tanks under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The technical details of the Vickers A1E1 Independent were then available to the Germans as they were amongst the information sold to them by a British officer, Norman Baillie-Stewart, who acted as a German spy before his arrest in 1933.
The Rheinmetall and Krupp designs resembled each other to a great extent, the main difference being the weapons placement. Each had a main turret armed with a 75 mm KwK L/24 main gun and secondary 37 mm KwK L/45. Rheinmetall's design mounted the second gun above the 75 mm KwK L/24, while the Krupp design had it mounted next to the 75 mm KwK L/24. Both designs had a secondary turret mounted to the front and the rear of the main turret. These turrets were slightly adapted Panzer I turrets, with the standard machine gun armament.
Rheinmetall's design was designated PzKpfw NbFz V (PanzerKampfwagen NeubauFahrzeug V), and the Krupp design PzKpfw NbFz VI. It was intended that these designs would fulfill the role of heavy tank in the armored forces, but the design proved to be too complex and unreliable for this role. Nevertheless, development continued in order for the nascent German military to gain experience with multi-turreted tanks.
In 1934 Rheinmetall built two mild steel prototypes, both with their own turret design. Three more prototypes were built with proper armor and the Krupp turret in 1935 and 1936.
This propaganda role was extended with the German invasion of Norway, when Panzer Abteilung z.b.V. 40 (zur besonderen Verwendung - "for special purpose") was formed for supporting the invasion of Norway, and the three Neubaufahrzeuge were assigned to that unit. One vehicle was assigned to Kampfgruppe Fischer advancing north through the Østerdalen Valley, while the other two were assigned to Kampfgruppe Pellengahr advancing up the Gudbrand Valley. The one assigned to Kampfgruppe Fischer was immobilized with mechanical problems on its way to Lillehammer, while one of the two assigned to Kampfgruppe Pellengahr also had mechanical problems just north of Lillehammer. Only one tank actually made it to the front; it was immediately put in action with the German force advancing up the Gudbrand Valley with other elements of Panzer Abteilung z.b.V. 40.
The Neubaufahrzeuge first saw combat against British and Norwegian positions on April 22, near the small town of Balberg at the far south end of the Gudbrand Valley. The British Expeditionary Force was equipped with 0.55 inch calibre Boys Anti-tank rifles that easily penetrated the Neubaufahrzeug. After dozens of hits, including one that killed a crew member, the tank retreated and the crew was hesitant to advance further. Other German units pushed further through, flanking the British forces and forcing them to retreat.
It is unclear what happened to the tanks after the Norway campaign, but none of them survived the war. The surviving vehicles were ordered to be scrapped in 1941, and this took place in 1942 according to documents captured by the British in 1945. The dates when the vehicles were scrapped are unclear, but it is thought that the beginning of the construction of the Sturer Emil prototypes dates from the same time.
The last known surviving Neubaufahrzeug was used by a Lehr instruction unit in late 1944 as a target for training the Volkssturm in the use of the Panzerschreck 43 and other anti-tank weapons.
- Chamberlain, Peter & Doyle, Hillary: Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled guns and Semi-tracked Vehicles 1939-1945, Silverdale Books, 2004 ISBN 1-84509-012-8
- Hauge, Andreas; Kampene i Norge 1940, Bind 1 (The Battles in Norway 1940, Volume 1). Krigshistorisk Forlag 1995 (reprint of 1977 original) ISBN 82-993369-0-2 (In Norwegian)
- Munthe-Kaas, O. ; Krigen i Norge 1940, Operasjonene gjennom Romerike - Hedemarken - Gudbrandsdalen - Romsdalen, Bind I-II. (The War in Norway, operations through Romerike-Hedmark-Gudbrandsdalen-Romsdalen, Vol 1-2). Den Krigshistoriske Avdeling 1955 (in Norwegian)
- Nilsen, Tom V.G. ; Tysk Panzer under felttoget i Norge Del 2: Panzerzug Horstmann & Neubaufahrzeuge (German Tanks in the Norwegian Campaign, Part 2). Mud and Snow, Historiske Militære Kjøretøyers Forening 2007 (in Norwegian)
- Spielberger, Walter J: Die Motorisierung der Deutschen Reichswehr 1920–1935, S. 332–347 Motorbuchverlag, Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-87943-612-6. (in German)