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Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-761-221N-06, Norwegen, Panzer "Neubaufahrzeug".jpg
Neubaufahrzeug in Norway in April 1940
Type Tank
Place of origin Nazi Germany
Service history
In service 1940
Used by Nazi Germany
Wars World War II
Production history
Designer Rheinmetall
Designed 1933–34
Manufacturer Rheinmetall
Produced 1934–36
Number built 5
Weight 23.41 tonnes (23.04 long tons; 25.81 short tons)
Length 6.6 m (21 ft 8 in)
Width 2.19 m (7 ft 2 in)
Height 2.98 m (9 ft 9 in)
Crew 6

Armor 13–20 mm (0.51–0.79 in)
75 mm KwK L/24
105mm howitzer
37 mm KwK 36 (L/45)
2x 7.92 mm MG 13/34
Engine 290 hp BMW Va or
300 hp Maybach HL 108 TR
Suspension coil springs
road: 120 kilometres (75 mi)
Speed road: 25 km/h (16 mph)

The German Neubaufahrzeug series of tank prototypes were a first attempt to create a heavy tank for the Wehrmacht after Adolf Hitler had come to power. Multi-turreted, heavy and slow, they were not considered successful therefore only five were made. These were primarily used for propaganda purposes, though three took part in the Battle of Norway in 1940.


Neubaufahrzeug while being repaired

During the 1920s and 1930s, a number of countries experimented with very large, multi-turreted tanks. The British built a single example of the Vickers A1E1 Independent in 1926. This inspired the Soviet T-35, which was built in limited numbers from 1933.

Development of the Neubaufahrzeug (German for "new construction vehicle" - a cover name) started in 1933 when the then Reichswehr gave a contract for the development of a Großtraktor ("heavy tractor") to both Rheinmetall and Krupp. Großtraktor was a codename for the development of a heavy tank, Germany being still forbidden to develop tanks under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The technical details of the Vickers A1E1 Independent were then available to the Germans as they were amongst the information sold to them by a British officer, Norman Baillie-Stewart, who acted as a German spy before his arrest in 1933.

The Rheinmetall and Krupp designs resembled each other to a great extent, the main difference being the weapons placement. Each had a main turret armed with a 75 mm KwK L/24 main gun and secondary 37 mm KwK L/45. Rheinmetall's design mounted the second gun above the 75 mm KwK L/24, while the Krupp design had it mounted next to the 75 mm KwK L/24. Both designs had a secondary turret mounted to the front and the rear of the main turret. These turrets were slightly adapted Panzer I turrets, with the standard machine gun armament.

Rheinmetall's design was designated PzKpfw NbFz V (PanzerKampfwagen NeubauFahrzeug V), and the Krupp design PzKpfw NbFz VI. It was intended that these designs would fulfill the role of heavy tank in the armored forces, but the design proved to be too complex and unreliable for this role. Nevertheless, development continued in order for the nascent German military to gain experience with multi-turreted tanks.

In 1934 Rheinmetall built two mild steel prototypes, both with their own turret design. Three more prototypes were built with proper armor and the Krupp turret in 1935 and 1936.

Combat history[edit]

Three Neubaufahrzeuge arriving in Oslo Harbour, April 1940

Though these tanks were never placed in production, they provided a propaganda tool for Nazi Germany, for example being shown at the International Automobile Exposition in Berlin in 1939.

This propaganda role was extended with the German invasion of Norway, when Panzer Abteilung z.b.V. 40 (zur besonderen Verwendung - "for special purpose") was formed for supporting the invasion of Norway, and the three Neubaufahrzeuge were assigned to that unit. One vehicle was assigned to Kampfgruppe Fischer advancing north through the Østerdalen Valley, while the other two were assigned to Kampfgruppe Pellengahr advancing up the Gudbrandsdalen Valley. The one assigned to Kampfgruppe Fischer, was immobilized with mechanical problems on its way to Lillehammer , while one of the two assigned to Kampfgruppe Fischer, also had mechanical problems just north of Lillehammer. Only one actually made it to the front and was immediately put in action with the German force advancing up the Gudbrandsdalen Valley with other elements of Panzer Abteilung z.b.V. 40.[1]

Artists depiction of a Neubaufahrzeuge advancing on British positions at Balberg north of Lillehammer, April 22 1940. Remnants of the British positions are still visible.

At the far south end of the Gudbrandsdalen Valley, a small place called Balberg is where the Neubaufahrzeuge was first put in action on April 22 against the British and Norwegian positions. The British Expeditionary Force, was equipped with 0.55 inch calibre Boys Anti-tank rifles that easily penetrated the Neubaufahrzeug. After dozens of hits, including one that killed a crew member, the tank retreated and the crew was hesitant to advance further more in front, so other German units pushed further through, flanking the British forces forcing them to retreat.[2]

It is unclear what happened to the tanks after the Norway campaign, but none of them survived the war. The surviving vehicles were ordered scrapped in 1941, which took place in 1942 according to documents captured by the British in 1945. The dates upon which the vehicles were scrapped are unclear, but it is thought that the beginning of the construction of the Sturer Emil prototypes dates from the same time.

According to contemporary German sources, three NbFz was attached to the 1st Panzer Army and destroyed in battle with Soviet BT-7 tanks in present day Ukraine in June 1941.

All that survives of these tanks is a small number of running gear parts, preserved in the Gudbrandsdal Krigsminnesamling (Gudbrandsdal War Memorial collection), at Kvam in Norway.[3]


  1. ^ Nilsen. p. 10
  2. ^ Hauge, page 302-305
  3. ^ "Surviving German WW2 Sonderfahrzeuge" (PDF). Surviving Panzers website. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  • Chamberlain, Peter & Doyle, Hillary: Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled guns and Semi-tracked Vehicles 1939-1945, Silverdale Books, 2004 ISBN 1-84509-012-8
  • Hauge, Andreas; Kampene i Norge 1940, Bind 1 (The Battles in Norway 1940, Volume 1). Krigshistorisk Forlag 1995 (reprint of 1977 original) ISBN 82-993369-0-2 (In Norwegian)
  • Munthe-Kaas, O. ; Krigen i Norge 1940, Operasjonene gjennom Romerike - Hedemarken - Gudbrandsdalen - Romsdalen, Bind I-II. (The War in Norway, operations through Romerike-Hedmark-Gudbrandsdalen-Romsdalen, Vol 1-2). Den Krigshistoriske Avdeling 1955 (in Norwegian)
  • Nilsen, Tom V.G. ; Tysk Panzer under felttoget i Norge Del 2: Panzerzug Horstmann & Neubaufahrzeuge (German Tanks in the Norwegian Campaign, Part 2). Mud and Snow, Historiske Militære Kjøretøyers Forening 2007 (in Norwegian)
  • Spielberger, Walter J: Die Motorisierung der Deutschen Reichswehr 1920–1935, S. 332–347 Motorbuchverlag, Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-87943-612-6. (in German)

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