Neuburg was the capital of Palatinate-Neuburg. After merging the county with Bavaria in 1806, it was part of firstly Altmühlkreis (Its center was Eichstätt) between 1806 and 1808, later Oberdonaukreis (Its center was firstly Eichstätt between 1810 and 1817, later Augsburg between 1817 and 1837). It was a rural district center in Schwaben region in 29 November 1837 and On 30 June 1972, Neuburg an der Donau became a Grosse Kreisstadt (similar to a county seat) and was passed to Upper Bavaria region.
Neuburg an der Donau has a defensive wall around the old town. The old town contains some well worth seeing institutions and happenings, such as the 'Birdland Jazz Club Neuburg', one of the best locations for jazz auditions in Germany.
The Renaissance Ducal Palace (Pfalz-Neuburger Residenzschloss), Neuburg Castle, which was built 1530-45 under Otto Henry, Elector Palatine and took on its present-day form during the reign of Philip William, Elector Palatine, today houses several museums including a Baroque gallery of the Bavarian State Picture Collection and the Archäologie-Museum Schloss Neuburg an der Donau (Neuburg an der Donau Castle Archaeology Museum), a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection. To the other main sights belong also the late Renaissance court church Hofkirche (1607/08 built by Josef Heintz), the Town Hall (1603/09), the rococoProvinzialbibliothek (Provincial Library, 1731/32) and the baroque churches of St. Peter (1641/46) and St. Ursula (1700/01). Grünau is a renaissance hunting lodge of Elector Otto Henry, which is situated 7 km further east.