The oldest record mentioning the place, then named Quilicz, dates back to 1348. Later the spelling was changed into Quilitz. When in 1814 Karl August von Hardenberg received the manor, he renamed the place right away into Neu-Hardenberg. On Labour Day, 1 May 1949, the place was renamed into Marxwalde after Karl Marx. This was reversed on January 1, 1991. Since then the place bears again the old name Neuhardenberg in this slightly altered spelling.
The construction of Neuhardenberg Manor with interior designs by Carl Gotthard Langhans dates back to the late 18th century. In 1763 the Prussian general Joachim Bernhard von Prittwitz had received Quilitz, a former property of the Pfuel noble family. The historic village was devastated by a blaze in 1801 and reconstructed as a Neoclassical model settlement according to plans designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. In 1814 King Frederick William III vested Hardenberg with the locality together with the princely title as a gratification for his merits as Prussian state chancellor. From 1820 on Schinkel also rebuilt the mansion, while the gardens were redesigned by Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau and Peter-Joseph Lenné.
After reunification the manor was restored to the Hardenberg family and acquired by the Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband saving banks association in 1996. After renovation it was reopened in 2002 in the presence of German President Johannes Rau. It is today used as a conference building but also for cultural events.
Development of population since 1875 within the current boundaries (Blue line: Population; Dotted line: Comparison to population development of Brandenburg state; Grey background: Time of Nazi rule; Red background: Time of communist rule)
Population development within the current boundaries (2013)