Neukölln (locality)

Coordinates: 52°28′53″N 13°26′07″E / 52.48139°N 13.43528°E / 52.48139; 13.43528
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Western outskirts of Neukölln with St. John's Basilica
Western outskirts of Neukölln with St. John's Basilica
Flag of Neukölln
Coat of arms of Neukölln
Location of Neukölln in Neukölln borough and Berlin
Neukölln is located in Germany
Neukölln is located in Berlin
Coordinates: 52°28′53″N 13°26′07″E / 52.48139°N 13.43528°E / 52.48139; 13.43528
Founded26 June 1360 (official), ca. 1200 (inofficial)
Subdivisions9 neighborhoods or 21 regions
 • Borough MayorMartin Hikel (SPD)
 • Total11.7 km2 (4.5 sq mi)
52 m (171 ft)
 • Total163,735
 • Density14,000/km2 (36,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
(nr. 0801) 12043, 12045, 12047, 12049, 12051, 12053, 12055, 12057, 12059
Vehicle registrationB

Neukölln[2] (German: [nɔʏˈkœln] ; formerly Rixdorf), until 1920 an independent city, is a large inner-city quarter (Ortsteil)[3] of Berlin in the homonymous borough (Bezirk) of Neukölln,[4] including the historic village of Alt-Rixdorf and numerous Gründerzeit apartment blocks. With 163,735 inhabitants (2024) the Ortsteil is the second-most densely populated of Berlin after Prenzlauer Berg. It was originally characterized by mostly working-class inhabitants and later a relatively high percentage of immigrants, especially of Turkish and Russian descent, but since the turn of the millennium an influx of students, creatives, and western immigrants has led to gentrification.


Rixdorfer Höhe, Volkspark Hasenheide

Neukölln is situated in the North European Plain, typically characterized by low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography.[5] The quarter lies on the geological border between the shallow Berliner Urstromtal glacial valley and the northernmost edge of the Teltow ground moraine plateau, specifically the Rollberge,[6] a small range of glacial hills rising to the south of Hermannplatz, Rixdorf, and the streets Karl-Marx-Straße [de] and Hasenheide [de]. Neukölln's average elevation is 52 m (172 ft) above NHN, with the highest elevation at 67.9 m (223 ft) achieved by the Rixdorfer Höhe, a Trümmerberg in the Volkspark Hasenheide.

Landwehr Canal with Neukölln on the right


The quarter is situated south-east of the Berlin city center, in the north of the Neukölln borough. It lies adjacent to the quarter of Britz in the south, which is also part of greater Neukölln, to the SO 36 and 61 quarters of Kreuzberg in the north and north-west (in the Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough), to the quarter Tempelhof in the west (in Tempelhof-Schöneberg), and to the quarters Alt-Treptow, Plänterwald and Baumschulenweg in the east and north-east (all part of Treptow-Köpenick).

Neukölln is separated from Kreuzberg by the park Volkspark Hasenheide, the Landwehr Canal, and the streets Kottbusser Damm [de] and Hasenheide as far as the city square Südstern [de]. Neukölln shares part of the Tempelhofer Feld with Tempelhof, the vast field of the former Tempelhof Airport, now a popular recreation area. The Stadtring motorway and the Neukölln Ship and Britz canals form the border with the Britz quarter, while the trench Heidekampgraben, the Kiefholzstraße and several urban streets in the Bouché neighborhood separate Neukölln from the eastern quarters of Treptow-Köpenick.



Neighborhoods of Neukölln

Neukölln is divided into nine official neighborhoods (Kieze or Stadtquartiere, officially called Ortslagen),[7] among them the historical sites of Neukölln's foundation south-east of the quarters's geographical center, Richardplatz-Süd[8] to the north-west, and Böhmisch-Rixdorf[9] to the south-east, which together are commonly referred to as Rixdorf or Alt-Rixdorf ("Old Rixdorf"). The other official neighborhoods are (from north to south):

Other sites[edit]


Other urban sites not officially named or recognized as neighborhoods are the Donaukiez along Donaustraße between Sonnenallee and Karl-Marx-Straße, the Weserkiez around Weserstraße east of Wildenbruchstraße between Weigandufer and Sonnenallee, the Dammwegsiedlung south of Dammweg, as well as large residential areas north of the Neukölln Ship Canal, and south of the Berlin Hermannstraße and Berlin Neukölln stations. At the western and eastern outskirts there are recreational spaces—a large area of privately leased garden plots in the east at the site of the former Berlinische Wiesen ("Berlin meadows"), and the park Volkspark Hasenheide with surrounding buildings in the west—while industrial areas have formed mostly to the south and east of the Berlin Ringbahn.

Urban planning[edit]

In urban planning, the divisions of Berlin's boroughs and quarters are more precise. Here Neukölln, non-administrative district 10 in borough 08, as of 2024, is divided into five regions, each of them further compartmentalized into a total of 21 so-called Lebensweltlich orientierte Räume (LOR) ("lifeworld-oriented regions"):[17]

  • Schillerpromenade (01) in the west, comprising Hasenheide (01), Schillerpromenade as Schillerpromenade Nord (02) and Schillerpromenade Süd (03), Wartheplatz (04) and Silbersteinstraße (05);
  • Neuköllner Mitte/Zentrum (02) in the center, comprising Flughafenstraße (06), Rollberg (07), Körnerpark (08), and Glasower Straße (09);
  • Reuterstraße (03) in the north, comprising Reuterkiez as Maybachufer (10) and Reuterplatz (11), Weichselplatz (12), Bouchéstraße (13), and Donaustraße (14);
  • Rixdorf (04) in the center to the north-east, comprising Ganghoferstraße (15), Böhmisch-Rixdorf and Richardplatz-Süd as Alt-Rixdorf (16), Braunschweiger Straße (17), Hertzbergplatz (18), and Treptower Straße Nord (19); and
  • Köllnische Heide (05) in the east, comprising Weiße Siedlung (20) and Schulenburgpark (21) including the High-Deck-Siedlung.

The industrial parks Ederstraße and Köllnische Heide are no longer part of the city's LOR framework as independent regions.

Tempelhofer Feld
Neukölln Harbor and Watergate

Parks and water bodies[edit]

As a densely populated urban inner-city quarter, Neukölln has fewer large recreational locations than other quarters of Berlin, not counting cemeteries. However, the two major parks in the western part of Neukölln, the Volkspark Hasenheide and the Tempelhofer Feld, more than make up for the lack of green stretches in other spots. Still, smaller parks are found in various neighborhoods, for example the Anita-Berber-Park (Schillerkiez), which also connects to the Tempelhofer Feld, Lessinghöhe and Thomashöhe (Körnerpark), Comenius-Garten (Rixdorf), Herbert-Krause-Park (High-Deck-Siedlung), and extensive stretches of garden plots like Helmutstal close to the quarter's eastern border, including a long green corridor adjacent to the Heidekampgraben. Several inner-city squares have been designed with green stretches, for example Reuterplatz, Weichselplatz, Wildenbruchplatz, Hertzbergplatz and Richardplatz.

All of Neukölln's water bodies are man-made. The most prominent example is the Neukölln Ship Canal, which connects the Teltow and Britz canals with the Landwehr Canal and (through Kreuzberg) the river Spree. The Neukölln Harbor [de], consisting of an upper and lower basin and connected via the Neukölln Watergate, was built in tandem with the Britz Harbor at the south end of the Neukölln Ship Canal. Smaller landing stages are located along the canal until Kiehlufer, and these Neukölln Docklands are currently subject to extensive redevelopment. Several parks contain artificial ponds, for example the Volkspark Hasenheide (Rixdorfer Teich), the Comenius-Garten (Weltenmeer), the Karma Kulturgarten in Rixdorf, and the Von-Der-Schulenburg-Park (High-Deck-Siedlung).


In the 12th century the region around modern-day Berlin came under lasting German rule as part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, founded by Albert the Bear in 1157. The region was originally situated near the borders to the Duchy of Kopanica, ruled by Jaxa of Köpenick, and the Duchy of Pomerania, which had all fought for dominance during the colonization of the Teltow and the formation of Brandenburg (Ostsiedlung). Archeological traces of earlier Slavic settlements were never found in the area of modern-day Neukölln.

Early history[edit]

Templar villages and courts on the Teltow including Rixdorf (29), the Treptow folwark (53), Tempelhof (40), Mariendorf (23) and Marienfelde (24)

Around the year 1200,[18] the military hamlet Richarshove (Richardshof, "Richard's Court"),[19] together with an unnamed folwark in northern Treptow, was founded at the foot of the Teltow on the edge of the Berlinische Wiesen as an eastern stronghold of the Commandery Tempelhof [de], presumably administered by the Knights Templar from neighboring Tempelhove, Merghenvelde and Mergendorp,[20] which had developed during the early days of the Holy Roman Empire along the old Via Imperii.[21] The Templar functioned as a neutral institution, and when the conflicts had ended, the stronghold was abandoned and eventually converted into a Templar access yard. Pope Clement V dissolved the order in 1312, but different from other Templar possessions, the Tempelhof commandery including Richarshove did not immediately change into Johannite ownership, probably because the Knights Templar offered resistance.[22] Instead, the estate was held by Waldemar the Great for six years, and legally transferred to the Order of Saint John (Johanniterorden) only in 1318. The Johannite history of the commandery, which was expressly documented for the first time in 1344, is still represented today by Neukölln's coat of arms bearing the Maltese cross.


Richardplatz, Rixdorf

When first mentioned in a charter of 26 June 1360, the angerdorf south-east of Berlin around the present-day Richardplatz was called Richarsdorp ("Richard's Village"), signifying the rededication and extension from yard (hove) to village (dorp). The original Rixdorf charter has been lost since World War II, but its contents have been preserved, and the year 1360 is regarded as the official year of Neukölln's foundation.[23] The village was mentioned again in 1375 as Richardstorpp in the Landbuch der Mark Brandenburg. Around the beginning of the 15th century, Richarsdorp erected its first chapel.[24] In 1435 the Johannite Order sold their possessions to the cities of Alt-Berlin and Cölln, including Richarsdorp, which was mentioned again in 1525 as Ricksdorf. In 1543 Ricksdorf became the sole possession of Cölln. During the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) Ricksdorf was mostly depopulated, with buildings and most of the chapel destroyed by fire.[25] After the city of Cölln merged with Berlin in 1709, the village, then already called Rixdorf, became the possession of Berlin.

Deutsch-Rixdorf and Böhmisch-Rixdorf[edit]

View of Hasenheide and Alt-Berlin from the Rollberge, early 19th century

In 1737 King Frederick William I of Prussia allowed about 350 Moravian Protestants expelled from Bohemia to settle near the village,[26] where they built their own church and houses off the village centre along the road to Berlin, today called Richardstraße. The original village of Rixdorf was subsequently called Deutsch-Rixdorf. The new Bohemian village Böhmisch-Rixdorf was granted its own constitution in 1797.

Hermannstraße and Hermannplatz, Rixdorf, 1900
Rixdorf in 1908

The overall population in 1809 was 695.[27] In the course of industrialization in the 19th century, a network of new streets was laid out as part of the Hobrecht-Plan in an area that came to be known architecturally as the Wilhelmine Ring. On 28 April 1849, more than a quarter of the buildings in both Rixdorf villages were destroyed in a firestorm, and reconstruction lasted until 1853. In 1863 a Turkish cemetery was laid out north of Rixdorf, the successor of a smaller burial ground in Kreuzberg established in 1798 for the Turkish members of the Prussian Army.[28]

In 1867 Deutsch-Rixdorf had a population of 5,000, and Böhmisch-Rixdorf of 1,500. When both villages were united as Rixdorf on 1 January 1874,[29] the new town had 8,000 inhabitants, growing to 15,000 the next year. On 1 April 1899, Rixdorf, then the largest town of Prussia with approximately 90,000 residents, received the status of an independent city. The population quickly grew to 237,289 in 1910.[30]


Kirchgasse, Rixdorf

Rixdorf had become notorious for its taverns and amusement sites, which dampened investments and economic development, so in 1912 the local authorities tried to get rid of this reputation by assuming the name Neukölln, derived from the Neucöllner Siedlungen ("Neucölln Estates") north of Rixdorf, which themselves referenced Neu-Cölln, a historical district south of the medieval part of Berlin and Cölln proper.[31] The renaming was eventually granted by Emperor William I on 27 January 1912. It was during this time that the architect Reinhold Kiehl was called on by the local council to upgrade the city's infrastructure. This has led to some of the area's most iconic buildings being erected, such as the Rathaus Neukölln (city hall) or the Stadtbad Neukölln (public bath).[32]

Neukölln's independence ended in 1920 when it was incorporated into Berlin as part of the Greater Berlin Act and, together with the quarters Britz, Rudow and Buckow, formed the new borough of Neukölln, Berlin's 14th (and since the 2001 reform 8th) administrative district. Rixdorf continued to exist, and is today represented by two neighborhoods in the center of Neukölln, Böhmisch-Rixdorf and Richardplatz-Süd. Many of the old landmarks are still intact, and several areas and streets like the Bohemian Kirchgasse have retained their idyllic and rural character.[33]


Bloody May barricades at the Briesestraße

In the Weimar Republic Neukölln remained a working-class quarter and communist stronghold. This led to increasing tensions between left-wing radicals like the KPD and the Berlin police, culminating in the Bloody May riots of 1929 (Blutmai). The Nazis viewed the quarter as "Red Neukölln", and tensions with the rivaling socialist and communist groups ensued as early as November 1926, when Joseph Goebbels sent over 300 men of the Sturmabteilung (SA) on a propaganda march through Neukölln, ending in clashes on the Hermannplatz. The conflict intensified until the end of the republic, leading to occasional armed engagements like the Rixdorf shootout of October 1931, when communists attacked the Richardsburg, a Sturmlokal of the SA. After the National Socialists' rise to power in 1933, the SA extended their campaigns and also targeted rallies and events by moderate parties like the SPD.[34]

Commemorative light installation at the location of the Rixdorf concentration camp, Sonnenallee

After the onset of World War II in 1939, the Rixdorf factories of the Krupp-Registrierkassen-Gesellschaft and American company National Cash Register, which had merged as the National Krupp Registrierkassen GmbH during the Weimar Republic, were transformed into military production facilities.[35] In 1942 a forced labor camp for up to 865 mainly Jewish and Romani women from the conquered Eastern territories was established on the factory grounds. In 1944 it was absorbed as one of several Berlin outposts (Außenlager[36]) of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, primarily for female Jewish-Polish forced laborers, who had been transferred from the Łódź Ghetto and Auschwitz respectively.[37] The camp's last remaining barracks stood until the year 1957.[38]

Sonnenallee border crossing, 1964

From 1945 to 1949, Neukölln was part of the American sector of Berlin, encompassing the south and south-west of what would later become West Berlin, an enclave of West Germany within Communist East Germany from 1949 until German reunification in 1990. The Sonnenallee, connecting Neukölln at Hermannplatz with Baumschulenweg in former East Berlin, was the site of a border crossing of the Berlin Wall.[39] During the Cold War Neukölln retained its status as a traditional working-class area and one of Berlin's red-light districts. Many gastarbeiter, especially from Turkey and Greece, settled in Kreuzberg and Neukölln since the 1950s, later followed by Palestinian and Arabic refugees from the Lebanese Civil War. [40]

Since the 1970s and 80s, Neukölln, like the neighboring Kreuzberg, has embraced alternative forms of living and an often anti-establishment culture that is still vibrant to this day. In the 1990s late repatriates from formerly Soviet states like Ukraine and Russia resettled in Germany, many of them in Berlin, and in Neukölln specifically.

Berlin-Neukölln in the 21st century[edit]

Following a decade as a typical inner-city hot spot, 21st century Neukölln has experienced an influx of students, creatives and other young professionals of mostly Western origin avoiding higher rents charged in other parts of Berlin. The trend increased after the 2008 financial and 2010 European debt crises, when many young EU citizens left their home countries for Germany in search of work, leading to rapid cultural shifts in certain neighborhoods within Neukölln, especially the neighborhoods to the north and west from Reuter- to Schillerkiez. Coupled with increasing domestic and foreign real estate investments, this has caused gentrification and a knock-on effect of rents to rise in many parts of Neukölln.[41][42] Conversely, this cosmopolitan evolution has made Neukölln into one of the world's most sought-after neighborhoods to visit and live.

In 2019 46% of Neukölln residents had been first or second-generation immigrants.[43] The percentage rose to 48% in 2022 due to the ongoing European migrant crisis,[44] with migration originating mostly in Muslim countries. As of 2024, the percentage of foreigners without German citizenship is 21.8% on the low end in Bouchéstraße (LOR 100313), and as high as 40.9% in both Donaustraße (LOR 100314) and Glasower Straße (LOR 100209).[45] Over the years, this development has led to a significant increase of antisemitism and pro-Palestinian propaganda,[46] organized crime by Islamic clans (Clan criminality [de]) with recurring gang and drug violence,[47] homophobia,[48] and mounting educational, religious and social conflicts.[49]


Public transport[edit]

In Berlin, urban railway services are managed by the S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, while all other public transport systems are managed by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), which together with the Brandenburg providers form the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB).


Hermannplatz U-Bahn station

Neukölln is served by two U-Bahn (subway) rail lines, the northwest-to-southeast U7 (Rathaus SpandauRudow) and the north-to-south U8 (WittenauHermannstraße), with an interchange between the two at Hermannplatz. Within Neukölln, the U7 has three additional eastbound stations along the Karl-Marx-Straße: Rathaus Neukölln, Karl-Marx-Straße and Neukölln, the latter being an interchange between U- and S-Bahn. The U8 has three additional southbound stations along the Hermannstraße: Boddinstraße, Leinestraße and Hermannstraße, the latter being the quarter's second interchange between U- and S-Bahn.

Three U-Bahn stations just outside of the quarter offer quicker access to certain neighborhoods of Neukölln: Südstern (U7) to the western parts of Hasenheide, Schönleinstraße (U8) to the Reuterkiez, and Grenzallee (U7) to the southern and south-eastern industrial parks including the Neukölln Harbor.

During workday nights, approximately between 1:00 and 4:00, Berlin's subways are not operational, but are replaced by buses. In Neukölln, the U7 and U8 are replaced by the bus lines N7 and N8 respectively. During nights before Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, the U-Bahn lines operate continuously.


Neukölln S-Bahn station

Neukölln is served by five S-Bahn (urban railway) lines, with U-Bahn interchanges at Berlin-Hermannstraße (U8) and Berlin-Neukölln (U7), each for all of the five lines. The S45 connects Neukölln and the airport (see below). Two additional important services are the Ringbahn circle lines S41 (clockwise) and S42 (counter-clockwise), connecting i.a. to Südkreuz, Westkreuz, Gesundbrunnen (Nordkreuz) and Ostkreuz. The other two lines are the S47 via Niederschöneweide to Spindlersfeld in the south-east, and the S46, which connects Neukölln to Westend in the far west and the town Königs Wusterhausen south-east of Berlin via Adlershof, Grünau and the town Zeuthen. Overall, Neukölln has four S-Bahn stations, the aforementioned Hermannstraße and Neukölln as well as Sonnenallee on the Ringbahn at the outskirts of Rixdorf, and Köllnische Heide on the southeastbound railway, providing S-Bahn access to the inhabitants of Weiße Siedlung, High-Deck-Siedlung and Schulenburgpark.


Neukölln is served by several bus lines, connecting for example Marzahn (194) and Marienfelde (277). There are also four MetroBus lines, the most important ones being the M29 connecting to the western city center including Kurfürstendamm, the M41 to Berlin Central Station, and the southbound M44 to Buckow-Süd, the destination of a potential extension of the U-Bahn line U8 (see below). In addition to the U-Bahn replacement bus lines during night hours, Neukölln is served by several regular night bus lines, for example the N47 connecting Hermannplatz and Berlin East railway station (Ostbahnhof).

Airport connections[edit]

Since the closing of the airports Tegel and Tempelhof, whose airfield was partially situated in Neukölln, Berlin only has one remaining international airport, Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER), the former (and greatly extended) Berlin Schönefeld Airport just outside of Berlin. As of 2024, BER passengers to or from Neukölln can only use buses or the S-Bahn for direct connections.[50]

When using the U-Bahn, an interchange between subway and the 15-minute airport express bus lines X7 and X71 (for a combined service every 10 minutes) is necessary at the U7 terminus Rudow. For S-Bahn access, an interchange is necessary between U-Bahn and the S45 at the stations Hermannstraße (U8) or Neukölln (U7). As of 2024, the S45 operates every 20 minutes from 5:00–24:00 and 7:00–24:00 on Sundays respectively. During the night, the U-Bahn service is replaced by the night bus line N7, which directly connects Neukölln and the airport. Since the closing of the old Terminal 5 near Schönefeld, the daytime bus line 171 between Hermannplatz and BER has not been extended to reach the operational terminals 1–4: using this line, passengers need to interchange either at Rudow (X7/71) or at the terminus Schönefeld (S-Bahn).


There are concrete medium-term plans to extend the U7 south beyond Rudow in order to directly connect the airport BER to Neukölln and the rest of Berlin via U-Bahn, adding at least three additional stations inbetween, Rudow-Süd (Neuhofer Straße), Lieselotte-Berger-Platz and Schönefeld for an S-Bahn interchange. A 2023 BVG feasibility study also proposed a southbound extension of the U8 beyond Hermannstraße, terminating in Buckow-Süd just outside of Berlin.

Since many of Neukölln's streets are too narrow, small or steep for regular buses, for example in historical places like Rixdorf, many neighborhoods have insufficient access to public transport. For this reason, there are proposals to create a local network of small shuttle buses to connect the less accessible neighborhoods to the main public transport lines of U-Bahn, S-Bahn and eventually the tram.


Neukölln currently has no connection to the Berlin MetroTram network, and due to the Teltow slopes and narrower streets in places like Flughafenstraße, only Neukölln's northern neighborhoods in the glacial valley are immediately suitable for tram expansion. A long-gestating plan proposes to extend the MetroTram line M10 by the year 2030, from Kreuzberg (SO36) through the Görlitzer Park and crossing the Landwehr Canal into Neukölln, with stations planned at Framstraße, Pannierstraße and Hermannplatz via Sonnenallee. This would create a direct public transport connection from Neukölln (Reuterkiez) to Kreuzberg, Friedrichshain, Prenzlauer Berg, Mitte and Moabit via Berlin Central Station.

Individual transport[edit]

Motorized individual transport[edit]


Since Neukölln is densely populated and highly urbanized, most of its streets come with a speed limit of 30 km/h for motorized vehicles, including more aggressive measures in recent years aimed at reducing traffic with one-way roads and concepts like the Spielstraße [de] ("play street") or the Kiezblock [de] (fixed or modular diverters).

Nevertheless, several main roads function as important arterial connections to other parts of Berlin: Columbiadamm, Urbanstraße and Hasenheide connect to the western parts of Berlin south of the city center via Tempelhof and the eastern neighborhoods of Kreuzberg (61) respectively, while Sonnenallee, Karl-Marx-Straße and Hermannstraße connect to southern and south-eastern parts of Berlin via Britz and Baumschulenweg respectively. The Kottbusser Damm is the main road to the SO36 neighborhood of Kreuzberg in the north, but traffic calming measures have reduced its importance in recent years. Except for the Columbiadamm, all of the above arterial roads converge at Hermannplatz.

The A100 autobahn just outside of Neukölln's border with Britz connects to the western parts of Berlin, with an eastern extension through parts of Neukölln to Alt-Treptow under construction, and a planned extension further east into Friedrichshain and Lichtenberg via Ostkreuz. At the interchange Autobahndreieck Neukölln, the A100 connects to the A113 autobahn, which leads south to BER airport and the A10, Berlin's orbital autobahn.

Bicycle traffic[edit]

Most of Neukölln's one-way streets are two-way for cyclists. In recent years, several side streets have been rededicated as bicycle boulevards, especially in the Reuterkiez, while larger main roads have been reconstructed to include properly separated bike lanes, for example Kottbusser Damm and Hasenheide, with plans for more reconstruction in the coming years.

Pedestrian traffic[edit]

Green corridor, Heidekampgraben

Due to Berlin's usually broad sidewalks, extensive speed limits, especially on side streets, and other measures like play streets and an increasing number of one-way streets, Neukölln has become a rather safe environment for pedestrians. However, compared to other German cities, very few pedestrian zones exist in Neukölln, currently only the "youth street" Rütlistraße (Reuterkiez) and the Tempelhofer Feld. There are proposals and concrete plans to rededicate certain locations as either pedestrian zones or mixed zones for pedestrians and cyclists, for example the Elbestraße and Weichselstraße in the Reuterkiez.

Several hiking trails exist along the waterways within or bordering Neukölln, primarily the Landwehr Canal, parts of the Neukölln Ship Canal, the Britz Canal, and the Heidekampgraben in the east. Other green trails are limited to Neukölln's parks, especially the Hasenheide, the Tempelhofer Feld, and the eastern garden plots. However, due to Neukölln's highly urbanized character, none of the trails are fully interconnected, as it is often found in the suburban quarters of Berlin.

Freight transport[edit]

Neukölln-Mittenwald industrial railroad

Almost all of Neukölln's industrial parks are situated in the southern and eastern parts of the quarter. Both the A100 and A113 highways function as vital access ways, not least for connecting to the BER aiport's freight terminals, but the Neukölln Harbor alongside Berlin's waterways also plays a prominent role in the transportation of goods. Besides S-Bahn services, the stations Hermannstraße, Sonnenallee along the Neukölln Ship Canal, and especially Neukölln offer additional capacities for freigth traffic via railways. They connect eastbound via Köllnische Heide, and westbound alongside Berlin's orbital S-Bahn infrastructure, continuing either westbound via Südkreuz or southbound and southwestbound via Tempelhof. One additional smaller historical railroad still in use today is the Neukölln-Mittenwald railroad [de], which branches off south of the Tempelhofer Feld between the stations Hermannstraße and Tempelhof and traverses the Teltow Canal in order to connect other industrial areas further south, eventually leading back east to the Teltow Canal via the Rudow industrial through track [de]. Additional shorter sections of railroad connect the Neukölln Harbor directly to Neukölln station and a large industrial park north of the Britz Canal near Neukölln's neighborhood High-Deck-Siedlung.

Main sights[edit]

Memorial plate Ursula Goetze (1987)
  • Rixdorf village church, consecrated in 1481, adopted by the Moravian Protestants in 1737, officially called Bethlehem Church since 1912.
  • Şehitlik Mosque, on the Turkish cemetery, finished in 2005 by the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs (DİTİB).
  • Neuköllner Oper: Opera house that hosts a wide range of performances including musicals, baroque opera, operetta, or experimental music theatre. Famous for its aim to bring elitist culture to a wider audience.[51]
  • Stadtbad Neukölln, the local swim hall which consists of antique thermal baths inspired by Greek temples and basilicas.
  • Körnerpark: Park in neobarock style with fountains, orangerie, exhibition rooms and a cafe, founded 1910 by Franz Körner as a present to Rixdorf.

Notable people[edit]

Engelbert Zaschka 1927


International relations[edit]


  1. ^ "Einwohnerregisterstatistik". Bezirksamt Neukölln. 31 December 2023.
  2. ^ Translated "New Kölln", and etymologically "New Colony" from lat. colonia; cf. also Roman Cologne. Not to be confused with Berlin's historical district of Neu-Cölln.
  3. ^ The locality of Neukölln is a quarter (Ortsteil or Stadtteil) and non-administrative district of the Neukölln borough, the latter known as Verwaltungsbezirk (administrative district), in Berlin simply called Bezirk (district). Different from the borough, the quarter of Neukölln (as a non-administrative district) has no mayor or representatives of its own.
  4. ^ Sometimes informally called Groß-Neukölln ("Greater Neukölln"). To distinguish the quarter from the borough, the former is also called Berlin-Neukölln or Nord-Neukölln. Over the years there have been several petitions to reestablish the historical name Rixdorf; cf. Kai Ritzmann, "Aus (Nord-)Neukölln soll wieder Rixdorf werden", 1 July 2019, B.Z..
  5. ^ See also Topography of Berlin.
  6. ^ Lit. "rolling hills"; one of Neukölln's neighborhoods was named after the Rollberge range (see below). See also the Kreuzberg, which is Berlin's most prominent glacial hill and (together with the Rollberge) part of the larger Teltow range called Tempelhofer Berge.
  7. ^ Cf. "Neukölln".
  8. ^ Also known as Richardkiez; the original Richarsdorp/Rixdorf, later Deutsch-Rixdorf.
  9. ^ Also known as Böhmisches Dorf.
  10. ^ Also known as Reuterquartier; named after the central town square Reuterplatz, itself named after novelist Fritz Reuter. Together with the adjacent parts of Kreuzberg, the neighborhood is sometimes jokingly referred to as Kreuzkölln (cf. Johannes Schneider, "Sagt endlich Kreuzkölln!", 12 April 2016, Der Tagesspiegel), a portmanteau of "Kreuzberg" and "Neukölln", the former's SO 36 and Kreuzberg 61 quarters bordering to the north and west respectively. The short hand X-Kölln is also in use.
  11. ^ Often called Flughafenkiez, seldomly Flughafenstraßenkiez; the name refers to the former airport nearby.
  12. ^ Also called Schillerkiez; named after Friedrich Schiller.
  13. ^ Also called Rollbergkiez or Rollbergsiedlung; named after the Rollberge, a range of glacial hills (see above).
  14. ^ Lit. "white estates"; not to be confused with the Weiße Stadt (Berlin) [de] in Reinickendorf.
  15. ^ Sometimes referred to as Körnerkiez; named after the park's former owner, Franz Körner.
  16. ^ Also called Sängerviertel ("Singers' Quarter") due to several street names.
  17. ^ Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg, "Adressverzeichnisfür die lebensweltlich orientierten Räume", Berlin, January 2024; official neighborhoods emphasized.
  18. ^ Tempelhof and other previously Slavic villages were founded around 1190, and the surrounding Teltow region was incorporated in two phases between 1190 and 1230.
  19. ^ Heike Schroll, Das Landesarchiv Berlin und seine Bestände: Übersicht der Bestände aus der Zeit bis 1945 (Tektonik-Gruppe A), Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag, Berlin, 2003, p. 134.
  20. ^ No records exist of the Knights' direct involvement in the foundation and successive command of Tempelhof and the Teltow region, but the later transfer of ownership implies their prominent role.
  21. ^ The Via Imperii also functioned as one of the Medieval European St. James pilgrims' ways; within the southern parts of Berlin, it ran from the old central towns of Alt-Berlin and Cölln, now Mitte, along the Alte Jakobstraße, via Hallesches Tor, Tempelhof, Mariendorf, Marienfelde, Teltow and Stahnsdorf further south in the direction of Beelitz and Wittenberg.
  22. ^ Heinz-Dieter Heimann, Klaus Neitmann, Winfried Schich (eds.), Brandenburgisches Klosterbuch. Handbuch der Klöster, Stifte und Kommenden bis zur Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts, 2.1276 sq., Berlin 2007.
  23. ^ Cf. the 650-years anniversary edition "Rixdorf – 650 – Neukölln" of Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte Berlins (Vol. 3, 2010).
  24. ^ The Landbuch does not mention a chapel for the year 1375, and before 1400 the village had to pay tributes to the priest at Tempelhof, which rules out a church in Rixdorf during these early times, refuting unsourced claims that a chapel already stood long before and even received its church bell as early as 1322.
  25. ^ The chapel was rebuilt in 1639 and renamed Bethlehem Church in 1912. Many parts of today's church building have preserved the original late Gothic architecture of the 15th century.
  26. ^ Bohemia became primarily catholic again after the Battle of White Mountain, which led to persecutions of the Protestant minority, many of whom subsequently left the country.
  27. ^ Schneider R. 1993. Neukölln – Ein Bezirk von Berlin. Berlin.
  28. ^ It contains the mortal remains of the Ottoman ambassador Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi, the exiled Grand Vizier Mehmed Talat and Bahattin Şakir.
  29. ^ By royal decree of 11 July 1873.
  30. ^ Friedrich Leyden, Gross-Berlin. Geographie der Weltstadt, Breslau 1933; the highest number of inhabitans would eventually be 278,208 in 1930.
  31. ^ The historical Neu-Cölln (sometimes Neu-Cöln or neu Cölln) was at first also called Neu-Cölln am Wasser ("New Cölln by the water"). It was built in 1662 as the southern extension of the city of Cölln, and remained a small district of Berlin until the Greater Berlin Act of 1920, when it was dissolved in the new Mitte quarter of the homonymous borough. Today the area is part of the Luisenstadt neighborhood (named after the historical Luisenstadt), and it is almost never called by its historical name, but places like the Köllnischer Park, originally a military bastion in Neu-Cölln, still point to the origin of the toponym Neukölln.
  32. ^ Krawczynski, Wolfgang. Architekt Reinhold Kiehl, Stadtbaurat in Rixdorf bei Berlin: Biographie, Werkverzeichnis, Beiträge : Jubiläumsbeitrag zur 750-Jahr-Feier Berlin. 1987
  33. ^ The Kirchgasse was built by the Bohemian settlers in 1737 and originally called Mala ulicka, Czech for "narrow alley", a name in use until the early 20th century. One of the buildings that survived the fire of 1849, is the old Rixdorf school (Kirchgasse 5), today a museum, which was built in 1753. The chalice of the Hussite Protestants, which is found in the building's pediment, was incorporated into Neukölln's coat of arms.
  34. ^ Bernhard Sauer, "Goebbels 'Rabauken': Zur Geschichte der SA in Berlin-Brandenburg", in: Landesarchiv Berlin, Berlin in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Jahrbuch des Landesarchivs Berlin 2006, Berlin 2006, 107-64 (114 with n. 77, 132, 141).
  35. ^ Between Weigandufer 39–45 at the Neukölln Ship Canal and Sonnenallee 181–89, at the time renamed to Braunauer Straße.
  36. ^ "KZ-Außenlager Sonnenallee", Bezirksamt Neukölln
  37. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933–1945. Volume I. Indiana University Press, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 1279. ISBN 978-0-253-35328-3.
  38. ^ Daniel Bosch & Lisanne Tholeikis, "Das vergessene KZ Neuköllns", Neuköllner, 26.08.2017
  39. ^ Featured prominently in the 1999 comedy film Sonnenallee.
  40. ^ Shahd Wari: Palestinian Berlin: Perception and Use of Public Space. In: Habitat–International. Schriften zur Internationalen Stadtentwicklung, Band 22. Lit-Verlag 2017: p. 72-74.
  41. ^ Moises Mendoza, "Foreigners Feel Accused in Berlin Gentrification Row", 11 March 2011, Der Spiegel.
  42. ^ As of 2017, in Berlin-Neukölln "the [gentrification] boom [was] in full swing or, in some places, complete (no more big hikes in rent here)"; cf. Meier J, RealXData. 2019. "Zeitraum Mietentwicklungen 2013–2017". In: Bruns H. 2019. "At A Glance: Which Berlin Districts are Going to Get More Expensive". B.Z. – Berliner Zeitung. 19 November 2019.
  43. ^ Bruns, Hildburg (19 July 2019). "Berlin wird immer bunter und internationaler". Berliner Zeitung.
  44. ^ "Hauptstadt 2021 um 5000 Einwohner gewachsen: Migrationsanteil in Berlin steigt auf 36,6 Prozent". Der Tagesspiegel. 4 February 2022.
  45. ^ "Einwohnerbestand Berlin", s.v. Regionaldaten, Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg, 31 December 2023
  46. ^ Culminating during the Israel–Hamas war; Katrin Elger, "I Actually Don't Like Hamas, But…" , Der Spiegel, 23 October 2023
  47. ^ E.g. Andreas Kopietz & Alexander Schmalz, "Escalation between Berlin's rival drug gangs", Berliner Morgenpost, 9 November 2020
  48. ^ Carolina Schwarz, "Wie bunt ist Neukölln wirklich?", die tageszeitung, 12 February 2024
  49. ^ E.g. Frederick Schindler, "Religiöses Mobbing an Schulen? Grüne und Linke halten Studie für antimuslimisch", Welt, 28 December 2021; "Das will Neukölln gegen Religions-Konflikte im Bezirk unternehmen", B.Z., 2 June 2021
  50. ^ Long-distance trains like the Regional-Express also connect the airport and Berlin, but do not cross Neukölln itself.
  51. ^ Berlin Guide – Neukölln City Getaway Guide – Berlin
  52. ^ Council of Europe (2010). "Projekt Intercultural Cities –". Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  53. ^ For a complete list, see "Städtepartnerschaften". Der Regierende Bürgermeister / Staatskanzlei. 2024..

External links[edit]

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