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Neuro-linguistic programming

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Not to be confused with Natural language processing (also NLP).
Not to be confused with Erhard Seminars Training (EST).

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States in the 1970s. NLP has since been overwhelmingly discredited scientifically,[1][2] but continues to be marketed by some hypnotherapists and by some companies that organize seminars and workshops on management training for businesses.[3]

NLP's creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.[4][5] Bandler and Grinder also claim that NLP methodology can "model" the skills of exceptional people, allowing anyone to acquire those skills.[6][7] They claim as well that, often in a single session, NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, tic disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, near-sightedness,[8] allergy, common cold,[9] and learning disorders.[10][11]

There is no scientific evidence supporting the claims made by NLP advocates and it has been discredited as a pseudoscience by experts.[1][12] Scientific reviews state that NLP is based on outdated metaphors of how the brain works that are inconsistent with current neurological theory and contain numerous factual errors.[13][14] Reviews also found that all of the supportive research on NLP contained significant methodological flaws and that there were three times as many studies of a much higher quality that failed to reproduce the "extraordinary claims" made by Bandler, Grinder, and other NLP practitioners.[2][12] Even so, NLP has been adopted by some hypnotherapists and also by companies that run seminars marketed as leadership training to businesses and government agencies.[3][13]

History and conception

Early development

According to Bandler and Grinder, NLP comprises a methodology termed modeling, plus a set of techniques that they derived from its initial applications.[15][16] Of such methods that are considered fundamental, they derived many from the work of Virginia Satir, Milton Erickson and Fritz Perls.[17]

Bandler and Grinder also drew upon the theories of Gregory Bateson, Alfred Korzybski and Noam Chomsky (particularly transformational grammar),[15][18][19] as well as ideas and techniques from Carlos Castaneda.[20]

Bandler and Grinder claim that their methodology can codify the structure inherent to the therapeutic "magic" as performed in therapy by Perls, Satir and Erickson, and indeed inherent to any complex human activity, and then from that codification, the structure and its activity can be learned by others. Their 1975 book, The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy, is intended to be a codification of the therapeutic techniques of Perls and Satir.[15][21]

Bandler and Grinder say that they used their own process of modeling to model Virginia Satir so they could produce what they termed the Meta-Model, a model for gathering information and challenging a client's language and underlying thinking.[15][21][22] They claim that by challenging linguistic distortions, specifying generalizations, and recovering deleted information in the client's statements, the transformational grammar concepts of surface structure yield a more complete representation of the underlying deep structure and therefore have therapeutic benefit.[23][24] Also derived from Satir were anchoring, future pacing and representational systems.[25]

In contrast, the Milton-Model—a model of the purportedly hypnotic language of Milton Erickson—was described by Bandler and Grinder as "artfully vague" and metaphoric.[26] The Milton-Model is used in combination with the Meta-Model as a softener, to induce "trance" and to deliver indirect therapeutic suggestion.[27]

However, adjunct lecturer in linguistics, Karen Stollznow, describes Bandler's and Grinder's reference to such experts as namedropping. Other than Satir, the people they cite as influences did not collaborate with Bandler or Grinder. Chomsky himself has no association with NLP whatsoever; his original work was intended as theory, not therapy. Stollznow writes, "[o]ther than borrowing terminology, NLP does not bear authentic resemblance to any of Chomsky's theories or philosophies – linguistic, cognitive or political."[18]

According to André Muller Weitzenhoffer, a researcher in the field of hypnosis, "the major weakness of Bandler and Grinder's linguistic analysis is that so much of it is built upon untested hypotheses and is supported by totally inadequate data."[28] Weitzenhoffer adds that Bandler and Grinder misuse formal logic and mathematics,[29] redefine or misunderstand terms from the linguistics lexicon (e.g., nominalization),[30] create a scientific façade by needlessly complicating Ericksonian concepts with unfounded claims,[31] make factual errors,[32] and disregard or confuse concepts central to the Ericksonian approach.[33]

More recently (circa 1997), Bandler has claimed, "NLP is based on finding out what works and formalizing it. In order to formalize patterns I utilized everything from linguistics to holography...The models that constitute NLP are all formal models based on mathematical, logical principles such as predicate calculus and the mathematical equations underlying holography."[34] However, there is no mention of the mathematics of holography nor of holography in general in McClendon's,[35] Spitzer's,[25] or Grinder's[36] account of the development of NLP.

On the matter of the development of NLP, Grinder recollects:[37]

My memories about what we thought at the time of discovery (with respect to the classic code we developed – that is, the years 1973 through 1978) are that we were quite explicit that we were out to overthrow a paradigm and that, for example, I, for one, found it very useful to plan this campaign using in part as a guide the excellent work of Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) in which he detailed some of the conditions which historically have obtained in the midst of paradigm shifts. For example, I believe it was very useful that neither one of us were qualified in the field we first went after – psychology and in particular, its therapeutic application; this being one of the conditions which Kuhn identified in his historical study of paradigm shifts.

The philosopher Robert Todd Carroll responded that Grinder has not understood Kuhn's text on the history and philosophy of science, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Carroll replies: (a) individual scientists never have nor are they ever able to create paradigm shifts volitionally and Kuhn does not suggest otherwise; (b) Kuhn's text does not contain the idea that being unqualified in a field of science is a prerequisite to producing a result that necessitates a paradigm shift in that field and (c) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is foremost a work of history and not an instructive text on creating paradigm shifts and such a text is not possible—extraordinary discovery is not a formulaic procedure. Carroll explains that a paradigm shift is not a planned activity, rather it is an outcome of scientific effort within the current (dominant) paradigm that produces data that can't be adequately accounted for within the current paradigm—hence a paradigm shift, i.e. the adoption of a new paradigm.

In developing NLP, Bandler and Grinder were not responding to a paradigmatic crisis in psychology nor did they produce any data that caused a paradigmatic crisis in psychology. There is no sense in which Bandler and Grinder caused or participated in a paradigm shift. "What did Grinder and Bandler do that makes it impossible to continue doing psychology...without accepting their ideas? Nothing," argues Carroll.[38]

Commercialization and evaluation

By the late 1970s, the human potential movement had developed into an industry and provided a market for some NLP ideas. At the center of this growth was the Esalen Institute at Big Sur, California. Perls had led numerous Gestalt therapy seminars at Esalen. Satir was an early leader and Bateson was a guest teacher. Bandler and Grinder claimed that in addition to being a therapeutic method, NLP was also a study of communication and began marketing it as a business tool, claiming that, "if any human being can do anything, so can you."[22] After 150 students paid $1,000 each for a ten-day workshop in Santa Cruz, California, Bandler and Grinder gave up academic writing and produced popular books from seminar transcripts, such as Frogs into Princes, which sold more than 270,000 copies. According to court documents relating to an intellectual property dispute between Bandler and Grinder, Bandler made more than $800,000 in 1980 from workshop and book sales.[22]

A community of psychotherapists and students began to form around Bandler and Grinder's initial works, leading to the growth and spread of NLP as a theory and practice.[39] For example, Tony Robbins trained with Grinder and utilized a few ideas from NLP as part of his own self-help and motivational speaking programmes.[40] Bandler led several unsuccessful efforts to exclude other parties from using NLP.[41] Meanwhile, the rising number of practitioners and theorists led NLP to become even less uniform than it was at its foundation.[18] Prior to the decline of NLP, scientific researchers began testing its theoretical underpinnings empirically, with research indicating a lack of empirical support for NLP's essential theories.[2] The 1990s were characterized by fewer scientific studies evaluating the methods of NLP than the previous decade. Tomasz Witkowski attributes this to a declining interest in the debate as the result of a lack of empirical support for NLP from its proponents.[2]

Main components and core concepts

NLP can be understood in terms of three broad components and the central concepts pertaining to those:

  • Subjectivity. According to Bandler and Grinder:
    • We experience the world subjectively thus we create subjective representations of our experience. These subjective representations of experience are constituted in terms of five senses and language. That is to say our subjective conscious experience is in terms of the traditional senses of vision, audition, tactition, olfaction and gustation such that when we—for example—rehearse an activity "in our heads", recall an event or anticipate the future we will "see" images, "hear" sounds, "taste" flavours, "feel" tactile sensations, "smell" odours and think in some (natural) language.[42][43] Furthermore it is claimed that these subjective representations of experience have a discernible structure, a pattern. It is in this sense that NLP is sometimes defined as the study of the structure of subjective experience.[44]
    • Behavior can be described and understood in terms of these sense-based subjective representations. Behavior is broadly conceived to include verbal and non-verbal communication, incompetent, maladaptive or "pathological" behavior as well as effective or skillful behavior.[45][46]
    • Behavior (in self and others) can be modified by manipulating these sense-based subjective representations.[47][48][49][50][51][52]
  • Consciousness. NLP is predicated on the notion that consciousness is bifurcated into a conscious component and a unconscious component. Those subjective representations that occur outside of an individual's awareness comprise what is referred to as the "unconscious mind".[53]
  • Learning. NLP utilizes an imitative method of learning—termed modeling—that is claimed to be able to codify and reproduce an exemplar's expertise in any domain of activity. An important part of the codification process is a description of the sequence of the sensory/linguistic representations of the subjective experience of the exemplar during execution of the expertise.[54][55][56][57]

Techniques or set of practices

An "eye accessing cue chart" as it appears as an example in Bandler & Grinder's Frogs into Princes (1979). The six directions represent "visual construct", "visual recall", "auditory construct", "auditory recall", "kinesthetic" and "auditory internal dialogue".

According to one study by Steinbach,[58] a classic interaction in NLP can be understood in terms of several major stages including establishing rapport, gleaning information about a problem mental state and desired goals, using specific tools and techniques to make interventions, and integrating proposed changes into the client's life. The entire process is guided by the non-verbal responses of the client.[58] The first is the act of establishing and maintaining rapport between the practitioner and the client which is achieved through pacing and leading the verbal (e.g., sensory predicates and keywords) and non-verbal behavior (e.g., matching and mirroring non-verbal behavior, or responding to eye movements) of the client.[59]

Once rapport is established, the practitioner may gather information (e.g., using the Meta-Model questions) about the client's present state as well as help the client define a desired state or goal for the interaction. The practitioner pays particular attention to the verbal and non-verbal responses as the client defines the present state and desired state and any "resources" that may be required to bridge the gap.[58] The client is typically encouraged to consider the consequences of the desired outcome, and how they may affect his or her personal or professional life and relationships, taking into account any positive intentions of any problems that may arise (i.e. ecological check).[58] Fourth, the practitioner assists the client in achieving the desired outcomes by using certain tools and techniques to change internal representations and responses to stimuli in the world.[60][61] Finally, the changes are "future paced" by helping the client to mentally rehearse and integrate the changes into his or her life.[58] For example, the client may be asked to "step into the future" and represent (mentally see, hear and feel) what it is like having already achieved the outcome.

According to Stollznow (2010), "NLP also involves fringe discourse analysis and "practical" guidelines for "improved" communication. For example, one text asserts "when you adopt the "but" word, people will remember what you said afterwards. With the "and" word, people remember what you said before and after."[18]

Applications

Alternative medicine

NLP has been promoted with claims it can be used to treat a variety of diseases including Parkinson's disease, HIV/AIDS and cancer.[62] Such claims have no supporting medical evidence.[62] People who use NLP as a form of treatment risk serious adverse health consequences as it can delay the provision of effective medical care.[62]

Psychotherapeutic

Early books about NLP had a psychotherapeutic focus given that the early models were psychotherapists. As an approach to psychotherapy, NLP shares similar core assumptions and foundations in common with some contemporary brief and systemic practices,[63][64][65] such as solution focused brief therapy.[66][67] NLP has also been acknowledged as having influenced these practices[65][68] with its reframing techniques[69][70] which seeks to achieve behavior change by shifting its context or meaning,[71] for example, by finding the positive connotation of a thought or behavior.

The two main therapeutic uses of NLP are: (1) as an adjunct by therapists[72] practicing in other therapeutic disciplines; (2) as a specific therapy called Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy[73] which is recognized by the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy[74] with accreditation governed at first by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming[75] and more recently by its daughter organization the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association.[76] Neither Neuro-Linguistic Programming nor Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy are NICE-approved.[77]

According to Stollznow (2010) "Bandler and Grinder's infamous Frogs into Princes and their other books boast that NLP is a cure-all that treats a broad range of physical and mental conditions and learning difficulties, including epilepsy, myopia and dyslexia. With its promises to cure schizophrenia, depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and its dismissal of psychiatric illnesses as psychosomatic, NLP shares similarities with Scientology and the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR)."[18] A systematic review of experimental studies by Sturt et al (2012) concluded that "there is little evidence that NLP interventions improve health-related outcomes."[78] In his review of NLP, Stephen Briers writes, "NLP is not really a cohesive therapy but a ragbag of different techniques without a particularly clear theoretical basis...[and its] evidence base is virtually non-existent."[79] Eisner writes, "NLP appears to be a superficial and gimmicky approach to dealing with mental health problems. Unfortunately, NLP appears to be the first in a long line of mass marketing seminars that purport to virtually cure any mental disorder...it appears that NLP has no empirical or scientific support as to the underlying tenets of its theory or clinical effectiveness. What remains is a mass-marketed serving of psychopablum."[80]

André Muller Weitzenhoffer—a friend and peer of Milton Erickson—wrote, "Has NLP really abstracted and explicated the essence of successful therapy and provided everyone with the means to be another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson?...[NLP's] failure to do this is evident because today there is no multitude of their equals, not even another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson. Ten years should have been sufficient time for this to happen. In this light, I cannot take NLP seriously...[NLP's] contributions to our understanding and use of Ericksonian techniques are equally dubious. Patterns I and II are poorly written works that were an overambitious, pretentious effort to reduce hypnotism to a magic of words."[81]

Clinical psychologist Stephen Briers questions the value of the NLP maxim—a presupposition in NLP jargon—"there is no failure, only feedback".[82] Briers argues that the denial of the existence of failure diminishes its instructive value. He offers Walt Disney, Isaac Newton and J.K. Rowling as three examples of unambiguous acknowledged personal failure that served as an impetus to great success. According to Briers, it was "the crash-and-burn type of failure, not the sanitised NLP Failure Lite, i.e. the failure-that-isn't really-failure sort of failure" that propelled these individuals to success. Briers contends that adherence to the maxim leads to self-deprecation. According to Briers, personal endeavour is a product of invested values and aspirations and the dismissal of personally significant failure as mere feedback effectively denigrates what one values. Briers writes, "Sometimes we need to accept and mourn the death of our dreams, not just casually dismiss them as inconsequential. NLP's reframe casts us into the role of a widower avoiding the pain of grief by leap-frogging into a rebound relationship with a younger woman, never pausing to say a proper goodbye to his dead wife." Briers also contends that the NLP maxim is narcissistic, self-centered and divorced from notions of moral responsibility.[83]

Other uses

Although the original core techniques of NLP were therapeutic in orientation their genericity enabled them to be applied to other fields. These applications include persuasion,[41] sales,[84] negotiation,[85] management training,[86] sports,[87] teaching, coaching, team building, and public speaking.

Scientific criticism

In the early 1980s, NLP was advertised as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling, and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology. However, as controlled trials failed to show any benefit from NLP and its advocates made increasingly dubious claims, scientific interest in NLP faded.[88][89] Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses have failed to show evidence for NLP's assumptions or effectiveness as a therapeutic method.[90] While some NLP practitioners have argued that the lack of empirical support is due to insufficient research testing NLP,[91] the consensus scientific opinion is that NLP is pseudoscience[92] and that attempts to dismiss the research findings based on these arguments "[constitute]s an admission that NLP does not have an evidence base and that NLP practitioners are seeking a post-hoc credibility."[93] Surveys in the academic community have shown NLP to be widely discredited among scientists.[94] Among the reasons for considering NLP a pseudoscience are that evidence in favor of it is limited to anecdotes and personal testimony,[95] that it is not informed by scientific understanding of neuroscience and linguistics,[96] and that the name "neuro-linguistic programming" uses jargon words to impress readers and obfuscate ideas, whereas NLP itself does not relate any phenomena to neural structures and has nothing in common with linguistics or programming.[97] In fact, in education, NLP has been used as a key example of pseudoscience.[98]

As a quasi-religion

Sociologists and anthropologists—amongst others—have categorized NLP as a quasi-religion belonging to the New Age and/or Human Potential Movements.[99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108] Medical anthropologist Jean M. Langford categorizes NLP as a form of folk magic; that is to say, a practice with symbolic efficacy—as opposed to physical efficacy—that is able to effect change through nonspecific effects (e.g., placebo). To Langford, NLP is akin to a syncretic folk religion "that attempts to wed the magic of folk practice to the science of professional medicine".[109] Bandler and Grinder were (and continue to be[110][111]) influenced by the shamanism described in the books of Carlos Castaneda. Several ideas and techniques have been borrowed from Castaneda and incorporated into NLP including so-called double induction[20] and the notion of "stopping the world"[112] which is central to NLP modeling. Tye (1994)[113] characterizes NLP as a type of "psycho shamanism". Fanthorpe and Fanthorpe (2008)[114] see a similarity between the mimetic procedure and intent of NLP modeling and aspects of ritual in some syncretic religions. Hunt (2003)[99] draws a comparison between the concern with lineage from an NLP guru—which is evident amongst some NLP proponents—and the concern with guru lineage in some Eastern religions.

In Aupers and Houtman (2010)[103] Bovbjerg identifies NLP as a New Age "psycho-religion" and uses NLP as a case-study to demonstrate the thesis that the New Age psycho-religions such as NLP are predicated on an instrinsically religious idea, namely concern with a transcendent "other". In the world's monotheistic faiths, argues Bovbjerg, the purpose of religious practice is communion and fellowship with a transcendent 'other', i.e. a God. With the New Age psycho-religions, argues Bovbjerg, this orientation towards a transcendent 'other' persists but the other has become "the other in our selves", the so-called unconscious: "[t]he individual's inner life becomes the intangible focus of [psycho-]religious practices and the subconscious becomes a constituent part of modern individuals' understanding of the Self." Bovbjerg adds, "[c]ourses in personal development would make no sense without an unconscious that contains hidden resources and hidden knowledge of the self." Thus psycho-religious practice revolves around ideas of the conscious and unconscious self and communicating with and accessing the hidden resources of the unconscious self—the transcendent other. According to Bovbjerg the notion that we have an unconscious self underlies many NLP techniques either explicitly or implicitly. Bovbjerg argues, "[t]hrough particular practices, the [NLP practitioner qua] psycho-religious practitioner expects to achieve self-perfection in a never-ending transformation of the self."

Bovbjerg's secular critique of NLP is echoed in the conservative Christian perspective of the New Age as represented by Jeremiah (1995)[115] who argues that, "[t]he ′transformation′ recommended by the founders and leaders of these business seminars [such as NLP] has spiritual implications that a non-Christian or new believer may not recognise. The belief that human beings can change themselves by calling upon the power (or god) within or their own infinite human potential is a contradiction of the Christian view. The Bible says man is a sinner and is saved by God's grace alone."

Intellectual property disputes

By the end of 1980, the collaboration between Bandler and Grinder ended.[22] On 25 September 1981, Bandler instituted a civil action against Grinder and his company, seeking injunctive relief and damages for Grinder's commercial activity in relation to NLP. On 29 October 1981, judgement was made in favor of Bandler.[116] As part of a settlement agreement Bandler granted to Grinder a limited 10-year license to conduct NLP seminars, offer certification in NLP and use the NLP name on the condition that royalties from the earnings of the seminars be paid to Bandler. In July 1996 and January 1997, Bandler instituted a further two civil actions against Grinder and his company, numerous other prominent figures in NLP and 200 further initially unnamed persons. Bandler alleged that Grinder had violated the terms of the settlement agreement reached in the initial case and had suffered commercial damage as a result of the allegedly illegal commercial activities of the defendants. Bandler sought from each defendant damages no less than US$10,000,000.00.[117][118] In February 2000, the Court found against Bandler, stating that "Bandler has misrepresented to the public, through his licensing agreement and promotional materials, that he is the exclusive owner of all intellectual property rights associated with NLP, and maintains the exclusive authority to determine membership in and certification in the Society of NLP."[119][120]

On this matter Stollznow (2010)[18] comments, "[i]ronically, Bandler and Grinder feuded in the 1980s over trademark and theory disputes. Tellingly, none of their myriad of NLP models, pillars, and principles helped these founders to resolve their personal and professional conflicts."

In December 1997, Tony Clarkson instituted civil proceedings against Bandler to have Bandler's UK trademark of NLP revoked. The Court found in favor of Clarkson; Bandler's trademark was subsequently revoked.[121][122]

By the end of 2000, Bandler and Grinder entered a release where they agreed, amongst other things, that "they are the co-creators and co-founders of the technology of Neuro-linguistic Programming" and "mutually agree to refrain from disparaging each other's efforts, in any fashion, concerning their respective involvement in the field of NeuroLinguistic Programming."[123]

As a consequence of these disputes and settlements, the names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any party and there is no restriction on any party offering NLP certification.[124][125][126][127][128]

Associations, certification, and practitioner standards

The names NLP and Neuro-linguistic Programming are not owned by any person or organisation, they are not trademarked intellectual property[129][130] and there is no central regulating authority for NLP instruction and certification.[127][128] There is no restriction on who can describe themselves as an NLP Master Practitioner or NLP Master Trainer and there are a multitude of certifying associations;[131] this has led Devilly (2005) to describe such training and certifying associations as granfalloons, i.e. proud and meaningless associations of human beings.[88]

There is great variation in the depth and breadth of training and standards of practitioners, and some disagreement between those in the field about which patterns are, or are not, actual NLP.[12][132] NLP is an open field of training with no "official" best practice. With different authors, individual trainers and practitioners having developed their own methods, concepts and labels, often branding them as NLP,[38] the training standards and quality differ greatly.[133] In 2009, a British television presenter was able to register his pet cat as a member of the British Board of Neuro Linguistic Programming (BBNLP), which subsequently claimed that it existed only to provide benefits to its members and not to certify credentials.[134]

See also

Notable practitioners

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Thyer, Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica G. (2015-05-15). Science and Pseudoscience in Social Work Practice. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 56–57, 165–167. ISBN 978-0-8261-7769-8. As NLP became more popular, some research was conducted and reviews of such research have concluded that there is no scientific basis for its theories about representational systems and eye movements. 
  2. ^ a b c d Witkowski, Tomasz (1 January 2010). "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?". Polish Psychological Bulletin. 41 (2). doi:10.2478/v10059-010-0008-0. 
  3. ^ a b Dowlen, Ashley (1 January 1996). "NLP – help or hype? Investigating the uses of neuro-linguistic programming in management learning". Career Development International. 1 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1108/13620439610111408. 
  4. ^ Tosey, P. & Mathison, J., (2006) "Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming Centre for Management Learning & Development, School of Management, University of Surrey.
  5. ^ Dilts, R., Grinder, J., Delozier, J., and Bandler, R. (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-916990-07-7. 
  6. ^ Bandler, Richard; John (1975). The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy. Science and Behavior Books Inc. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-8314-0044-7. 
  7. ^ Bandler, Richard (1993). Time for a Change. Meta Pubns. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-916990-28-2. In single sessions, they can accelerate learning, neutralize phobias, enhance creativity, improve relationships, eliminate allergies, and lead firewalks without roasting toes. NLP achieves the goal of its inception. We have ways to do what only a genius could have done a decade ago. 
  8. ^ Pickersgill, Gina. "Dr Richard Bandler On Healing – A Special Interview – by Gina Pickersgill". NLP Life Training. The Best You Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
    GINA: I have seen you demonstrate a technique that some people refer to as Dr. Bandler's Beauty treatment? Please tell us about that.
    RICHARD [BANDLER]: Basically what happened is that I noticed that when I hypnotically regress people repeatedly they looked younger. So I started first thinking, well isn't there a way to maintain that. I noticed when I hypnotically regressed people to before the age of 5, who currently wore glasses, didn't need them to see. So I started leaving people's eyes young and growing the rest of them up to the present and it would change the prescription of their glasses radically to the point where they could see better. And done enough times, some of them could see without glasses. So I went a little step further, and did a DHE (Design Human Engineering™) treatment where we set up a mechanism in the back of their mind that repeatedly age regresses them hypnotically; when they sleep, when they blink, all kinds of things and in a state of time distortion. And it can take years off the way people look, it also ups their energy level and in some cases the bi product (sic) has been they recovered spontaneously from very serious diseases. Because they were aged regressed to where before the disease started. Now I cannot prove that but I've seen it enough times that I'm impressed with it.
     
  9. ^ Grinder, John; Richard Bandler; Connirae Andreas, eds. (1981), Trance-Formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis, Moab, UT: Real People Press, ISBN 0-911226-23-0, In a seminar, Bandler & Grinder (1981, p. 166) claimed that a single session of NLP combined with hypnosis could eliminate certain eyesight problems such as myopia and cure the common cold (op.cit., p. 174)...(Also, op.cit., p. 169) Bandler and Grinder believed that, by combining NLP with hypnotic regression, one not only cured a problem, but became amnesic for the fact that it even existed at all. Thus, after a session of "therapy," a smoker denied smoking before, even when family and friends insisted otherwise, becoming unable to account for such evidence as nicotine stains. 
  10. ^ Bandler, Richard (2008). What is NLP? (Promotional video). NLP Life. Retrieved 1 June 2013. We can reliably get rid of a phobia in ten minutes -- every single time. 
  11. ^ Grinder, John; Bostic St. Clair, Carmen (2001). "Chapter 4: Personal Antecedents of NLP". Whispering In The Wind. J & C Enterprises. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7. 
  12. ^ a b c Sharpley, Christopher F. (1 January 1987). "Research findings on neurolinguistic programming: Nonsupportive data or an untestable theory?". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 34 (1): 103–107. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.34.1.103. 
  13. ^ a b von Bergen, C. W.; Gary, Barlow Soper; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, Lamar V. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly. 8 (4): 281–294. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403. 
  14. ^ Druckman, Daniel (1 November 2004). "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 34 (11): 2234–2260. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x. 
  15. ^ a b c d Bandler, Richard; Grinder, John (1975). The Structure of Magic I: A Book about Language and Therapy. Science and Behavior Books Inc. p. 6. ISBN 0-8314-0044-7. 
  16. ^ Grinder, John; Bostic St. Clair, Carmen (2001). "Chapter 2: Terminology". Whispering In The Wind. J & C Enterprises. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7. 
  17. ^ Bandler, Richard; Grinder, John (1979). Andreas, Steve, ed. Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming. Real People Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-911226-19-2. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Stollznow, Karen (2010). "Not-so Linguistic Programming". Skeptic (U.S. Magazine). The Skeptics Society. 15 (4): 7. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  19. ^ Wake, Lisa (2001). Neurolinguistic psychotherapy : a postmodern perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-42541-4. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  20. ^ a b McClendon, Terrence L. (1989). The Wild Days. NLP 1972–1981 (1st ed.). p. 41. ISBN 0-916990-23-0. In association with Milton's work, Richard and John also came across Castaneda's books, The Teachings of don Juan, The Yaqui Way of Life, A Separate Reality and Tales of Power. From there it was an integration of don Juan's use of metaphor and hypnosis and Milton Erickson's language patterns and metaphor to induce an altered state of consciousness to create deep trance phenomena. One of the most dynamic techniques which evolved out of the hypnosis programs was the use of the double induction. The double induction is a trance induction carried out by two people. One person speaks into one ear using complex words and language patterns to occupy one brain hemisphere and the other person speaks into the other ear using childlike grammar and language to occupy the other brain hemisphere. The feeling sensations are experienced in the same half of the body as the auditory input. This technique was used in conversations that Carlos Castaneda had with don Juan and don Genaro. This technique was used frequently during the summing up of Richard and John's training programs as a forum for review, post hypnotic suggestions for future applications and learnings 
  21. ^ a b page 6 of Bandler & Grinder 1975a.
  22. ^ a b c d Frank Clancy; Heidi Yorkshire (1989). "The Bandler Method". Mother Jones Magazine. Mother Jones. 14 (2): 26. ISSN 0362-8841. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  23. ^ John Grinder, Suzette Elgin (1973). "A Guide to Transformational Grammar: History, Theory, Practice." Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-080126-5. Reviewed by Frank H. Nuessel, Jr. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 58, No. 5/6 (Sep–Oct., 1974), pp. 282–283
  24. ^ E. Jane Bradley; Biedermann, Heinz-Joachim (1 January 1985). "Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming: Its historical context and contribution". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. APA. 22 (1): 59–62. doi:10.1037/h0088527. ISSN 0033-3204. OCLC 1588338. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  25. ^ a b Spitzer, Robert (1992). "Virginia Satir & Origins of NLP" (PDF). Anchor Point Magazine. ? (July): ?. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  26. ^ John Grinder; Richard Bandler (1981). Connirae Andreas, ed. Trance-formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis. Moab: Real People Press. p. 240. "artfully vague" occurs in the context of describing the "Milton-Model"
  27. ^ Bandler, Richard; Grinder, John (1985). "Appendix II". In Andreas, Connirae. Trance-formations. Real People Press. ISBN 0-911226-22-2. 
  28. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 304. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. 
  29. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 300–1. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. 
  30. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 304–5. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. I have chosen nominalization to explain what some of the problems are in Bandler and Grinder's linguistic approach to Ericksonian hypnotism. Almost any other linguistic concept used by these authors could have served equally well for the purpose of showing some of the inherent weaknesses in their treatment. 
  31. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 307. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. As I have mentioned in the last chapter, any references made to left and right brain functions in relation to hypnotic phenomena must be considered as poorly founded. They do not add to our understanding of nor our ability to utilize hypnotic phenomena in the style of Erickson. Indeed, references such as Bandler and Grinder make to these functions give their subject matter a false appearance of having a more scientific status than it has. 
  32. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 306. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. This work [TRANCE-Formation], incidentally, contains some glaring misstatements of facts. For example, Freud and Mesmer were depicted as contemporaries! 
  33. ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 "Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation"". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 306. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. One of the most striking features of the Bandler/Grinder interpretation is that it somehow ignores the issue of the existence and function of suggestion, which even in Erickson's own writings and those done with Rossi, is a central idea. 
  34. ^ Bandler, Richard (1997). "NLP Seminars Group – Frequently Asked Questions". NLP Seminars Group. NLP Seminars Group. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  35. ^ McClendon, Terrence L. (1989). The Wild Days. NLP 1972–1981 (1st ed.). ISBN 0-916990-23-0. 
  36. ^ Grinder, John; Bostic St. Clair (2001). Whispering In The Wind. J & C Enterprises. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7. 
  37. ^ Grinder, John (July 1996). "1996 Interview with John Grinder PhD, co-creator of NLP". Inspiritive. Interviewed by Chris Collingwood and Jules Collingwood. Inspiritive. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Carroll RT (2009-02-23). "neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  39. ^ Christopher Hadnagy; Paul Wilson (21 December 2010). Social Engineering. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0-470-63953-5. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  40. ^ Steve Salerno (2006). Sham: How the Self-Help Movement Made America Helpless. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4000-5410-7. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  41. ^ a b Daniel Druckman; John A. Swets (1988). "Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques". Human Resource Development Quarterly. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1 (2): 202–206. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920010212. 
  42. ^ Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard (1976). The Structure of Magic II (1st ed.). California: Science and Behavior Books. pp. 3–8. ISBN 0-8314-0049-8. 
  43. ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. There are three characteristics of effective patterning in NLP which sharply distinguish it from behavioural science as it is commonly practiced today. First, for a pattern or generalization regarding human communication to be acceptable or well–formed in NLP, it must include in the description the human agents who are initiating and responding to the pattern being described, their actions, their possible responses. Secondly, the description of the pattern must be represented in sensory grounded terms which are available to the user. This user–oriented constraint on NLP ensures usefulness. We have been continually struck by the tremendous gap between theory and practice in the behavioural sciences—this requirement closes that gap. Notice that since patterns must be represented in sensory grounded terms, available through practice to the user, a pattern will typically have multiple representation—each tailored for the differing sensory capabilities of individual users...Thirdly, NLP includes within its descriptive vocabulary terms which are not directly observable [i.e. representational systems] 
  44. ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. 
  45. ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. p. 36. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. The basic elements from which the patterns of human behaviour are formed are the perceptual systems through which the members of the species operate on their environment: vision (sight), audition (hearing), kinesthesis (body sensations) and olfaction/gustation (smell/taste). The neurolinguistic programming model presupposes that all of the distinctions we as human beings are able to make concerning our environment (internal and external) and our behaviour can be usefully represented in terms of these systems. These perceptual classes constitute the structural parameters of human knowledge. We postulate that all of our ongoing experience can usefully be coded as consisting of some combination of these sensory classes. 
  46. ^ Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard (1977). Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H.Erickson: Volume 2 (1st ed.). Meta Publications. pp. 11–19. ISBN 1-55552-053-7. 
  47. ^ Hall, L. Michael; Belnap, Barbara P. (2000) [1999]. The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP (1st ed.). Wales: Crown House Publishing Limited. pp. 89–93. ISBN 1-899836-22-5. #23 The Change Personal History Pattern 
  48. ^ Hall, L. Michael; Belnap, Barbara P. (2000) [1999]. The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP (1st ed.). Wales: Crown House Publishing Limited. pp. 93–5. ISBN 1-899836-22-5. #24 The Swish Pattern 
  49. ^ Bandler, Richard; Grinder, John (1985). "Appendix II Hypnotic Language Patterns: The Milton-Model". In Andreas, Connirae. Trance-formations. Real People Press. pp. 240–50. ISBN 0-911226-22-2. 
  50. ^ Bandler, Richard; Grinder, John (1979). "I Sensory Experience". In Andreas, Steve. Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming (1st ed.). Utah: Real People Press. pp. 5–78. ISBN 0-911226-19-2. 
  51. ^ Hall, L. Michael; Belnap, Barbara P. (2000) [1999]. The Sourcebook Of Magic: A Comprehensive Guide To The Technology Of NLP (1st ed.). Wales: Crown House Publishing Limited. pp. 39–40. ISBN 1-899836-22-5. #2 Pacing Or Matching Another's Model Of The World 
  52. ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. NLP presents specific tools which can be applied effectively in any human interaction. It offers specific techniques by which a practitioner may usefully organize and re–organize his or her subjective experience or the experiences of a client in order to define and subsequently secure any behavioural outcome. 
  53. ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. pp. 77–80. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. Strategies and representations which typically occur below an individual's level of awareness make up what is often called or referred to as the "unconscious mind." 
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  90. ^ See, for instance, the following:
    • Sharpley, Christopher .F. (1984). "Predicate matching in NLP: a review of research on the preferred representational system.". Journal of Counseling Psychology (31): 238–48. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.31.2.238. 
    • Sharpley, Christopher F. (1 January 1987). "Research findings on neurolinguistic programming: Nonsupportive data or an untestable theory?". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 34 (1): 103–107. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.34.1.103. 
    • Heap. M., (1988) Neurolinguistic programming: An interim verdict. In M. Heap (Ed.) Hypnosis: Current Clinical, Experimental and Forensic Practices. London: Croom Helm, pp. 268–280.
    • Druckman, Daniel; Swets, John A. (1988). "Enhancing human performance: Issues, theories, and techniques". Human Resource Development Quarterly. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1 (2): 202–206. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920010212. 
    • Druckman, Daniel (1 November 2004). "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 34 (11): 2234–2260. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x. 
    • von Bergen, C. W.; Gary, Barlow Soper; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, Lamar V. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly. 8 (4): 281–294. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403. 
    • Witkowski, Tomasz (1 January 2010). "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?". Polish Psychological Bulletin. 41 (2). doi:10.2478/v10059-010-0008-0. 
  91. ^ See the following:
  92. ^ See the following: For a description of the social influence tactics used by NLP and similar pseudoscientific therapies, see Devilly, Grant J. (1 June 2005). "Power Therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 39 (6): 437–445. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01601.x. PMID 15943644. 
  93. ^ Roderique-Davies, G. (2009). "Neuro-linguistic programming: Cargo cult psychology?". Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education. 1 (2): 58–11. doi:10.1108/17581184200900014.  [1]
  94. ^ Norcross and colleagues (2006) found NLP to be given similar ratings as dolphin assisted therapy, equine therapy, psychosynthesis, scared straight programmes, and emotional freedom technique:
    • Norcross, John C.; Koocher, Gerald P.; Garofalo, Ariele (1 January 2006). "Discredited psychological treatments and tests: A Delphi poll.". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 37 (5): 515–522. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.515. 
    Norcross and colleagues (2010) listed it as seventh out of their list of ten most discredited drug and alcohol interventions:
    • Norcross, John C.; Koocher, Gerald P.; Fala, Natalie C.; Wexler, Harry K. (1 September 2010). "What Does Not Work? Expert Consensus on Discredited Treatments in the Addictions". Journal of Addiction Medicine. 4 (3): 174–180. doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181c5f9db. PMID 21769032. 
    Glasner-Edwards and colleagues also identified it as discredited:
  95. ^ See the following:
  96. ^ See the following:
  97. ^ See the following: For more information on the use of neuroscience terms to lend the appearance of credibility to arguments, see Weisberg, D. S.; Keil, F. C.; Goodstein, J.; Rawson, E.; Gray, J. R. (2008). "The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 20 (3): 470–7. doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.20040. PMC 2778755Freely accessible. PMID 18004955. 
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    • Lum.C (2001). Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. Psychology Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-8058-4029-X. 
    • Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Morier, Dean (1 July 2001). "The Teaching of Courses in the Science and Pseudoscience of Psychology: Useful Resources". Teaching of Psychology. 28 (3): 182–191. doi:10.1207/S15328023TOP2803_03. 
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Bibliography

  • Bandler, R., Grinder, J. (1975), The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy, Science and Behavior Books. ISBN 0-8314-0044-7
  • Bandler, R., Grinder, J. (1976), The Structure of Magic II. A Book About Communication and Change, Science and Behavior Books. ISBN 978-0-8314-0049-1
  • Bandler, R., Grinder, J. (1981), Reframing: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Transformation of Meaning, Real People Press. ISBN 0-911226-25-7

Further reading

Books
  • Andreas, Steve & Charles Faulkner (eds.) (1996). NLP: the new technology of achievement. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-14619-8. 
  • Austin, A. (2007). The Rainbow Machine: Tales from a Neurolinguist's Journal. UK: Real People Press. ISBN 0-911226-44-3. 
  • Bandler, R., Grinder, J. (1979), Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming. Real People Press. 149 pages. ISBN 0-911226-19-2.
  • Bandler, R., Andreas, S. (ed.) and Andreas, C. (ed.) (1985), Using Your Brain-for a Change. ISBN 0-911226-27-3.
  • Bradbury, A (2008). "Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Time for an Informed Review". Skeptical Intelligencer. 11. 
  • Burn, Gillian (2005). NLP Pocketbook. Alresford, Hants SO24 9JH, United Kingdom: Management Pocketbooks Ltd. ISBN 978-1-903776-31-5. 
  • Carroll R. (2003), The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions, p. 253.
  • Della Sala (ed.) (2007), Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact from Fiction, Oxford University Press, p. xxii. ISBN 0-19-856877-0.
  • Dilts, R., Hallbom, Tim, Smith, Suzi (1990), Beliefs: Pathways to Health & Well-being, Crown House Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84590-802-7.
  • Dilts, R. (1990), Changing Belief Systems with NLP, Meta Publications. ISBN 978-0-916990-24-4.
  • Dilts, Robert B & Judith A DeLozier (2000). Encyclopaedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding. NLP University Press. ISBN 0-9701540-0-3. 
  • Druckman, Daniel & John A Swets (eds), (1988). Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques. Washington DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-03792-1. 
  • Ellerton, CMC, Roger (2005). Live Your Dreams Let Reality Catch Up: NLP and Common Sense for Coaches, Managers and You. Ottawa, Canada: Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-4709-9. 
  • Grinder, J., Bandler, R. (1976), Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson Volume I. ISBN 0-916990-01-X.
  • Grinder, John & Judith DeLozier (1987). Turtles All the Way Down: Prerequisites to Personal Genius. Scotts Valley, CA: Grinder & Associates. ISBN 978-0-929514-01-7. 
  • Grinder, M., Lori Stephens (ed.) (1991), Righting the Educational Conveyor Belt. ISBN 1-55552-036-7
  • Genie Z. Laborde, Ph.D. (1987), Influencing with Integrity: Management Skills for Communication and Negotiation.
  • O'Connor, Joseph (2007), Not Pulling Strings: Application of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Teaching and Learning Music. Kahn & Averill, London ISBN 1-871082-90-0
  • Satir, V., Grinder, J., Bandler, R. (1976), Changing with Families: A Book about Further Education for Being Human, Science and Behavior Books. ISBN 0-8314-0051-X
  • Lum, C. (2001). Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. Mahwah, New Jersey; London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 16.
  • Singer, Margaret & Janja Lalich (1997). Crazy Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work? Jossey Bass, pp. 167–195 (169). ISBN 0-7879-0278-0. Crazy Therapies (book).
  • Wake, Lisa (2008). Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy: A Postmodern Perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-42541-4.
  • William F. Williams, ed. (2000), Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy, Fitzory Dearborn Publishers, ISBN 978-1-57958-207-4 p. 235.
Journal articles
  • Platt, Garry (2001). "NLP – Neuro Linguistic Programming or No Longer Plausible?". Training Journal. May. 2001: 10–15. 
  • Morgan, Dylan A (1993). "Scientific Assessment of NLP". Journal of the National Council for Psychotherapy & Hypnotherapy Register. Spring. 1993. 
  • Von Bergen, C. W.; Gary, B. S.; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, L. V. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly. 8 (4): 281–294. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403. 

External links