Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog

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Neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog
Protein NRAS PDB 121p.png
PDB rendering based on 121p.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols NRAS ; ALPS4; CMNS; N-ras; NCMS; NRAS1; NS6
External IDs OMIM164790 MGI97376 HomoloGene55661 GeneCards: NRAS Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4893 18176
Ensembl ENSG00000213281 ENSMUSG00000027852
UniProt P01111 P08556
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002524 NM_010937
RefSeq (protein) NP_002515 NP_035067
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
114.7 – 114.72 Mb
Chr 3:
103.06 – 103.07 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

NRAS is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NRAS gene. It was discovered by a small team of researchers led by Robin Weiss at the Institute of Cancer Research in London.[1][2] It was the third RAS gene to be discovered, and was named NRAS, for its initial identification in human neuroblastoma cells.

Function[edit]

The N-ras proto-oncogene is a member of the Ras gene family. It is mapped on chromosome 1, and it is activated in HL60, a promyelocytic leukemia line. The order of nearby genes is as follows: cen—CD2—NGFB—NRAS—tel.

The mammalian ras gene family consists of the harvey and kirsten ras genes (HRAS and KRAS), an inactive pseudogene of each (c-Hras2 and c-Kras1) and the N-ras gene. They differ significantly only in the C-terminal 40 amino acids. These ras genes have GTP/GDP binding and GTPase activity, and their normal function may be as G-like regulatory proteins involved in the normal control of cell growth.

Mutations which change amino acid residues 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of N-ras to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. The N-ras gene specifies two main transcripts of 2Kb and 4.3Kb. The difference between the two transcripts is a simple extension through the termination site of the 2Kb transcript. The N-ras gene consists of seven exons (-I, I, II, III, IV, V, VI). The smaller 2Kb transcript contains the VIa exon, and the larger 4.3Kb transcript contains the VIb exon which is just a longer form of the VIa exon. Both transcripts encode identical proteins as they differ only the 3' untranslated region.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marshall CJ, Hall A, Weiss RA (September 1982). "A transforming gene present in human sarcoma cell lines". Nature 299 (5879): 171–3. doi:10.1038/299171a0. PMID 6287287. 
  2. ^ Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Perucho M, Wigler M (January 1983). "Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line". PNAS 80 (2): 383–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.2.383. PMID 6300838. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: NRAS neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog". 

Further reading[edit]

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