Neurodevelopmental framework for learning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Neurodevelopmental framework for learning, like all frameworks, is an organizing structure through which learners and learning can be understood. Intelligence theories and neuropsychology inform many of them. The framework described below is a neurodevelopmental framework for learning. The neurodevelopmental framework was developed by the All Kinds of Minds Institute in collaboration with Dr. Mel Levine and the University of North Carolina's Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning. It is similar to other neuropsychological frameworks, including Alexander Luria's cultural-historical psychology and psychological activity theory, but also draws from disciplines such as speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, and physical therapy. It also shares components with other frameworks, some of which are listed below. However, it does not include a general intelligence factor (abbreviated g), since the framework is used to describe learners in terms of profiles of strengths and weaknesses, as opposed to using labels, diagnoses, or broad ability levels. This framework was also developed to link with academic skills, such as reading and writing. Implications for education are discussed below as well as the connections to and compatibilities with several major educational policy issues.

This framework consists of 8 constructs, sometimes referred to as systems.[1]

Constructs[edit]

  • attention – mental energy, processing incoming information, and regulating output[2]
  • temporal-sequential ordering – processing and production of material that is serial[3][4][5]
  • spatial-ordering – processing and production of material that is visual and/or spatial[6][7][8]
  • memory – storage and retrieval of information (after brief or long delays), or mentally suspending information while using it[9][10][11]
  • language – understanding and use of linguistic sounds, words, sentences, and discourse[12][13][14]
  • neuromotor function – control over movement of large muscles, hands, and fingers[15][16][17]
  • social cognition – navigation of interaction with others, including verbal and nonverbal tactics[18][19][20][21]
  • higher order cognition – complex and sophisticated thinking[22][23][24]

In addition to the 8 constructs, this framework includes several "cross-construct" phenomena: rate alignment (working at optimal speed), strategy use (working and thinking tactically), chunk size capacity – the amount of material that can be processed, stored or generated, and metacognition (degree of knowledge about learning and insight into one's own neurodevelopmental strengths and weaknesses).[25][26][27][28][29][30]

Other learning frameworks[edit]

Numerous frameworks are available that describe development and help to organize observations of learning behavior. Intelligence theories date back to the 19th century and the early 20th century, such as Charles Spearman's concept of general intelligence factor, or g. Though there were exceptions (e.g., Thorndike), most theories of intelligence included g, a general index of cognitive ability.[31][32] An intelligence theory that has drawn considerable attention is Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC), which is grounded in extensive factor analytic research from cognitive ability test databases, as well as studies of development and heritability. CHC is actually an amalgam of Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc theory and Carroll's three-tier model.[33] proposed a framework with the broadest level a general intelligence factor conceptually similar to Spearman's g. This general factor was divided into eight narrower abilities, each consisting of narrow factors. Cattell-Horn's model was similar on several fronts, including its hierarchical structure. In the 1990s, Carroll's model was combined with Cattell-Horn's work by Flanagan, McGrew, and Ortiz (2000).[34] CHC contains three strata: stratum III is g, stratum II consists of broad cognitive abilities, and stratum I consists of narrow cognitive abilities. The broad cognitive abilities (stratum II) include fluid reasoning (or Gf, forming and recognizing logical relationships among patterns, inferencing, and transforming novel stimuli) and comprehension-knowledge (or Gc, using language and acquired knowledge). There is on-going discussion by proponents of CHC about g's importance in the framework. The Structure of Intellect (SOI) model includes three axes (with 5-6 components per axis) that form a 3-dimensional cube; because each dimension is independent, there are 150 different potential aspects of intelligence.[35] Howard Gardner has written about several categories of intelligence, as opposed to a hierarchical model.[36] Neuropsychologists have sought to map various mental abilities onto brain structures. In so doing they have created frameworks that include factors and sub-components. Luria[37] organized brain functions into now-familiar categories, such as speech and memory. Luria's conception of attention included three units: Unit 1 (brainstem and related areas) regulates cortical activity and levels of alertness, Unit 2 (lateral and posterior regions of neocortex) analyzes and stores newly received information, and Unit 3 (frontal lobes) programs and regulates activity.[37] More recently, the PASS (Planning, Attention, Successive, and Simultaneous) model[38] yields both a global index of ability while emphasizing specific cognitive processes. For example, "successive" refers to information that is perceived, interpreted, and/or remembered in a serial order (e.g., language), whereas "simultaneous" refers to material that is perceived, interpreted, and/or remembered as a whole (e.g. visual-spatial).

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Levine, M.D. (1998). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders, Second Edition. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
  2. ^ Posner, M.I., & Rothbart, M.K. (2007). Educating the Human Brain. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  3. ^ Bishoff-Grethe, A.; Goedert, K.M.; Willingham, D.T.; Grafton, S.T. (2004). "Neural substrates of response-based sequence learning using fMRI". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 16 (1): 127–138. doi:10.1162/089892904322755610. PMID 15006042. 
  4. ^ Parmentier, F.B.R.; Andres, P.; Elford, G.; Jones, D.M. (2006). "Organization of visuo-spatial serial memory: interaction of temporal order with spatial and temporal grouping". Psychological Research. 70 (3): 200–217. doi:10.1007/s00426-004-0212-7. PMID 15844005. 
  5. ^ Zorzi, M.; Priftis, K.; Meneghello, F.; Marenzi, R.; Umilt, C. (2006). "The spatial representation of numerical and non-numerical sequences: Evidence from neglect". Neruopsychologia. 44 (7): 1061–1067. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.10.025. 
  6. ^ Garderen, D. (2006). "Spatial visualization, visual imagery, and mathematical problem solving of students with varying abilities". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 39 (6): 496–506. doi:10.1177/00222194060390060201. PMID 17165617. 
  7. ^ Mammarella, I.; Cornoldi, C.; Pazzaglia, F.; Toso, C.; Grimoldi, M.; Vio, C. (2006). "Evidence for a double dissociation between spatial-simultaneous and spatial-sequential working memory in visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabled children". Brain and Cognition. 62 (1): 58–67. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.007. PMID 16750287. 
  8. ^ Kozhevnikov, M.; Motes, M.; Hegarty, M. (2007). "Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving". Cognitive Sciences. 31 (4): 549–579. doi:10.1080/15326900701399897. 
  9. ^ Swanson, H.; Jerman, O. (2007). "The influence of working memory on reading growth in subgroups of children with reading disabilities". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (4): 249–283. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.12.004. PMID 17437762. 
  10. ^ Kail, R.; Hall, L. K. (2001). "Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory". Memory and Cognition. 29 (1): 1–9. doi:10.3758/BF03195735. 
  11. ^ Imbo, I.; Vandierendonck, A. (2007). "The development of strategy use in elementary school children: Working memory and individual differences". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (4): 284–309. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.09.001. PMID 17046017. 
  12. ^ Katzir, T.; Youngsuk, K.; Wolf, M.; O'Brien, B.; Kennedy, B.; Lovett, M.; Morris, R. (2006). "Reading fluency: The whole is more than the parts". Annals of Dyslexia. 56 (1): 51–82. doi:10.1007/s11881-006-0003-5. 
  13. ^ Nagy, W.; Berninger, V.; Abbott, R. (2006). "Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students". Journal of Educational Psychology. 98 (1): 134–147. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.134. 
  14. ^ Altemeier, L.; Jones, J.; Abbott, R.; Berninger, V. (2006). "Executive functions in becoming writing readers and reading writers: Note taking and report writing in third and fifth graders". Developmental Neuropsychology. 29 (1): 161–173. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2901_8. PMID 16390292. 
  15. ^ Williams, J.; Thomas, P.; Maruff, P.; Wilson, P. (2008). "The link between motor impairment level and motor imagery ability in children with developmental coordination disorder". Human Movement Science. 27 (2): 270–285. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.008. PMID 18384899. 
  16. ^ Bar-Haim, Y.; Bart, O. (2006). "Motor function and social participation in kindergarten children". Social Development. 15 (2): 296–310. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00342.x. 
  17. ^ Contreras-Vidal, J. (2006). "Development of forward models for hand localization and movement control in 6 to 10-year-old children". Human Movement Science. 25: 634–645. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2006.07.006. 
  18. ^ Blake, R.; Shiffrar, M. (2007). "Perception of Human Motion". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (47): 47–73. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190152. 
  19. ^ Blakemore, S.J. (2007). "Brain development during adolescence". Education Review. 20 (1): 82–90. 
  20. ^ Brewer, M.B. & Hewstone, M. (2004). Social Cognition. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 
  21. ^ Holtgraves, T.M.; Kashima, Y. (2008). "Language, meaning, and social cognition". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 12 (1): 73–94. doi:10.1177/1088868307309605. PMID 18453473. 
  22. ^ Russ, R.; Scherr, R.; Hammer, D.; Mineska, J. (2008). "Recognizing mechanistic reasoning in student scientific inquiry: A framework for discourse analysis developed from philosophy of science". Science Studies and Science Education. 92 (3): 499–525. doi:10.1002/sce.20264. 
  23. ^ Hertzog, N. (2007). "Transporting Pedagogy: Implementing the project approach in two first grade classrooms". Journal of Advanced Academics. 18 (4): 530–564. doi:10.4219/jaa-2007-559. 
  24. ^ Amsterlaw, J. (2006). "Children's beliefs about everyday reasoning". Child Development. 77 (2): 443–464. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00881.x. PMID 16611183. 
  25. ^ Benjamin, A. S.; Bird, R. D. (2006). "Metacognitive control of the spacing of study repetitions". Journal of Memory and Language. 55: 126–137. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2006.02.003. 
  26. ^ Broekkamp, H.; Van Hout-Wolter, B.H.A.M. (2007). "Students' adaptation of study strategies when preparing for classroom tests". Educational Psychology. 19: 401–428. doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9025-0. 
  27. ^ Flavell, J. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new era of cognitive-developmental inquiry". American Psychologist. 34 (1): 906–911. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906. 
  28. ^ Halford, G.S.; Wilson, W.H.; Phillips, S. (1998). "Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: Implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 21 (6). doi:10.1017/S0140525X98001769. 
  29. ^ Hofer, B.K. (2004). "Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching". Educational Psychologist. 39 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3901_5. 
  30. ^ Lungu, O. V.; Liu, T.; Waechter, T.; Willingham, D. T.; Ashe, J. (2007). "Strategic modulation of cognitive control". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19 (8): 1302–1315. doi:10.1162/jocn.2007.19.8.1302. PMID 17651004. 
  31. ^ Bolles, R.C. (1993). The Story of Psychology: A Thematic History. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  32. ^ Fancher, R.E. (1990). Pioneers of Psychology, Second Edition. New York: Norton & Company.
  33. ^ Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor Analytic Studies. New York: Cambridge University.
  34. ^ Flanagan, D.P., McGrew, K.S., & Ortiz, S. (2000). The Wechsler Intelligence Scales and Gf- Gc Theory: A contemporary approach to interpretation. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  35. ^ Guilford, J.P. (1982). "Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies". Psychological Review. 89: 48–59. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.89.1.48. 
  36. ^ Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century, New York: Basic Books.
  37. ^ a b Luria, A.R. (1973). The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology (B. Haigh, Trans.). New York: Basic Books.
  38. ^ Das, J.P., Naglieri, J.A., & Kirby, J.R. (1994). Assessment of Cognitive Processes: The PASS Theory of Intelligence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

References[edit]

  • Altemeier, L.; Jones, J.; Abbott, R.; Berninger, V. (2006). "Executive functions in becoming writing readers and reading writers: Note taking and report writing in third and fifth graders". Developmental Neuropsychology. 29 (1): 161–173. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2901_8. PMID 16390292. 
  • Amsterlaw, J. (2006). "Children's beliefs about everyday reasoning". Child Development. 77 (2): 443–464. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00881.x. PMID 16611183. 
  • Bar-Haim, Y.; Bart, O. (2006). "Motor function and social participation in kindergarten children". Social Development. 15 (2): 296–310. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00342.x. 
  • Benjamin, A. S.; Bird, R. D. (2006). "Metacognitive control of the spacing of study repetitions". Journal of Memory and Language. 55: 126–137. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2006.02.003. 
  • Bishoff-Grethe, A.; Goedert, K.M.; Willingham, D.T.; Grafton, S.T. (2004). "Neural substrates of response-based sequence learning using fMRI". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 16 (1): 127–138. doi:10.1162/089892904322755610. PMID 15006042. 
  • Blake, R.; Shiffrar, M. (2007). "Perception of Human Motion". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (47): 47–73. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190152. 
  • Blakemore, S.J. (2007). "Brain development during adolescence". Education Review. 20 (1): 82–90. 
  • Brewer, M.B. & Hewstone, M. (2004). Social Cognition, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Broekkamp, H.; Van Hout-Wolter, B.H.A.M. (2007). "Students' adaptation of study strategies when preparing for classroom tests". Educational Psychology. 19 (4): 401–428. doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9025-0. 
  • Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor Analytic Studies. New York: Cambridge University.
  • Contreras-Vidal, J. (2006). Development of forward models for hand localization and movement control in 6 to 10-year-old children. Human Movement Science, 25, 634-645. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2006.07.006
  • Das, J.P., Naglieri, J.A., & Kirby, J.R. (1994). Assessment of Cognitive Processes: The PASS Theory of Intelligence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Fancher, R.E. (1990). Pioneers of Psychology, Second Edition. New York: Norton & Company.
  • Flanagan, D.P., McGrew, K.S., & Ortiz, S. (2000). The Wechsler Intelligence Scales and Gf- Gc Theory: A contemporary approach to interpretation. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Flavell, J. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new era of cognitive-developmental inquiry". American Psychologist. 34 (1): 906–911. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906. 
  • Garderen, D. (2006). "Spatial visualization, visual imagery, and mathematical problem solving of students with varying abilities". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 39 (6): 496–506. doi:10.1177/00222194060390060201. PMID 17165617. 
  • Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century, New York: Basic Books.
  • Guilford, J.P. (1982). "Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies". Psychological Review. 89: 48–59. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.89.1.48. 
  • Halford, G.S.; Wilson, W.H.; Phillips, S. (1998). "Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: Implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 21 (6): 803–31. doi:10.1017/S0140525X98001769. 
  • Hertzog, N. (2007). "Transporting Pedagogy: Implementing the project approach in two first grade classrooms". Journal of Advanced Academics. 18 (4): 530–564. doi:10.4219/jaa-2007-559. 
  • Hofer, B.K. (2004). "Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching". Educational Psychologist. 39 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3901_5. 
  • Holtgraves, T.M.; Kashima, Y. (2008). "Language, meaning, and social cognition". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 12 (1): 73–94. doi:10.1177/1088868307309605. PMID 18453473. 
  • Imbo, I.; Vandierendonck, A. (2007). "The development of strategy use in elementary school children: Working memory and individual differences". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (4): 284–309. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.09.001. PMID 17046017. 
  • Kail, R.; Hall, L. K. (2001). "Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory". Memory and Cognition. 29 (1): 1–9. doi:10.3758/BF03195735. 
  • Katzir, T.; Youngsuk, K.; Wolf, M.; O'Brien, B.; Kennedy, B.; Lovett, M.; Morris, R. (2006). "Reading fluency: The whole is more than the parts". Annals of Dyslexia. 56: 1. doi:10.1007/s11881-006-0003-5. 
  • Kozhevnikov, M.; Motes, M.; Hegarty, M. (2007). "Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving". Cognitive Sciences. 31 (4): 549–579. doi:10.1080/15326900701399897. 
  • Levine, M.D. (1998). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders, Second Edition. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
  • Lungu, O. V.; Liu, T.; Waechter, T.; Willingham, D. T.; Ashe, J. (2007). "Strategic modulation of cognitive control". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19 (8): 1302–1315. doi:10.1162/jocn.2007.19.8.1302. PMID 17651004. 
  • Luria, A.R. (1973). The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology (B. Haigh, Trans.). New York: Basic Books.
  • Mammarella, I.; Cornoldi, C.; Pazzaglia, F.; Toso, C.; Grimoldi, M.; Vio, C. (2006). "Evidence for a double dissociation between spatial-simultaneous and spatial- sequential working memory in visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabled children". Brain and Cognition. 62 (1): 58–67. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.007. PMID 16750287.  horizontal tab character in |title= at position 77 (help)
  • Nagy, W.; Berninger, V.; Abbott, R. (2006). "Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students". Journal of Educational Psychology. 98 (1): 134–147. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.134. 
  • Parmentier, F.B.R.; Andres, P.; Elford, G.; Jones, D.M. (2006). "Organization of visuo-spatial serial memory: interaction of temporal order with spatial and temporal grouping". Psychological Research. 70 (3): 200–217. doi:10.1007/s00426-004-0212-7. PMID 15844005. 
  • Posner, M.I., & Rothbart, M.K. (2007). Educating the Human Brain. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Russ, R., Scherr, R., Hammer, D., & Mineska, J. (2008). Recognizing mechanistic reasoning in student scientific inquiry: A framework for discourse analysis developed from philosophy of science. Science Studies and Science Education, 1-28. doi:10.1002/sce.20264
  • Swanson, H.; Jerman, O. (2007). "The influence of working memory on reading growth in subgroups of children with reading disabilities". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (4): 249–283. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.12.004. PMID 17437762. 
  • Williams, J.; Thomas, P.; Maruff, P.; Wilson, P. (2008). "The link between motor impairment level and motor imagery ability in children with developmental coordination disorder". Human Movement Science. 27 (2): 270–285. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.008. PMID 18384899. 
  • Zorzi, M.; Priftis, K.; Meneghello, F.; Marenzi, R.; Umilt, C. (2006). "The spatial representation of numerical and non-numerical sequences: Evidence from neglect". Neruopsychologia. 44 (7): 1061–1067. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.10.025.