Neurofilament light polypeptide

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AliasesNEFL, CMT1F, CMT2E, NF-L, NF68, NFL, PPP1R110, neurofilament, light polypeptide, neurofilament light, CMTDIG, neurofilament light chain
External IDsOMIM: 162280 MGI: 97313 HomoloGene: 4487 GeneCards: NEFL
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 8: 24.95 – 24.96 MbChr 14: 68.32 – 68.33 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Neurofilament light polypeptide, also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFL gene.[5][6] Neurofilament light chain is a biomarker that can be measured with immunoassays in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma and reflects axonal damage in a wide variety of neurological disorders.[7][8] It is a useful marker for disease monitoring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[9] multiple sclerosis,[10] Alzheimer's disease,[11][12] and more recently Huntington's disease.[13] It is also promising marker for follow-up of patients with brain tumors.[14] Higher numbers have been associated with increased mortality.[15]

It is associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease 1F and 2E.[5]


Neurofilament light polypeptide has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000277586 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022055 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b Miltenberger-Miltenyi G, Janecke AR, Wanschitz JV, Timmerman V, Windpassinger C, Auer-Grumbach M, Löscher WN (July 2007). "Clinical and electrophysiological features in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with mutations in the NEFL gene". Archives of Neurology. 64 (7): 966–970. doi:10.1001/archneur.64.7.966. PMID 17620486.
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: NEFL neurofilament, light polypeptide 68kDa".
  7. ^ Khalil M, Teunissen CE, Otto M, Piehl F, Sormani MP, Gattringer T, et al. (October 2018). "Neurofilaments as biomarkers in neurological disorders". Nature Reviews. Neurology. 14 (10): 577–589. doi:10.1038/s41582-018-0058-z. PMID 30171200. S2CID 52140127. neuroaxonal damage is the pathological substrate of permanent disability in various neurological disorders. ... Here, we review what is known about the structure and function of neurofilaments, discuss analytical aspects and knowledge of age-dependent normal ranges of neurofilaments and provide a comprehensive overview of studies on neurofilament light chain as a marker of axonal injury in different neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson disease.
  8. ^ Thompson AG, Mead SH (June 2019). "Review: Fluid biomarkers in the human prion diseases". Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 97: 81–92. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2018.12.003. PMID 30529227. S2CID 54437514. The very rapid neurodegeneration of prion disease results in strong signals from surrogate protein markers in the blood that reflect neuronal, axonal, synaptic or glial pathology in the brain: notably the tau and neurofilament light chain proteins.
  9. ^ Xu Z, Henderson RD, David M, McCombe PA (2016). "Neurofilaments as Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 11 (10): e0164625. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1164625X. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164625. PMC 5061412. PMID 27732645. NF heavy and light chain levels have potential use as a marker of neural degeneration in ALS, but are not specific for the disease, and are more likely to be used as measures of disease progression.
  10. ^ Cai L, Huang J (2018). "Neurofilament light chain as a biological marker for multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis study". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 14: 2241–2254. doi:10.2147/NDT.S173280. PMC 6126505. PMID 30214214. NFL chain has significantly increased in MS patients, which substantially strengthens the clinical evidence of the NFL in MS. The NFL may be used as a prognostic biomarker to monitor disease progression, disease activity, and treatment efficacy in the future.
  11. ^ Zetterberg H, Schott JM (February 2019). "Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease beyond amyloid and tau". Nature Medicine. 25 (2): 201–203. doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0348-z. PMID 30728536. S2CID 59607046.
  12. ^ Preische O, Schultz SA, Apel A, Kuhle J, Kaeser SA, Barro C, et al. (February 2019). "Serum neurofilament dynamics predicts neurodegeneration and clinical progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease". Nature Medicine. 25 (2): 277–283. doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0304-3. PMC 6367005. PMID 30664784.
  13. ^ Niemelä V, Landtblom AM, Blennow K, Sundblom J (27 February 2017). "Tau or neurofilament light-Which is the more suitable biomarker for Huntington's disease?". PLOS ONE. 12 (2): e0172762. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1272762N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172762. PMC 5328385. PMID 28241046.
  14. ^ Arslan B, Ayhan Arslan G, Tuncer A, Karabudak R, Sepici Dinçel A (April 2022). "Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels in multiple sclerosis and non-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system: clinical and biochemical perspective". Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 22 (5): 699–706. doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7326. PMC 9519158. PMID 35490364. S2CID 248478048.
  15. ^ Kaeser, Stephan A.; Lehallier, Benoit; Thinggaard, Mikael; Häsler, Lisa M.; Apel, Anja; Bergmann, Carina; Berdnik, Daniela; Jeune, Bernard; Christensen, Kaare; Grönke, Sebastian; Partridge, Linda; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Mengel-From, Jonas; Jucker, Mathias (2021). "A neuronal blood marker is associated with mortality in old age". Nature Aging. 1 (2): 218–225. doi:10.1038/s43587-021-00028-4. S2CID 234008316. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  16. ^ Frappier T, Stetzkowski-Marden F, Pradel LA (April 1991). "Interaction domains of neurofilament light chain and brain spectrin". The Biochemical Journal. 275 (2): 521–527. doi:10.1042/bj2750521. PMC 1150082. PMID 1902666.
  17. ^ Mukai H, Toshimori M, Shibata H, Kitagawa M, Shimakawa M, Miyahara M, et al. (April 1996). "PKN associates and phosphorylates the head-rod domain of neurofilament protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (16): 9816–9822. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.16.9816. PMID 8621664.
  18. ^ Haddad LA, Smith N, Bowser M, Niida Y, Murthy V, Gonzalez-Agosti C, Ramesh V (November 2002). "The TSC1 tumor suppressor hamartin interacts with neurofilament-L and possibly functions as a novel integrator of the neuronal cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (46): 44180–44186. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207211200. PMID 12226091.

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