Neurogenesis

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Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells. [1]

Neurogenesis occurs during embryogenesis in all animals and is responsible for producing all the neurons of the organism.[2] Prior to the period of neurogenesis, neural stem cells first multiply until the correct number of progenitor cells is achieved. For example, the primary neural stem cell of the mammalian brain, called a radial glial cell, resides in an embryonic zone called the ventricular zone, which lies adjacent to the developing brain ventricles.[3][4] The process of neurogenesis then involves a final cell division of the parent neural stem cell, which produces daughter neurons that will never divide again. The molecular and genetic factors influencing neurogenesis notably include the Notch pathway, and many genes have been linked to Notch pathway regulation.[5][6] All neurons are thus 'post-mitotic', and most neurons of the human central nervous system live the lifetime of the individual. In mammals, adult neurogenesis has been shown to occur in three primary places of the brain: the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, subventricular zone (SVZ), and the olfactory bulb.[7] In some vertebrates, regenerative neurogenesis has also been shown to occur.[8]

Likewise, many antidepressants have been shown to increase the rate of neurogenesis within the hippocampus.[9][10]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Gilbert, Scott (2013). Developmental Biology. (Tenth ed.). Sinauer Associates Inc. ISBN 978-1605351926. 
  2. ^ Principles of neural science (5. ed. ed.). Appleton and Lange: McGraw Hill. 2006. ISBN 978-0071390118.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  3. ^ Rakic, P (October 2009). "Evolution of the neocortex: a perspective from developmental biology.". Nature reviews. Neuroscience. 10 (10): 724–35. doi:10.1038/nrn2719. PMC 2913577Freely accessible. PMID 19763105. 
  4. ^ Lui, JH; Hansen, DV; Kriegstein, AR (8 July 2011). "Development and evolution of the human neocortex.". Cell. 146 (1): 18–36. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.030. PMC 3610574Freely accessible. PMID 21729779. 
  5. ^ Kageyama, R; Ohtsuka, T; Shimojo, H; Imayoshi, I (November 2008). "Dynamic Notch signaling in neural progenitor cells and a revised view of lateral inhibition.". Nature Neuroscience. 11 (11): 1247–51. doi:10.1038/nn.2208. PMID 18956012. 
  6. ^ Rash, BG; Lim, HD; Breunig, JJ; Vaccarino, FM (26 October 2011). "FGF signaling expands embryonic cortical surface area by regulating Notch-dependent neurogenesis.". The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 31 (43): 15604–17. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4439-11.2011. PMID 22031906. 
  7. ^ Ming, GL; Song, H (May 26, 2011). "Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: significant answers and significant questions.". Neuron. 70 (4): 687–702. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.001. PMC 3106107Freely accessible. PMID 21609825. 
  8. ^ Alunni, A; Bally-Cuif, L (1 March 2016). "A comparative view of regenerative neurogenesis in vertebrates". Development. 143 (5): 741–753. doi:10.1242/dev.122796. 
  9. ^ Hanson, Nicola D.; Owens, Michael J.; Nemeroff, Charles B. (2011-12-01). "Depression, Antidepressants, and Neurogenesis: A Critical Reappraisal". Neuropsychopharmacology. 36 (13): 2589–2602. doi:10.1038/npp.2011.220. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 3230505Freely accessible. PMID 21937982. 
  10. ^ Santarelli, Luca; Saxe, Michael; Gross, Cornelius; Surget, Alexandre; Battaglia, Fortunato; Dulawa, Stephanie; Weisstaub, Noelia; Lee, James; Duman, Ronald (2003-08-08). "Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants". Science. 301 (5634): 805–809. doi:10.1126/science.1083328. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 12907793. 

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