Neurogranin

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neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3)
Identifiers
Symbol NRGN
Entrez 4900
HUGO 8000
OMIM 602350
RefSeq NM_006176
UniProt Q92686
Other data
Locus Chr. 11 q24

Neurogranin is a calmodulin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines, and participating in the protein kinase C signaling pathway. Neurogranin is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin, binding to it in the absence of calcium. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C lowers its binding ability. NRGN gene expression is controlled by thyroid hormones.[1] Human neurogranin consists of 78 amino acids.

One study tells of potential link of neurogranin gene to the heightened risk of schizophrenia in males,[2] another study gives evidence of lowered neurogranin immunoreactivity in the brains of people suffering from schizophrenia.[3]

Prior to its identification in the bovine and rat brain in 1991,[4] neurogranin was known as a putative protein kinase C-phosphorylated protein named p17. Human neurogranin was cloned in 1997 and turned out to be 96% identical to the rat protein.[5]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martinez; de Arrieta, C.; Morte, B.; Coloma, A.; Bernal, J. (1999). "The human RC3 gene homolog, NRGN contains a thyroid hormone-responsive element located in the first intron.". Endocrinology. 140 (1): 335–343. doi:10.1210/en.140.1.335. PMID 9886843. 
  2. ^ Ruano, D; Aulchenko, YS; Macedo, A; Soares, MJ; Valente, J; Azevedo, MH; Hutz, MH; Gama, CS; Lobato, MI; Belmonte-de-Abreu, P; Goodman, AB; Pato, C; Heutink, P; Palha, JA (Nov 2006). "Association of the gene encoding neurogranin with schizophrenia in males.". J Psychiatr Res. 42 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.10.008. PMID 17140601. 
  3. ^ Broadbelt, K; Ramprasaud, A; Jones, LB (Oct 2006). "Evidence of altered neurogranin immunoreactivity in areas 9 and 32 of schizophrenic prefrontal cortex.". Schizophrenia Research. 87 (1-3): 6–14. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.04.028. PMID 16797925. 
  4. ^ Baudier, J.; Deloulme, J. C.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Black, D.; Matthes, H. W. D. (1991). "Purification and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin (p17) identification of a consensus amino acid sequence between neurogranin and neuromodulin (GAP43) that corresponds to the protein kinase C phosphorylation site and the calmodulin-binding domain. J". Biol. Chem. 266 (229-237): 1991. PMID 1824695. 
  5. ^ Martinez de Arrieta, C.; Perez Jurado, L.; Bernal, J.; Coloma, A. (1997). "Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN)". Genomics. 41 (2): 243–249. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4622. PMID 9143500.