|neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3)|
|Locus||Chr. 11 q24|
Neurogranin is a calmodulin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines, and participating in the protein kinase C signaling pathway. Neurogranin is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin, binding to it in the absence of calcium. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C lowers its binding ability. NRGN gene expression is controlled by thyroid hormones. Human neurogranin consists of 78 amino acids.
One study tells of potential link of neurogranin gene to the heightened risk of schizophrenia in males, another study gives evidence of lowered neurogranin immunoreactivity in the brains of people suffering from schizophrenia.
Prior to its identification in the bovine and rat brain in 1991, neurogranin was known as a putative protein kinase C-phosphorylated protein named p17. Human neurogranin was cloned in 1997 and turned out to be 96% identical to the rat protein.
- Martinez; de Arrieta, C.; Morte, B.; Coloma, A.; Bernal, J. (1999). "The human RC3 gene homolog, NRGN contains a thyroid hormone-responsive element located in the first intron.". Endocrinology. 140 (1): 335–343. doi:10.1210/en.140.1.335. PMID 9886843.
- Ruano, D; Aulchenko, YS; Macedo, A; Soares, MJ; Valente, J; Azevedo, MH; Hutz, MH; Gama, CS; Lobato, MI; Belmonte-de-Abreu, P; Goodman, AB; Pato, C; Heutink, P; Palha, JA (Nov 2006). "Association of the gene encoding neurogranin with schizophrenia in males.". J Psychiatr Res. 42 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.10.008. PMID 17140601.
- Broadbelt, K; Ramprasaud, A; Jones, LB (Oct 2006). "Evidence of altered neurogranin immunoreactivity in areas 9 and 32 of schizophrenic prefrontal cortex.". Schizophrenia Research. 87 (1-3): 6–14. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.04.028. PMID 16797925.
- Baudier, J.; Deloulme, J. C.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Black, D.; Matthes, H. W. D. (1991). "Purification and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin (p17) identification of a consensus amino acid sequence between neurogranin and neuromodulin (GAP43) that corresponds to the protein kinase C phosphorylation site and the calmodulin-binding domain. J". Biol. Chem. 266 (229-237): 1991. PMID 1824695.
- Martinez de Arrieta, C.; Perez Jurado, L.; Bernal, J.; Coloma, A. (1997). "Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN)". Genomics. 41 (2): 243–249. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4622. PMID 9143500.
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