Enolase 2

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ENO2
Protein ENO2 PDB 1te6.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases ENO2, HEL-S-279, NSE, Enolase 2
External IDs MGI: 95394 HomoloGene: 74414 GeneCards: ENO2
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ENO2 201313 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001975

NM_013509
NM_001302642

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001966
NP_001966.1

NP_001289571.1
NP_038537.1
NP_001289571
NP_038537

Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 6.91 – 6.92 Mb Chr 6: 124.76 – 124.77 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Gamma-enolase, also known as enolase 2 (ENO2) or neuron specific enolase (NSE), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENO2 gene.[3][4] Gamma-enolase is a phosphopyruvate hydratase.

Gamma-enolase is one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates.[3]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit]]
Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". 

Utility[edit]

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunostaining of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. NSE is produced by small cell carcinomas which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for lung cancer patients.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b "ENO2 enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)". NCBI Entrez Gene database. 
  4. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Enolase 2 -131360
  5. ^ Clegg N, Ferguson C, True LD, Arnold H, Moorman A, Quinn JE, Vessella RL, Nelson PS (April 2003). "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate. 55 (1): 55–64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. PMID 12640661. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Oliva D, Calì L, Feo S, Giallongo A (1991). "Complete structure of the human gene encoding neuron-specific enolase.". Genomics. 10 (1): 157–65. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90496-2. PMID 2045099. 
  • Craig SP, Day IN, Thompson RJ, Craig IW (1991). "Localisation of neurone-specific enolase (ENO2) to 12p13.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 54 (1–2): 71–3. doi:10.1159/000132960. PMID 2249478. 
  • Oliva D, Barba G, Barbieri G, et al. (1989). "Cloning, expression and sequence homologies of cDNA for human gamma enolase". Gene. 79 (2): 355–60. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(89)90217-5. PMID 2792767. 
  • McAleese SM, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE, et al. (1989). "Complete amino acid sequence of the neurone-specific gamma isozyme of enolase (NSE) from human brain and comparison with the non-neuronal alpha form (NNE)". Eur. J. Biochem. 178 (2): 413–7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14465.x. PMID 3208766. 
  • Van Obberghen E, Kamholz J, Bishop JG, et al. (1988). "Human gamma enolase: isolation of a cDNA clone and expression in normal and tumor tissues of human origin". J. Neurosci. Res. 19 (4): 450–6. doi:10.1002/jnr.490190409. PMID 3385803. 
  • Day IN, Allsopp MT, Moore DC, Thompson RJ (1987). "Sequence conservation in the 3'-untranslated regions of neurone-specific enolase, lymphokine and protooncogene mRNAs". FEBS Lett. 222 (1): 139–43. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)80207-7. PMID 3653393. 
  • Haimoto H, Takahashi Y, Koshikawa T, et al. (1985). "Immunohistochemical localization of gamma-enolase in normal human tissues other than nervous and neuroendocrine tissues". Lab. Invest. 52 (3): 257–63. PMID 3974199. 
  • Quan CP, Watanabe S, Vuillier F, et al. (1993). "Purification and partial amino acid sequence of suppressive lymphokine from a CD8+ CD57+ human T hybridoma". Immunology. 78 (2): 205–9. PMC 1421811Freely accessible. PMID 7682534. 
  • Angelov DN, Neiss WF, Gunkel A, et al. (1994). "Axotomy induces intranuclear immunolocalization of neuron-specific enolase in facial and hypoglossal neurons of the rat". J. Neurocytol. 23 (4): 218–33. doi:10.1007/BF01275526. PMID 8035205. 
  • Pechumer H, Bender-Götze C, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1994). "Detection of neuron-specific gamma-enolase messenger ribonucleic acid in normal human leukocytes by polymerase chain reaction amplification with nested primers". Lab. Invest. 69 (6): 743–9. PMID 8264236. 
  • Ansari-Lari MA, Shen Y, Muzny DM, et al. (1997). "Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental and computational gene structure determination". Genome Res. 7 (3): 268–80. doi:10.1101/gr.7.3.268. PMID 9074930. 
  • Lau L (2002). "Neuroblastoma: a single institution's experience with 128 children and an evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors". Pediatric hematology and oncology. 19 (2): 79–89. doi:10.1080/08880010252825669. PMID 11881792. 
  • Wijnberger LD, Nikkels PG, van Dongen AJ, et al. (2002). "Expression in the placenta of neuronal markers for perinatal brain damage". Pediatr. Res. 51 (4): 492–6. doi:10.1203/00006450-200204000-00015. PMID 11919335. 
  • O'Dwyer DT, Clifton V, Hall A, et al. (2002). "Pituitary autoantibodies in lymphocytic hypophysitis target both gamma- and alpha-Enolase - a link with pregnancy?". Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 110 (1–2): 94–8. doi:10.1076/apab.110.1.94.897. PMID 11935405. 
  • Chekhonin VP, Zhirkov YA, Belyaeva IA, et al. (2002). "Serum time course of two brain-specific proteins, alpha(1) brain globulin and neuron-specific enolase, in tick-born encephalitis and Lyme disease". Clin. Chim. Acta. 320 (1–2): 117–25. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(02)00057-8. PMID 11983209. 
  • Nakatsuka S, Nishiu M, Tomita Y, et al. (2005). "Enhanced expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL)". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 93 (4): 411–6. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2002.tb01272.x. PMID 11985791. 
  • Fujiwara H, Arima N, Ohtsubo H, et al. (2002). "Clinical significance of serum neuron-specific enolase in patients with adult T-cell leukemia". Am. J. Hematol. 71 (2): 80–4. doi:10.1002/ajh.10190. PMID 12353304. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241Freely accessible. PMID 12477932. 
  • Rodríguez-Núñez A, Cid E, Rodríguez-García J, et al. (2003). "Neuron-specific enolase, nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases, oxypurines and uric acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis". Brain Dev. 25 (2): 102–6. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00160-2. PMID 12581805. 
  • Muley T, Ebert W, Stieber P, et al. (2003). "Technical performance and diagnostic utility of the new Elecsys neuron-specific enolase enzyme immunoassay". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 41 (1): 95–103. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2003.017. PMID 12636057.