|Locus||Chr. 10 p12|
|Locus||Chr. 2 q34|
There are two forms of Neuropilins, NRP-1 and NRP-2. They are transmembrane glycoproteins, and predominantly co-receptors for another class of proteins known as semaphorins. Of the semaphorins, NRP-1 and NRP-2 are specifically receptors for class-3 semaphorins, which, among many things, are responsible for axon guidance during the development of the nervous system in vertebrates.
Neuropilins work as co-receptors as they have a very small cytoplasmic domain and thus rely upon other molecules (normally plexins) to transduce their signals across a cell membrane. Neuropilins generally work as dimers and different combinations have different affinities for molecules. For example, NRP-1 homodimers have high affinity for Sema3A, whilst NRP-2 homodimers have high affinity for Sema3F. Another ligand for neuropilins is VEGF, a growth factor involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.
Neuropilin-1 is a therapeutic target protein in the treatment for leukemia and lymphoma, since It has been shown that there is increased expression in neuropilin-1 in leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. Also, antagonism of neuropilin-1 has been found to inhibit tumour cell migration and adhesion.
Neuropilins contain the following four domains:
- N-terminal CUB domain (for complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1)
- Coagulation factor 5/8 type, C-terminal (discoidin domain)
- MAM domain (for meprin, A-5 protein, and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase mu)
- C-terminal neuropilin
The structure of B1 domain (coagulation factor 5/8 type) of neuropilin-1 was determined through X-Ray Diffraction with a resolution of 2.90 Å. The secondary structure of this domain is 5% alpha helical and 46% beta sheet.
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- Mecollari, V; Nieuwenhuis, B; Verhaagen, J (2014). "A perspective on the role of class III semaphorin signaling in central nervous system trauma". Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 8: 328. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00328. PMC 4209881. PMID 25386118.
- Karjalainen K, Jaalouk DE, Bueso-Ramos CE, Zurita AJ, Kuniyasu A, Eckhardt BL, Marini FC, Lichtiger B, O'Brien S, Kantarjian HM, Cortes JE, Koivunen E, Arap W, Pasqualini R (November 2010). "Targeting neuropilin-1 in human leukemia and lymphoma". Blood 117 (3): 920–927. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-05-282921. PMC 3298438. PMID 21063027.
- Jia H, Cheng L, Tickner M, Bagherzadeh A, Selwood D, Zachary I (February 2010). "Neuropilin-1 antagonism in human carcinoma cells inhibits migration and enhances chemosensitivity". Br. J. Cancer 102 (3): 541–52. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605539. PMC 2822953. PMID 20087344.
- "MolProbity Ramachandran analysis of PDB structure 3I97" (PDF). www.pdb.org.