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Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) (10R,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) also known as Protectin D1 (PD1) is a docosanoid derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is a component of fish oil and the most important omega-3 PUFA. Like other members of the specialized proresolving mediators class of PUFA metabolites, NPD1 exerts potent[1] anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic/neuroprotective bioactivity.[2] Other neuroprotectins with similar activity include: PDX (10R,17S-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid); 20-hydroxy-PD1 (10R,17S,20-trihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid); and 10-epi-PD1 (10R,17S-Dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid).[3][4] The activity of neuroprotectin-like metabolite, 17-epi-PD1 (10R,17R-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid), has not yet been reported.

Neuroprotectins A and B, which are bicyclohexapeptides, are to be distinguished structurally and mechanistically from the neuroprotectin D's.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hong S, Gronert K, Devchand PR, Moussignac RL, Serhan CN (2003). "Novel docosatrienes and 17S-resolvins generated from docosahexaenoic acid in murine brain, human blood, and glial cells. Autacoids in anti-inflammation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (17): 14677–87. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300218200. PMID 12590139. 
  2. ^ Bazan NG (2007). "Omega-3 fatty acids, pro-inflammatory signaling and neuroprotection". Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 10 (2): 136–41. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32802b7030. PMID 17285000. 
  3. ^ Balas L, Durand T (2016). "Dihydroxylated E,E,Z-docosatrienes. An overview of their synthesis and biological significance". Progress in Lipid Research. 61: 1–18. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2015.10.002. PMID 26545300. 
  4. ^ Shinohara M, Mirakaj V, Serhan CN (2012). "Functional Metabolomics Reveals Novel Active Products in the DHA Metabolome". Frontiers in Immunology. 3: 81. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00081. PMC 3342038Freely accessible. PMID 22566962. 
  5. ^ Kobayashi H, Shin-Ya K, Nagai K, et al. (2001). "Neuroprotectins A and B, bicyclohexapeptides protecting chick telencephalic neuronal cells from excitotoxicity. I. Fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activity". J. Antibiot. 54 (12): 1013–8. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.54.1013. PMID 11858654.