NewSQL is a class of relational database management systems that seek to provide the scalability of NoSQL systems for online transaction processing (OLTP) workloads while maintaining the ACID guarantees of a traditional database system.
Many enterprise systems that handle high-profile data (e.g., financial and order processing systems) are too large for conventional relational databases, but have transactional and consistency requirements that are not practical for NoSQL systems. The only options previously available for these organizations were to either purchase a more powerful computers or develop custom middleware that distributes requests over conventional DBMS. Both approaches feature high costs and/or development costs. NewSQL systems attempt to reconcile the conflicts.
The term was first used by 451 Group analyst Matthew Aslett in a 2011 research paper discussing the rise of a new generation of database management systems. One of the first NewSQL systems was the H-Store parallel database system.
Typical applications typically are characterized by heavy OLTP transaction volumes. OLTP transactions
- are short-lived (i.e., no user stalls)
- touch small amounts of data per transaction
- use indexed lookups (no table scans)
- have a small number of forms (a small number of queries with different arguments).
NewSQL systems adopt various internal architectures. The two common distinguishing features are that they support the relational data model (including ACID consistency) and use SQL as their primary interface.
Some systems employ a cluster of shared-nothing nodes, in which each node manages a subset of the data. They include components such as distributed concurrency control, flow control, and distributed query processing. Example systems in this category are Amazon Aurora, Google Spanner, TiDB, CockroachDB, Altibase, Apache Ignite, GridGain, Clustrix, VoltDB, MemSQL, NuoDB, YugaByte DB and Trafodion.
The second category are optimized storage engines for SQL. These systems provide the same programming interface as SQL, but scale better than built-in engine such as InnoDB. Examples include MySQL Cluster, Infobright, TokuDB, MyRocks, SQL Server (with ColumnStore and InMemory features) and MariaDB Columnstore.
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- Pavlo, Andrew; et al. (2016). "What's Really New with NewSQL?" (PDF). SIGMOD Record.
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- Stonebraker, M.; Cattell, R. (2011). "10 rules for scalable performance in 'simple operation' datastores". Communications of the ACM. 54 (6): 72. doi:10.1145/1953122.1953144.
- Cattell, R. (2011). "Scalable SQL and NoSQL data stores" (PDF). ACM SIGMOD Record. 39 (4): 12. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.2621. doi:10.1145/1978915.1978919.
- Venkatesh, Prasanna (2012). "NewSQL - The New Way to Handle Big Data" (published 2012-01-30). Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- Zhang, Jinpeng. "TiDB: Performance-tuning a distributed NewSQL database". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- "Meet TiDB: An open source NewSQL database". Opensource.com. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- Xu, Kevin. "How TiDB combines OLTP and OLAP in a distributed database". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- "New dog, new tricks: HarperDB debuts hybrid SQL/NoSQL database, targets IoT workloads". 2018.
- "Trafodion: Transactional SQL-on-HBase". 2014.