New Routemaster

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For the 1956 bus that inspired the design of the New Routemaster, see Routemaster.
New Routemaster
Metroline buses LT16 (LK13 FJN) & LT26 (LTZ 1026), 19 September 2013.jpg
A pair of New Routemaster buses operating
route 24 at Hampstead Heath
Manufacturer Wrightbus
Body and chassis
Doors 3 doors
Floor type Low-floor
Engine Cummins ISBe
4-cylinder, 4.5-litres, 185hp Euro V compliant[1][2]
Capacity 80 (87 without wheelchair) (lower: 22 seats, 1 wheelchair space, 18 standing (25 standing without wheelchair); upper deck: 40 seats)
Transmission Hybrid diesel-electric in series
75kWh[3] Lithium iron phosphate battery pack, Siemens ELFA2[4] electric traction motor[5]
Length 11.23 m (36 ft 10 in)[4]
Width 2.52 m (8 ft 3 in)
Height 4.39 m (14 ft 5 in)
Kerb weight 12.65 tonnes (12.45 long tons; 13.94 short tons)

The New Routemaster, originally referred to as the New Bus for London and popularly known as the Boris Bus or Borismaster (a portmanteau of the name of the former Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, who drove their introduction, and that of the AEC Routemaster that they were designed to replace) is a hybrid diesel-electric double-decker bus operated in London. Designed by Heatherwick Studio, it is manufactured by Wrightbus, and is notable for featuring a "hop-on hop-off" rear open platform similar to the original Routemaster bus design but updated to meet requirements for modern buses to be fully accessible. The first bus entered service on 27 February 2012.

The original AEC Routemaster was a standard London bus type, with a rear open platform and crewed by both a driver and conductor. It was withdrawn from service (except for two heritage routes) at the end of 2005 by London Mayor Ken Livingstone, in favour of a fully accessible one-person-operated modern fleet, none of which featured a rear open platform. The withdrawal of the Routemaster became an issue of the 2008 London mayoral election, and Johnson was subsequently elected mayor, with one of his campaign pledges being to introduce a new Routemaster. Following an open design competition in 2008, Wrightbus was awarded the contract to build the bus at the end of 2009, and the final design was announced in May 2010.

The design for the new double-decker bus features three doors and two staircases to allow accessible boarding. Unlike the original Routemaster, the new bus has a conventional full front end and a rear platform that can be closed when not needed, rather than the protruding, bonneted 'half cab' design and permanently open platform. The layout of the new bus allows it to be operated by one person at off-peak times. The cost of each bus will be £355,000 over the four year procurement period.[6]

The New Routemasters have come under sustained criticism for design faults such as overheating for passengers in summer and emitting more pollution than their predecessors due to unreliable hybrid batteries. [7]


Passengers alighting from the rear platform
Curved rear as inspired by AEC Routemaster

The final design has doors at the front, centre and rear. The front and rear doors lead to staircases to the upper deck. The rear entrance has a platform and pole similar to the original Routemaster, which is kept open for hop-on, hop-off operation when a conductor is on board. Readers for the contactless Oyster card used for payment for transport in London are provided at each of the three boarding points; other types of ticket must be presented to the driver, as the conductor does not take fares or check tickets.

There is a new pattern of moquette for the seating, manufactured by Camira Fabrics. The internal lighting is provided by LED clusters, and there is a climate-controlled ventilation system. There is a system to display text and provide audio announcements via loudspeakers, and T-loop for users of hearing aids; the information typically includes the route number, destination, name of the next stop and that the bus is stopping.

The bus is a hybrid diesel-electric driven by a battery-powered electric motor, charged by a diesel fueled generator and recovering energy during braking by regenerative braking; the diesel engine runs only when the battery needs charging and so the bus has lower pollution and better fuel consumption than the earlier ones in this class did.


Original Routemaster in London[edit]

Boris Johnson with a model of an original Routemaster bearing a political slogan during his 2008 London mayoral campaign
Main article: Routemaster

Designed for and largely operated in London, over 2,800 AEC Routemasters were built between 1956 and 1968, with a design so robust that the Routemaster outlasted newer buses intended to replace it, remaining in use until 2005, well into the deregulated era.

From 31 December 2000, it had become mandatory for all new buses delivered in the UK to comply with the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, leading to the development of the wheelchair-accessible low-floor bus. Older buses were allowed to remain in London until 23 October 2009 and in the rest of United Kingdom until 22 October 2014[citation needed]. Through the TfL contract renewal process, after 2000, the Routemaster began to be identified as the most common example of a non-wheelchair-accessible bus type used on TfL routes.

The first Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, supported the Routemaster during his first (2000–2004) term, indicating the type would be retained in a limited capacity on contract renewals as before. He also promised to convert the whole London bus fleet to low-floor with an original targeted timeline of 23 October 2009, which then was pushed earlier to 1 January 2006, requiring the withdrawal of the Routemaster from London. Contributory factors to the withdrawal were said to be the risk of litigation over accidents arising from using the rear platform, the cost savings of one-person operation and the fact that passengers preferred the comfort levels of modern buses to the vintage Routemaster. Livingstone said that the Routemasters were too dangerous, with approximately twelve people per year dying after falling from them during his mayoralty.[8] The last examples were withdrawn from regular London passenger service in December 2005.[9]

The Routemaster continued in operation on heritage routes 9 and 15, with the former discontinued in July 2014. The heritage routes, shorter than the full 9 and 15 routes, were awarded as tendered routes by TfL and do not contravene the TfL accessible public transport policy requirement, as frequent wheelchair-accessible buses also operate on these routes.

FRM and XRM[edit]

An attempt to design a rear-engined front-entrance version of the Routemaster in 1964/65 led to the construction of the FRM1 (front-entrance Routemaster) in 1966. The prototype shared approximately 60% of its components with a standard Routemaster and was the first integrally-constructed rear-engined double-decker built in Britain.[10] Because of its single door (a serious drawback for a bus of this capacity) and continued mechanical problems associated with its unique design, the FRM was considered a dead end although it provided proof of concept.[11][12]

In 1968, London Transport went back to the drawing board for another replacement of the Routemaster, with an anticipated introduction date of 1985. The initial result was a four-axle low-floor design that would have been suitable for automatic fare collection. By 1975, the project was well in hand and had been named XRM (Experimental Route Master). Features of the new design included a side-mounted engine for maximum flexibility in door and seating layout and hydraulic drive to four small-wheeled axles for the lowest possible floor. Experiments in the mid-1970s yielded disappointing results, and in 1978, the XRM morphed into a more-conventional-looking vehicle but with the rear door behind the rear axle. Other proposed features were LPG fuel and hydraulic suspension to lower the floor at stops. XRM design work was cancelled in September 1980, as it was calculated that it would cost £153m to build 2,500 new XRMs but only £13.5m to overhaul 2,700 Routemasters.[12][13] London Transport had, by then, committed heavily to the Leyland Titan, to which they had significant design input and it was regarded as a more viable option.

A decade later, London Transport once again looked for another replacement. In 1989, designs were solicited from Dennis Bus, Alexander and Northern Counties. Somewhat surprisingly, the style specified was a rear-entrance half-cab layout identical to the original Routemaster, but by now, it was considered obsolete elsewhere in Britain.[12]

In 1999, London Transport received an unsolicited design from its former vehicle engineering manager, Colin Curtis, who had overseen the design of the Routemaster. Dubbed the Q Master, it found little favour within London Transport and by manufacturers that Curtis approached. Transport for London announced that it would look at developing a Routemaster replacement, but the project was confirmed as dead in June 2003.[12][14]


Initial Capoco proposal[edit]

On 3 September 2007 the Conservative mayoral candidate for London, Boris Johnson, announced that he was contemplating introducing a modern-day Routemaster. In December 2007, the UK automotive magazine Autocar commissioned the bus designer Capoco, designer of the innovative Optare Solo, to come up with detailed proposals for a new-generation Routemaster.[15] Their design, dubbed the RMXL, was a hybrid technology low-floor bus with a lightweight aluminium space frame, with four more seats and twice the standing capacity of the old Routemaster, and operated solely by a driver.

The design incorporated disabled access through a closing front door behind the front wheels, while retaining open-platform rear access, with the staircase still at the rear. The hybrid drivetrain had a front-mounted continuous-revving hydrogenised petrol engine; this charged front-mounted batteries, which powered the rear wheels through rear-mounted electric motors. This arrangement, through not requiring a mechanical transmission, allowed for a low floor and a step-free entrance into the lower deck from the rear platform.

Hydrogen storage tanks would be located under the rear staircase. The design was covered by the national press but attracted criticism from Livingstone as being too costly to justify and still not safe, despite proposals to monitor the rear platform with cameras.[16]

New Bus for London competition[edit]

Capoco Future Routemaster.jpg Aston Martin Foster Future Routemaster.jpg
The two joint winners for the "whole bus" detailed design category.

Johnson backed the Autocar / Capoco design in principle and suggested that he would hold a formal design competition to develop a new Routemaster if he was elected London mayor in May 2008. After winning, on 4 July 2008 Johnson announced the New Bus for London competition.

An initiative of Transport for London, the competition invited anybody, both companies and members of the public, to submit ideas for consideration. The competition had two categories, an Imagine category for general ideas and concepts, and a Design category, for more detailed proposals. In both categories, entries could be either "whole bus" submissions, or proposals for parts of the bus.

The Imagine category called for the submission of imaginative ideas for a red double-decker bus with a rear open platform, and one other entrance/exit with doors.[17] The Design category called for detailed designs of a low floor red double-decker bus with at least one internal staircase, a rear open platform, and one other entrance/exit with doors, to be crewed by a driver and conductor, and suitable for carrying 72 passengers seated and standing. The designs were required to satisfy a table of mandatory and suggested design specifications, and "be practical and economic and capable of being put into mass production".[18][19] The competition offered cash prizes for entrants, with £25,000 for the winner, and smaller awards for good ideas.

One initial set of proposals gained media attention after being unveiled during October 2008, for a "smiley bus" known as the H4 (designed by the H4 Group).[20] Future Systems offered a "space age" alternative powered by hydrogen.[21] Foster and Partners submitted a glass-roofed design.[22] The winners were announced on 19 December 2008. There were 225 entries in the Design category, and 475 entries in the Imagine category[23]

The £25,000 prize for winning the whole bus Design category was shared between two entries, one from Capoco Design, a bus, coach and truck design firm, and one from a joint submission made by architects Foster and Partners and automotive company Aston Martin[24]

Tendering process & final design[edit]

Rear spiral staircase

The winning and other merited entrants in both the Imagine and Design categories for both 'whole bus' submission and part submissions were passed by TfL to bus manufacturers, for them to draw up detailed final designs meeting all relevant legislation, and later presented to TfL for consideration on a competitive-tender basis.[25] By April 2009, a formal invitation to express interest in the project was published in the Official Journal of the European Union[26]

In May 2009, six manufacturers were invited to negotiate for the contract to design and build the new bus.[27] They were Alexander Dennis, EvoBus (which includes Mercedes-Benz), Hispano Carrocera, Optare, Scania and Wrightbus, having all met TfL's criteria for pre-qualification for tendering, which included demonstrating they had a manufacturing capacity of building 600 buses over three years. Volvo declined to enter the bidding process. Transport for London set a deadline of 14 August for the submission of detailed tenders; Scania and Evobus pulled out before this deadline. Scania did not believe they could produce the first prototype in the time stipulated, and Evobus had concerns as they were not at the time manufacturing any double-decker.[28]

On 23 December 2009, Northern Ireland-based vehicle manufacturer Wrightbus was awarded the contract to build the Future Routemaster.[29] The contract called for a bus with a capacity for at least 87 passengers, two staircases, three doors, and a rear platform which could be left open, or closed with a door when there was no conductor on board.[29] The bus would be a hybrid, utilising technology to make it 40% more fuel-efficient than conventional diesel buses, and 15% more than London hybrid buses already in operation, reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by 40% and particulate matter by 33% compared with diesel buses.[27]

On 17 May 2010 the final design was unveiled by Wrightbus, with asymmetric glass swoops as its signature "futuristic" styling feature.[30] Transport for London and Wrightbus worked with Heatherwick Studio to produce the styling for Wrightbus' final design. As it is an iconic bus for London, TfL has applied to the Intellectual Property Office for Registered Design Protection for the exterior design.[31]

The body has two diagonal glass windows from top to bottom decks, one curving around the rear, the other on the right-hand side towards the front, which provide natural light to the interiors of both staircases. The rear staircase is in the same position as in the original Routemaster, curving around the rear section, while the front staircase is straight, ascending on the right-hand side of the chassis over the driver's cab, opening out in the front of the upper deck.[31]

The bus is certified to EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval and ECE Regulation 107, according to the manufacturers.

The use of three doors and two staircases is not new to London: London Transport evaluated a prototype bus in the 1980s as part of the Alternative Vehicle Evaluation programme: a specially modified Volvo Ailsa B55 with two staircases. These trials were curtailed due to the running-down and eventual closure of London Transport's bus Engineering Research department.


London United New Routemaster painted in red and silver livery to promote the "Year of the Bus" on route 9 at Charing Cross in February 2014

A static mockup was unveiled at Acton depot on 11 November 2010:[32] the first engineering prototype was driven by Boris Johnson at a public demonstration on 27 May 2011.[33][34] The first working prototype was unveiled in December 2011 and driven from City Hall to Trafalgar Square. Within days of its unveiling, the first prototype was reported to have broken down on the M1 motorway north of London,[35] but this was due to human error; it had run out of fuel. The first new bus (fleet number LT 2) entered service with Arriva London on 27 February 2012, on route 38.[36] During the 2012 London mayoral election, former Mayor of London and Labour candidate Ken Livingstone said that, if elected, he would buy no more New Buses for London because of the price.[37] However, Boris Johnson won the election and in September 2012 approved the order for 600 of the new buses, with public funding required estimated at about £160 million.[38][39][40] The prototypes remain in service on route 38.

The eight prototypes were registered on GB registration plates. A block series of Northern Ireland plates in the LTZ 1xxx series was reserved for the production examples with the xxx correlating with the fleet number. The prototypes were reregistered.[41]

All of the first 272 were delivered with Euro 5 engines except for six, which were fitted with trial Euro 6 engines. The remaining deliveries were also expected to receive Euro 6 engines.[42] In 2014, a further 200 were ordered which will bring the total to 808.[43] This was later cut back to 805. In January 2016, an additional order was placed which will bring the total to 1,000.[44]

One (ST812) was built to a shorter wheelbase of 10.1 metres with an eight seat seat reduction instead of the normal 11.3 metres, entering service in 2016 with Metroline on route 91.[45]


LT3 in Singapore in February 2014

In May 2013, LT1 and LT2 were loaned to the UK government to take part in a global trade mission covering 16 countries in four continents over 12 months.[46] In October 2013, LT3 was sent on a demonstration tour to Hong Kong and then to Singapore in February 2014.[47] As at August 2014, LT1 was stored in Abu Dhabi pending a decision on the future of the programme while the other two had returned to England.[48]

In August 2014, LT2 commenced a six-month trial with First West Yorkshire. It was repainted green.[49] In November 2014, Stagecoach Strathtay commenced a three-month trial of a pair of New Routemasters in Dundee. Buses LT312 and LT313 were used daily on the conductor operated route 73 from Arbroath to Ninewells Hospital.[50][51] The Stagecoach Strathtay trial ended early in mid-December 2014, after the two vehicles proved incapable of running to the timetable and suffered a series of high-profile breakdowns in service.[52][citation needed]


New Routemasters currently operate on the following routes:[53]

Route Operator Garage Peak Vehicle Requirement Introduction Date
3 Abellio London Battersea (QB) 22 8 February 2016[53]
8 Stagecoach London Bow (BW) 30 28 June 2014[54]
9 London United Stamford Brook (V) 22 26 October 2013[55]
10 London United Stamford Brook (V) 23 26 April 2014[56]
11 London General Stockwell (SW) 25 21 September 2013[57]
12 London Central Camberwell (Q) 36 28 March 2015[58]
15 Stagecoach London Bow (BW) 24 28 February 2015[59]
16 Metroline Cricklewood (W) 18 26 September 2015[53]
24 Metroline Holloway (HT) 27 22 June 2013[60]
38 Arriva London Clapton (CT) 59 10 May 2012 [54]
55 Stagecoach London Leyton (T) 34 28 February 2015[59]
59 Arriva London Brixton (BN) 26 22 March 2016[61]
68 London Central Camberwell (Q) 24 6 February 2016[62]
73 Arriva London Stamford Hill (SF) 53 14 May 2015[63]
88 London General Stockwell (SW) 24 22 August 2015[64]
91 Metroline Holloway (HT) 21 9 May 2016[45]
137 Arriva London Brixton (BN) 31 2 December 2014[65]
148 London United Shepherd's Bush (S) 25 15 February 2014[66]
149 Arriva London Tottenham (AR) 38 13 October 2015[67]
159 Abellio London Battersea (QB) 34 12 December 2015[68]
168 Metroline Cricklewood (W) 22 10 December 2015[53]
189 Metroline Cricklewood (W) 20 30 August 2016[53]
211 Abellio London Battersea (QB) 20 4 June 2016[53]
253 Arriva London Stamford Hill (SF) 32 20 October 2016[69]
390 Metroline Holloway (HT) 22 7 December 2013[70]
453 London General Mandela Way (MW) 35 18 October 2014[71]
N3 Abellio London Battersea (QB) 13 8 February 2016[53]
N8 Stagecoach London Bow (BW) 21 28 June 2014[54]
N11 London General Stockwell (SW) 7 31 October 2015[72]
N16 Metroline Cricklewood (W) 6 8 October 2016[53]
N38 Arriva London Clapton (CT) 26 10 May 2014[54]
N55 Stagecoach London Leyton (T) 12 28 February 2015[59]
N73 Arriva London Stamford Hill (SF) 13 14 May 2015 [63]

Other routes scheduled for conversion are route 21 in November 2016, route 76 on 28 January 2017 and 48, EL1, EL2 and EL3, all in February 2017.[73][74]

When in one-person operation, the driver operates all three doors. When in two-person operation, a conductor stands on the rear platform and that door stays open even while the bus is moving. At stops, the conductor presses a button to inform the driver that the platform is clear; the driver operates the other two doors as is done for one-person operation.[75]

The annual cost of employing conductors from 06:00 to 19:00 on weekdays was about £62,000 per bus.[76]

The other routes do not operate with conductors, and the rear platform remains closed whilst the bus is moving. In 2014, the TfL board was told that new routes would have no conductors but would operate with the rear door closed while moving.[77]

In July 2016 it was announced by TFL that the conductor would be phased out on all six crewed routes in September 2016.[78]

To address issues caused by air-conditioning failures, in September 2015 it was announced a program would commence to retrofit opening windows.[79]


Under the bus contract tendering system for London, routes are often updated with new buses every seven years, with new buses owned or leased by the operator, whether the route operator changes or not. Redundant buses, if not used on other London contracts or sold to other London operators, often go on to further use outside London, either cascaded within the fleets of the large national operators who own several of the London operating companies or sold to other regional companies.

London transport commissioner Peter Hendy acknowledged in 2008 that there were economic challenges in requiring current private London bus operators to tender for routes if they required the outright purchase of the New Bus for London. He acknowledged it could lead to higher bids overall because a rear platform bus was unlikely to appeal to operators outside London and with the questionable utility of hybrid technology to more rural operations.[80]

An independent review of London buses by KPMG for TfL's London Buses division, which oversees the day-to-day network and route-tendering system but does not own or operate buses, found that in the current credit climate London bus operators were reluctant to take on the residual value risk posed by the New Bus for London route contracts, and TfL would not be able to own the bus fleet due to capital restrictions. It, therefore, recommended to allow use of the new buses route contracts to be extended to the expected life of the buses or use of a leasing company to own the whole fleet or to guarantee in some way that the residual risk to operators could be reduced.[81]


The launch of the design for the New Bus for London led to BBC One's The One Show airing a segment on 18 May 2010 reviewing the 100-year history of the London standard double-decker, with John Sergeant reviewing the history of, and riding preserved examples of, the 1910 LGOC B-type, the RT and the original Routemaster.

Because of the close connection between British car magazine Autocar and New Routemaster, it was the subject of a road test in December 2011. The magazine said it was "the best in public transport", referring to the vehicle's hybrid drivetrain as "brilliant economy and an interior to die for".[82]

The New Routemaster was also road tested by Top Gear's James May in an episode where it left London and drove to attractions such as Cheddar Gorge before returning to the capital to take part in a 'Best of British' vehicle celebration.[83]


The New Routemaster has been criticised for the effectiveness of its air conditioning (although it actually has an air-cooling/heating system, which operates differently from an air 'conditioning' system), especially during hot days.[84][85][86]

The upper deck windows have also been criticised for being small, not giving comparable views to other bus models, and not letting in much light to the upper deck, making it "gloomy".[87]

Although London Buses' Director of Operations promised that all New Routemasters would be staffed by conductors and the rear platform would be open 12 hours a day,[88] when the buses were introduced on route 148, there was no second crew member and the rear platform was opened by the driver at bus stops only.[89]

In July 2015 the BBC reported a high level of battery failure, with 80 New Routemasters operating in diesel-only mode. 200 New Routemasters have at least some failing batteries, which will be replaced under warranty. An improved battery design is being introduced.[90][91]

The New Routemasters emit more harmful particles than the buses they replaced. London mayoral candidate and transport expert Christian Wolmar, who first revealed problems with the New Routemasters, said in July 2015: "This is further evidence that this project was misconceived from the start. I have been told that drivers have been complaining about the failed batteries since August last year and yet nothing has been done. It is no surprise the emissions are higher than those on conventional buses as the New Bus for London is not operating as designed. It is supposed to be powered by an electric motor, but instead is using its inefficient diesel engine that should, in normal conditions, be running at constant speed".[92]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The New Routemaster has been involved in several accidents and incidents:

  • In September 2013, three people were seriously hurt when a New Routemaster on route 11 crashed into three other buses and some parked cars on Chelsea Bridge Road.[93]
  • In June 2014, the driver of a car going 100mph was killed, one person was left fighting for their life and 12 were hurt when the car hit a New Routemaster on route N38.[94]
  • In April 2015, a car was wedged in between two New Routemasters on Goodge Street. The occupants of the car were treated at the scene[95]
  • In January 2016, 13 people were injured when two New Routemasters on routes 11 and 148 collided with each other and hit a van in Parliament Square.[96]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Borismaster or Saunamaster? Transport Engineer 2 July 2014
  2. ^ Wrights Hybrid Wrightbus
  3. ^ Your New Routemaster questions answered Cnet
  4. ^ a b Spec sheet
  5. ^ Siemens ELFA Drive System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, 2011. Archive
  6. ^ Tfl: Borismasters "will save millions" Bus & Coach Professional 7 May 2013
  7. ^
  8. ^ ITV London – Ken Livingstone: too many people died on Routemasters, 5 October 2013
  9. ^ Routemaster makes final journey BBC News 9 December 2005
  10. ^ Bowles, Lawrie (1984) [1977]. London Transport Buses (8th ed.). Harrow Weald, Middlesex: Capital Transport. pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-904711-54-4. 
  11. ^ Blacker, Ken (1995) [1991]. Routemaster: 1954–1969. 1 (2nd ed.). Harrow Weald, Middlesex: Capital Transport. pp. 134–139. ISBN 1-85414-178-3. 
  12. ^ a b c d Blacker, Ken (2007). Routemaster: 1970–2005. 2 (2nd ed.). Harrow Weald, Middlesex: Capital Transport. pp. 42–43, 102–111. ISBN 978-1-85414-303-7. 
  13. ^ XRM is ditched Commercial Motor 14 February 1981
  14. ^ Routemaster: Transport of delight? BBC News 13 September 2002
  15. ^ Autocar re-invents the Routemaster Autocar 19 December 2007
  16. ^ "Green" Routemaster plan outlined BBC News 19 December 2007
  17. ^ "Competition rules – A new bus for London, Imagine category" (PDF). Transport for London. n.d. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 
  18. ^ "Competition rules – A new bus for London, Design category" (PDF). Transport for London. n.d. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 
  19. ^ "Competition rules – A new bus for London, Vehicle Specification Guidelines" (PDF). Transport for London. n.d. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 
  20. ^ Amar Singh (13 October 2008). "The Routemaster with a smile". London Evening Standard. 
  21. ^ Staff Writer (8 January 2008). "Future Systems' London Routemaster bus". Building Design Online, The Architect's Website. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  22. ^ Routemaster London Fosters + Partners
  23. ^ "A new bus for London, The Winners" (PDF). Transport for London. n.d. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 
  24. ^ "Aston Martin designs Routemaster". BBC News. 19 December 2008. 
  25. ^ "A New Bus for London – Next steps". Transport for London. n.d. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 
  26. ^ Buses Magazine issue 649 April 2008
  27. ^ a b "Wrightbus to design and build New Bus for London" (Press release). Transport for London. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  28. ^ Buses Magazine issue 654 September 2009
  29. ^ a b "New Routemaster maker announced". BBC News. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  30. ^ "London's 'new Routemaster' bus design unveiled". BBC News. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  31. ^ a b "Mayor unveils iconic final design for London's new bus" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  32. ^ "Model of new Routemaster London bus unveiled". BBC. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  33. ^ "Boris Johnson and the Routemaster: soft edges and cheerful demeanour". The Guardian. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  34. ^ "Boris Johnson drives London's new bus" (Video). ITN. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  35. ^ "New Routemaster Breaks Down Already! Photo". LBC. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  36. ^ "New Routemaster bus starts running on London roads". BBC News Online. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  37. ^ "Ken Livingstone vows to halt rollout of new Routemaster buses". The Guardian. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  38. ^ metrowebukmetro (20 September 2012). "London to get 600 new 'Boris buses' – but taxpayers will foot the £160m bill". Metro News. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  39. ^ New Bus for London Rollout Transport for London 20 September 2012
  40. ^ "600 new buses by 2016". Transport for London. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  41. ^ Curtis, Martin (2014). New Bus for London: The Inside Story. Kendal: Nostalgia Road Publications. p. 80. ISBN 978-1908347305. 
  42. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  43. ^ TfL set to order 200 New Routemasters despite poor BCR Transport Xtra 31 October 2014
  44. ^ London Routemaster Buses: Wrightbus set to get order worth £60m BBC News 3 February 2016
  45. ^ a b "Metroline" Buses Magazine issue 736 July 2016 page 73
  46. ^ Prince Harry and Prime Minister David Cameron launch GREAT Global Bus Tour Foreign & Commonwealth Office 14 May 2013
  47. ^ KMB views Borismaster Bus & Coach Professional 4 November 2013
  48. ^ "Pause in Great campaign bus tours" Buses issue 714 September 2014 page 7
  49. ^ "First steps up WYork campaign" Buses issue 714 September 2014 pages 6/7
  50. ^ "New Routemaster trial for Dundee?" Buses issue 714 September 2014 page 7
  51. ^ "All aboard! — Stagecoach's new Routemaster buses take to the road between Dundee and Arbroath". The Courier. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  52. ^ Wilson, Alan (21 November 2014). "Stagecoach's Routemaster bus trial runs into some trouble". The Courier. Retrieved 7 July 2016. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h "New Routemaster". Transport for London. Retrieved 7 July 2016. 
  54. ^ a b c d Route 8 and 38 now served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 2 July 2014
  55. ^ Route 9 to be served by iconic New Bus for London from Saturday Transport for London 21 October 2013
  56. ^ Route 10 to operate New Routemasters from Saturday Transport for London 24 April 2014
  57. ^ Second Borismaster route named Bus & Coach Professional 4 June 2013
  58. ^ Route 12 to be served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 8 April 2015
  59. ^ a b c Route 55 and 15 to be served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 26 January 2015
  60. ^ Mayor announces first bus route to be fully served by iconic new bus for London fleet Transport for London 25 January 2013
  61. ^ Route 59 converts to New Routemasters Arriva London 23 March 2016
  62. ^ Route 68 now served by new Routemaster bus Transport for London 5 February 2016
  63. ^ a b Route 73 to be served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 15 May 2015
  64. ^ "Route 88 next for full New Routemaster transition: Coach & Bus Week issue 1205 8 September 2015 page 8
  65. ^ Route 137 to be served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 1 December 2014
  66. ^ Routemasters running on route 148 Transport for London 19 February 2014
  67. ^ Route 149 now served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 26 October 2015
  68. ^ Route 159 now served by New Routemaster buses Transport for London 11 December 2015
  69. ^ "Arriva London's Route 253 converts to New Routemasters". Arriva London. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  70. ^ Route 390 to be served by New Routemasters from Saturday Transport for London 5 December 2013
  71. ^ New Routemaster buses on route 453 Transport for London 2 October 2014
  72. ^ Revised rear door arrangement on latest LTs Buses Magazine 725 August 2015 page 25
  73. ^ "Blue Triangle and Arriva London North win new London tenders" Coach & Bus Week issue 1251 2 August 2016 page 7
  74. ^ "New Routemasters on the way for East London Transit" Buses Magazine issue 738 September 2016 page 26
  75. ^ "Revised rear door arrangement on latest LTs" Buses Magazine 725 August 2015 page 25
  76. ^ "Ken Livingstone vows to halt rollout of new Routemaster buses". The Guardian. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  77. ^ "New Routemaster" (PDF). TfL. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  78. ^ "London's New Routemaster buses cut 300 conductors". BBC News. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  79. ^ New Routemasters to be fitted with windows that open Evening Standard 18 September 2015
  80. ^ Buses Magazine issue 641 August 2008
  81. ^ "Independent strategic review of the provision of bus services in London" (PDF). London Bus Services Limited. 16 July 2009. p. 46. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  82. ^ New Bus for London driven
  83. ^ Top Gear's James May causes havoc in a London bus Wiltshire Gazette & Herald 8 July 2013
  84. ^ The New Bus for London Officially a Health Hazard Boris Watch 7 July 2013
  85. ^ Woman fighting for life after falling head-first from the back of a new 'Boris bus' in rush hour Daily Mail 4 October 2013
  86. ^ New Routemaster's battery problems mean many run on just diesel BBC News 20 July 2015
  87. ^ In Pictures – A Ride on the New Bus for London Londonist 27 February 2012
  88. ^ Boris Johnson's New Routemasters Will Have Conductors All Day Daily Telegraph, 11 January 2011
  89. ^ No open platform when ‘New Routemaster’ buses come south of river London SE1 12 February 2014
  90. ^ Tom Edwards (20 July 2015). "New Routemaster's battery problems mean many run on just diesel". BBC. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  91. ^ How the New Routemaster came full circle: back to a regular old London bus
  92. ^ Pippa Crerar (24 July 2015). "Faulty new Routemasters 'emit 74% more harmful particles than old buses'". Evening Standard. 
  93. ^ "New Bus for London crash: Three people seriously hurt". 23 September 2013. 
  94. ^ "London bus crash: 100mph 'street racer' dead, one man critically injured and 12 others hurt after collision with car". Evening Standard. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  95. ^ "Mercedes wedged between two 'Boris' buses". Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  96. ^ "Thirteen people are injured after THREE double-decker buses crash in London's Parliament Square". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Media related to New Routemaster at Wikimedia Commons

Official links[edit]

Winning design

Design competition[edit]

FRM & XRM[edit]