New Calvinism, also known as the Young, Restless, and Reformed Movement, is a movement within conservative evangelicalism that embraces the fundamentals of 16th-century Calvinism while seeking to engage these historical doctrines with present-day culture. In March 2009, Time magazine ranked it as one of the "10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now." Some of the major figures in this area are John Piper, Mark Driscoll, Matt Chandler, Al Mohler, Mark Dever, C. J. Mahaney, Thabiti Anyabwile, and Joshua Harris. Piper and Driscoll have also noted the importance of Calvinist Christian hip hop artists, such as Lecrae, Shai Linne, and other Reach Records artists, in contributing to the movement. Other artists associated with the movement include Kings Kaleidoscope, Citizens & Saints, Austin Stone Worship, Sovereign Grace Music, Sojourn Music, Aaron Ivey of the Austin Stone, Matt Boswell of Providence Church, Michael Bleecker of the Village Church, and Matt Papa, among others.
"Old" and New Calvinism
Rooted in the historical tradition of Reformed Theology, New Calvinists are united by their common doctrine. In a Christianity Today article, Collin Hansen describes the speakers of a Christian conference:
Each of the seven speakers holds to the five points of Calvinism. Yet none of them spoke of Calvinism unless I asked about it. They did express worry about perceived evangelical accommodation to postmodernism and criticized churches for applying business models to ministry. They mostly joked about their many differences on such historically difficult issues as baptism, church government, eschatology, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. They drew unity as Calvinist evangelicals from their concerns: with seeker churches, church-growth marketing, and manipulative revival techniques.
The New Calvinists look to Puritans like Jonathan Edwards who taught that sanctification requires a vigorous and vigilant pursuit of holy living, not a passive attitude of mechanical progress (see Lordship salvation); however, as implied by the "New" designation, some differences have been observed between the New and Old schools. Mark Driscoll, for example, has identified what he considers to be four main differences between the two:
- New Calvinism is missional and seeks to create and redeem culture.
- New Calvinism is flooding into cities.
- Old Calvinism was generally cessationist (i.e. believing the gifts of the Holy Spirit such as tongues and prophecy had ceased). New Calvinism is generally continuationist with regard to spiritual gifts.
- New Calvinism is open to dialogue with other Christian positions.
This fourth distinctive is what Driscoll considers a vital component in being able to engage with contemporary society.
R. Scott Clark, professor of church history and historical theology from Westminster Seminary California, argues that New Calvinists like Driscoll should not be called Calvinists merely because they believe in the five points of Calvinism, but rather he suggests that adherence to the Three Forms of Unity and other Reformed confessions of faith is what qualifies one a Calvinist. Specifically, he suggests that many of the New Calvinists' positions on infant baptism, covenant theology, and continuation of the gifts of the Spirit are out of step with the Reformed tradition.
J. Todd Billings, professor of Reformed Theology at Western Theological Seminary argues that the New Calvinists "tend to obscure the fact that the Reformed tradition has a deeply catholic heritage, a Christ-centered sacramental practice and a wide-lens, kingdom vision for the Christian's vocation in the world."
Between 2012 and 2013 numerous Southern Baptist Ministers responded to New Calvinism by affirming a "Statement of the Traditional Southern Baptist Understanding". The document was originally endorsed by six former SBC presidents Morris Chapman, Jimmy Draper, Paige Patterson, Bailey Smith, Bobby Welch, and Jerry Vines, two seminary presidents Chuck Kelley of New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary and former SBC president and former Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary President Paige Patterson, and five state executive directors (Jim Futral of Mississippi, David Hankins of Louisiana, Mike Procter of Alaska, John Sullivan of Florida, and Bob White of Georgia). The statement includes a Preamble and 10 articles of affirmation and denial as it relates to Christian Soteriology.
- Roger E. Olson, What Attracts People into the Young, Restless, Reformed Movement?
- Van Biema 2009
- Masters 2009
- Burek 2010.
- Piper, John (March 12, 2014). "The New Calvinism and the New Community". Desiring God. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Driscoll, Mark A. (2013). A Call to Resurgence. Carol Stream: Tyndale House. pp. 99, 201–202. ISBN 9781414383620.
- Hansen 2006
- McCall 2008.
- Driscoll 2009b.
- Driscoll 2009a
- Clark 2009.
- Billings 2009.
- "Statement of the Traditional Southern Baptist Understanding of God's Plan of Salvation". connect316.net. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03.
- "Bailey Smith".
- "NOBTS - About the President". nobts.edu.
- "Jim Futral unanimous choice as Mississippi convention exec". Baptist Press.
- "Statement on Calvinism draws approval, criticism". Baptist Press.
- "The FAQs: Southern Baptists, Calvinism, and God's Plan of Salvation". thegospelcoalition.org.
- "Signers". connect316.net. Archived from the original on 2015-03-31.
- Billings, J Todd (1 December 2009), "Calvin's Comeback", Christian Century, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Burek, Josh (27 March 2010), "Christian faith: Calvinism is back", The Christian Science Monitor, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Clark, R Scott (15 March 2009), Calvinism Old and "New", retrieved 2012-11-26
- Driscoll, Mark (12 March 2009a), "More Thoughts on Time Magazine and New Calvinism", The Resurgence, archived from the original on 24 July 2012, retrieved 2012-11-26
- ——— (13 March 2009b), Time Magazine Names New Calvinism 3rd Most Powerful Idea, archived from the original on 13 November 2012, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Hansen, Collin (22 September 2006), "Young, Restless, Reformed", Christianity Today, retrieved 2012-11-26
- ——— (31 March 2008), Young, Restless, and Reformed: A Journalist's Journey With the New Calvinists, Wheaton: Crossway, ISBN 978-1-58134-940-5, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Masters, Peter (2009), "The Merger of Calvinism with Worldliness", Sword & Trowel (1)
- McCall, Thomas (29 April 2008), "Two Cheers for the Resurgence of Calvinism in Evangelicalism: A Wesleyan-Arminian Perspective", The Gospel Coalition, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Van Biema, David (12 March 2009), "The New Calvinism – 10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now", Time, retrieved 2012-11-26
- Worthen, Molly (11 January 2009), "Who Would Jesus Smack Down?", The New York Times, retrieved 2012-11-26