New Cross house fire
The New Cross house fire was a fire that occurred during a party at a house in New Cross, south-east London, in the early hours of Sunday, 18 January 1981. The blaze killed 13 young black people aged between 14 and 22, and one survivor took their own life 18 months later.
No one has ever been charged in connection with the fire, which forensic science subsequently established was started from inside the house, either by accident or deliberately.
In the immediate aftermath of the fire, a New Cross Massacre Action Committee (NCMAC) was set up, chaired by John La Rose, which organised a "Black People's Day of Action" on 2 March 1981, when some 20,000 people marched over a period of eight hours through London, carrying placards that bore statements including: "13 Dead, Nothing Said".
The New Cross fire – described by Darcus Howe in 2011 as "the blaze we cannot forget" – is significant as a turning point in the relationship between Black Britons, the police and the media, and marks an "intergenerational alliance to expose racism, injustices and the plight of black Britons".
The party was a joint birthday celebration for Yvonne Ruddock (one of the victims of the fire) and Angela Jackson (who survived) and was held at No. 439, New Cross Road. It began on the evening of Saturday, 17 January 1981, and continued throughout the night and into the early hours of Sunday, 18 January.
At the time, there was a fairly high degree of racial tension in the area and far-right groups, including the National Front, were active locally. There had also been some early complaints from neighbours about excessive noise from the party. A white Austin Princess car was seen driving away from the fire.
The initial police suspicion was that the party had been fire-bombed, either as a revenge attack or in an attempt to stop the noise; there was also an alternative theory that a fight had broken out, from which the blaze emanated.
Subsequent forensic investigation found that the fire had started by an armchair inside the front room of the property at 5:40am on Sunday morning, and police ruled out the theory that a fight had taken place.
Aftermath and the Black People's Day of Action
One week after the fire, on 25 January, a meeting was held at the Moonshot Club in New Cross, attended by more than one thousand people. The meeting concluded with a march to the scene of the fire and a demonstration there, which blocked New Cross Road for several hours. The New Cross Massacre Action Committee (NCMAC) was set up, chaired by John La Rose, and organised weekly meetings in New Cross, which saw increasing participation as the police investigation announced that there was no evidence of arson and that the fire was believed to be accidental.
The Action Committee organised a "Black People's Day of Action" on 2 March, when 20,000 people marched over a period of eight hours from Fordham Park to Hyde Park carrying placards that bore statements including: "Thirteen Dead, Nothing Said", "No Police Cover-Up" and "Blood Aga Run If Justice Na Come". One slogan read: "Dame Jill Knight Set The Fire Alight!" — an apparent reference to a controversial speech by Dame Jill Knight, a right-wing member of the ruling Conservative Party, which was widely interpreted as condoning or even encouraging "direct action" against noisy parties.
The march was overwhelmingly peaceful but The Sun newspaper reported it with the headline: "Day the blacks ran riot in London". References in other newspapers were typically cursory mentions. None of the reports mentioned the fact that the march was cut in two at Blackfriars Bridge by police. This unexplained action created delay, confusion and frustration, and was seen as an attempt to stop the march. It also isolated the stewards and march leaders from the general public who had joined the march at the rear. Press indifference or outright hostility led to an increasing division between some elements of the black and white communities.
In March 1981, many black Britons marched from New Cross to Hyde Park "in the largest mass movement for racial justice on British soil at the time, [during which] journalists stationed in the offices of Fleet Street chanted monkey noises at the protestors down below."
A survivor of the fire, Anthony Berbeck, apparently died by suicide on 9 July 1983 by jumping from the balcony of a block of council flats in south London. He had been traumatised by the death of his friends in the blaze.
The inquest into the deaths of the 13 teenagers, which began on 21 April 1981, saw criticism of the police. The coroner's summary for the jury was heavily directed towards suggesting the fire was accidental, and the jury returned an open verdict, which implied agreement. The victims' families challenged the procedure and while the High Court agreed that the summing-up was inaccurate, it did not overturn the verdict.
On 14 January 2011 an event called "Remembering the New Cross Fire 30 Years On" was held at the Albany Theatre in Deptford. The event was hosted by Kwame Kwei-Armah and was an evening of spoken word, film, discussion and Lovers rock music. It featured contributions from Alex Pascall, Professor Gus John, filmmaker Menelik Shabazz, spoken-word artists El Crisis and Zena Edwards, novelist Courttia Newland and musicians Janet Kay and Carroll Thompson. Many of the victims' families and the survivors attended the event.
St. Andrew's church in Brockley has a strong connection with the victims, as many of them attended the youth club there. In October 2002, Lewisham council installed a special stained-glass window at the church in their memory. On 16 January 2011 a memorial service was held there, with speakers including George Francis, chair of the New Cross Fire Parents' Committee, Lewisham Council leader Steve Bullock and Joan Ruddock, MP for Lewisham Deptford.
The victims were also commemorated in January 2011 with a blue plaque from Nubian Jak Community Trust. There is a stone memorial in Fordham Park, Deptford, listing those who died; facing the stone memorial is a bench with a memorial inscription. Both were installed in 2012.
There is also a memorial to the victims consisting of a park bench, plus 13 trees with a plaque at either end, on Hackney Downs in east London, and a memorial plaque on the wall of Catford Civic Hall listing the names of the "fourteen young people who died in the New Cross Fire of 18th January 1981".
In 2017, the "13 Dead, Nothing Said" exhibition was hosted at Goldsmiths College, University of London. The exhibition presents a body of photographs documenting the Black People's Day of Action, taken by Vron Ware, who had attended the march on 2 March 1981.
- The deaths in the fire were commemorated or mentioned in a number of reggae songs and poems at the time, including Johnny Osbourne's "13 Dead and Nothing Said", Benjamin Zephaniah's "13 Dead", Linton Kwesi Johnson's "New Crass Massakah" and UB40's "Don't Let It Pass You By".
- The lyrics of Carter USM's 1992 song "The Only Living Boy in New Cross" can be read as a reference to the fire.
- Rex Obano's radio play Lover's Rock (BBC Radio 3, broadcast on November 2012) is a fictional account of the events leading up to the New Cross Fire.
- In March 2018, poet Jay Bernard's performance work investigating the fire, Surge: Side A, won the 2017 Ted Hughes Award for new poetry.
- The events are referenced in The Young'uns song "These Hands" on the album Strangers, which won BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards "Best Album" 2018.
- The New Cross fire and the protests that followed are pivotal to the 2020 Steve McQueen drama Alex Wheatle, part of the filmmaker's Small Axe series for the BBC.
- Gordon-Orr, Neil (2004). Deptford Fun City: a ramble through the history and music of New Cross and Deptford. London: Past Tense Publications.
- The New Cross Massacre Story: Interviews with John La Rose. Prologue by Linton Kwesi Johnson and epilogue by Gus John. London: New Beacon Books, 2011. ISBN 978-1873201312.
- Bowcott, Owen (3 February 2004). "Inquest begins into 14 victims of 1981 fire". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "New Cross Massacre Campaign", George Padmore Institute (GPI). Collection Ref No.: GB 2904 NCM.
- Hunter, Virgillo (9 June 2019). "The New Cross Fire (January 18, 1981)". BlackPast. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- Alexis Akwagyiram, "Did the New Cross fire create a black British identity?", BBC News, 18 January 2011.
- "1981: Nine die in New Cross house fire". 1981. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Dee Lahiri, "'I don't think I can die before I find out what happened to my son'", The Guardian, 15 May 2001.
- Nadine White, "Black People's Day Of Action: Inside The 1981 New Cross Fire March That Brought Britain To A Standstill", HuffPost, 2 March 2020.
- Darcus Howe, "New Cross: the blaze we cannot forget", The Guardian, 17 January 2011.
- Kurt Barling, "New Cross fire - a turning point?", Barling's London, BBC, 18 January 2011.
- "29 Mar 1999 : Column 809", Parliamentary business|Publications and records, www.parliament.uk.
- Joey Simons, "35th anniversary of the Black People's Day of Action", RCG, 20 May 2016.
- Adam Almeida, "'13 Dead, Nothing Said': The New Cross Fire at 40". Tribune, 18 January 2021.
- "Eyewitnesses describe killer fire", BBC News, 11 February 2004.
- Terri Judd, "23 years on, new inquest opens into black youths killed in fire", The Independent, 3 February 2004.
- Muir, Hugh (11 January 2011), "Hideously diverse Britain: Memories of the New Cross tragedy never fade", The Guardian.
- "Remembering the New Cross Fire", The Albany, January 2011.
- "New Cross Fire - New Cross Road, London, UK", Blue Plaques on Waymarking.com.
- "New Cross Fire Memorial in Fordham Park", Transpontine, 25 February 2014.
- "13 Dead, Nothing Said" exhibition at Goldsmiths - Exhibition video.
- "13 Dead, Nothing Said" | 16 May 2017 – 27 May 2017" – Exhibition notes by Professor Les Back.
- Lancaster, Victoria (18 March 2017). "Photographs uncover 1981 New Cross march for racial equality". East London Lines. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- "Linton Kwesi Johnson - New Crass Massahkah".
- "Lover's Rock, Drama on 3 - BBC Radio 3". BBC.
- "Jay Bernard wins Ted Hughes new poetry award". BBC News Online. BBC. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Lea, Richard (28 March 2018). "Jay Bernard's 'personal and brave' poetry wins Ted Hughes award". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Benjamin, Colin (8 June 2019). "British writer launches poetry show based on 'New Cross Massacre' which killed 13 Blacks". Black Star News. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
- Haynes, Suyin (11 December 2020). "Alex Wheatle on the Life Story That Inspired Steve McQueen's Latest Small Axe Film". TIME.
- Johnson, Linton Kwesi (26 August 2011). "Preface to New Cross Massacre Story published by New Beacon Books". LKJ Records – Linton Kwesi Johnson. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
- "1981 BUFP New Cross Massacre" (PDF). Black Voice. 12 (1). 1981 – via woodsmokeblog.
- John, Gus (6 December 2011). "30 years after the New Cross fire: challenging racism today". Socialist Worker.
- "1981: Nine die in New Cross house fire" – BBC News "On this Day".
- Picture taken at New Cross March
- Remembering the New Cross Fire 30 Years On - promotional video
- Professor Les Back, "New Crass Massahkah: Remembering the fire at 439 New Cross Road". Published on 14 January 2016