New Democrats

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New Democrats
LeaderBill Clinton
Barack Obama
Joe Biden
Al Gore
Hillary Clinton
Chuck Schumer
Al From
Organizing bodyDemocratic Leadership Council (1985-2011)
Founded1985
Think tankThird Way
Progressive Policy Institute
New Democrat Network
IdeologyThird Way
Neoliberalism
Cultural liberalism
Political positionCentre
National affiliationDemocratic Party
Senate caucusSenate Centrist Coalition
Moderate Dems Working Group (2008-2016)
House caucusNew Democrat Coalition

New Democrats, also known as centrist Democrats, Clinton Democrats, or moderate Democrats, are a centrist ideological faction within the Democratic Party in the United States. As the Third Way faction of the party, they are seen as culturally liberal on social issues while being moderate or fiscally conservative on economic issues.[1] New Democrats dominated the party from the late 1980s through the mid-2010s.[2][3][4][5]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

After the landslide defeats by the Republican Party led by Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, a group of prominent Democrats began to believe their party was out of touch and in need of a radical shift in economic policy and ideas of governance.[6][7] The Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) was founded in 1985 by Al From and a group of like-minded politicians and strategists.[8] They advocated a political Third Way as an antidote to the electoral successes of Reaganism.[6][7]

The landslide 1984 presidential election defeat spurred centrist Democrats to action, and the DLC was formed. The DLC, an unofficial party organization, played a critical role in moving the Democratic Party's policies to the center of the American political spectrum. Prominent Democratic politicians such as Senators Al Gore and Joe Biden (both future Vice Presidents, and Biden a future President) participated in DLC affairs prior to their candidacies for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination.[9] The DLC did not want the Democratic Party to be "simply posturing in the middle", and instead framed its ideas as "progressive" and as a "Third Way" to address the problems of its era. Examples of the DLC's policy initiatives can be found in The New American Choice Resolutions.[9][10]

Although the New Democrat label was briefly used by a progressive reformist group including Gary Hart and Eugene McCarthy in 1989,[11] the term became more widely associated with the New Orleans Declaration and policies of the DLC which in 1990 renamed its bi-monthly magazine from The Mainstream Democrat to The New Democrat.[12] When then-Governor Bill Clinton stepped down as DLC chairman to run for the presidency in the 1992 United States presidential election, he presented himself as a New Democrat.[13]

First wave[edit]

The Watergate Babies from 1974 to the 1978-83 voter "tax revolts" were very similar to Southern Democrats and the Blue Dog Democrats. The first wave sought the votes of White working-class Reagan Democrats with the promise of property taxes that would, in part, subsidize start-ups and business ventures in post-industrial economies. This wave crested in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Despite a preponderance of these Democrats in the South, forerunners to "Atari Democrats" in the West and the Northeast applied these policy frameworks to their own post-industrial sectors.[14]

After 1985, the Democratic Leadership Council, spearheaded by Clinton, maintained its southeastern emphasis on post-industrial finance and the Research Triangle Park, but canvassed and met with potential "Atari Democrat" campaign donors in the West and the Northeast. These proponents of the California-New England-South Third Way became the U.S. "New Democrats." Al From, the founder of the DLC and its leader until 2009, had been a staffer for Louisiana Representative Gillis Long. Among the presidents of the DLC were Tennessee Senator Al Gore and Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton. At the 1992 United States presidential election, Clinton was elected as the 42nd President of the United States, ending twelve years of Republican dominance.[14] The 1994 United States elections gave Republicans control of the House and Senate, effectively wiping out Democratic representation in the South and West.[14]

Second wave[edit]

Presidency of Bill Clinton[edit]

Bill Clinton in 1993 signing NAFTA agreements

Bill Clinton is the Democratic politician most identified with the New Democrats due to his promise of welfare reform in the 1992 United States presidential campaign and its subsequent enactment, his 1992 promise of a middle-class tax cut and his 1993 expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit for the working poor.[7] New Democrat successes under Clinton and the writings of Anthony Giddens on the duality of structure, and the resulting ontological singularity of the Third Way (and their own version of "social democracy"), are often regarded to have inspired Tony Blair in the United Kingdom and his policies within the Labour Party as New Labour.[15]

Clinton presented himself as a centrist candidate to draw White middle-class voters who had left the Democratic Party for the Republican Party. In 1990, Clinton became the DLC chair. Under his leadership, the DLC founded two-dozen chapters and created a base of support.[9] Running as a New Democrat, Clinton won the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections.[16]

Legislation signed into domestic law with bipartisan support under President Clinton includes:

Legislation drafted and/or supported by President Clinton and Congressional New Democrats (these voting figures may or may not change with more forthcoming studies):

The Clinton Administration, supported by Congressional New Democrats, was responsible for proposing and passing the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which increased Medicare taxes for taxpayers with annual incomes over $135,000, yet also reduced Medicare spending and benefits across all tax brackets. Congressional Republicans demanded even deeper cuts to Medicare, but Clinton twice vetoed their bills. The Clinton Administration in turn taxed individuals earning annual incomes over $115,000, but also defined taxable "small business" earnings as less than approximately $10 million in annual gross revenue, with tax brackets for high-gross incorporated businesses beginning at that number. According to the Clinton Foundation, the revised brackets and categories increased taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers within these new brackets,[18] while cutting taxes on 15 million low-income families and making tax cuts available to 90% of small businesses.[19] Again, according to the Clinton Foundation, these brackets raised the top marginal tax rate from 31% to 40%. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints.

Bill Clinton's promise of welfare reform was passed in the form of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. Prior to 2018, critics such as Yascha Mounk contended that Clinton's arguments for the virtues of "negative" notions of "personal responsibility [New Orleans Declaration: 'individual responsibility']," propounded within DLC circles during the 1980s, stemmed more from Ronald Reagan's and Peggy Noonan's conception of "accountability" than any "positive notion of responsibility." Additional critics distinguish the New Democrat idea of "personal responsibility" from arguments over the extent of limitations on government, if any, in platforms that advance social responsibility. The 1996 United States presidential election, the temporary relegation of Hillary Clinton to the global promotion of microcredit, partisan compromises over this act, conflicts within the Democratic Party, as well as the act's multivalent consequences, all contributed to deliberations over passage and execution of the PRWORA.[20]

Presidency of Barack Obama[edit]

Barack Obama and Bill Clinton, 2012

In March 2009, Barack Obama, said in a meeting with the New Democrat Coalition that he was a "New Democrat" and a "pro-growth Democrat", that he "supports free and fair trade" and that he was "very concerned about a return to protectionism".[21]

Throughout the Obama administration, a "free and fair trade" attitude was espoused, including in a 2015 trade report entitled The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade that noted that free trade "help[s] developing countries lift people out of poverty" and "expand[s] markets for U.S. exports".[22]

Throughout Obama's tenure, approximately 1,000 Democrats lost their seats across all levels of government.[23] Specifically, 958 state legislature seats, 62 house seats, 11 Senate seats, and 12 governorships,[24] with a majority of these elected officials identifying as New Democrats. Some analysts such as Henry Eten at FiveThirtyEight, believe this was due to the changing demographic shift, as more Democrats identified as liberal in 2016 than moderate.[25]

Consequently, many pundits believed that Obama's tenure marked an end of the New Democrats' dominance in the party.[2][3][5][4]

Recent years[edit]

Hillary Clinton presidential campaign[edit]

Ahead of the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, many New Democrats were backing the presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton, the wife of former New Democrat president, Bill Clinton who served as a Senator from New York during the 2000s and as Barack Obama's Secretary of State during the early 2010s. Originally considered to be an expected nominee, Clinton faced an unexpected challenge from Vermont Senator, Bernie Sanders, whose campaign garnered the support of progressive and younger Democrats. Ultimately, Clinton won 34 of the 57[a] contests, compared to Sanders' 23, and garnered about 55 percent of the vote. Nevertheless, commentators saw the primary as a decline in the strength of New Democrats in the party, and an increasing influence of progressive Democrats within the party.

Ahead of the formal announcement of the 2016 Democratic National Convention, WikiLeaks published the Democratic National Committee email leak, in which DNC operatives, many of whom were New Democrats, seemed to deride Bernie Sanders' campaign[26] and discuss ways to advance Clinton's nomination,[27] leading to the resignation of DNC chair, and New Democrat member, Debbie Wasserman Schultz and other implicated officials. The leak was allegedly part of an operation by the Russian government to undermine Hillary Clinton.[28][29]

Although the ensuing controversy initially focused on emails that dated from relatively late in the primary, when Clinton was nearing the party's nomination,[27] the emails cast doubt on the DNC's neutrality towards progressive and moderate candidates.[30][31][32][33][34] This was evidenced by alleged bias in the scheduling and conduct of the debates,[b] as well as controversial DNC–Clinton agreements regarding financial arrangements and control over policy and hiring decisions.[c] Other media commentators have disputed the significance of the emails, arguing that the DNC's internal preference for Clinton was not historically unusual and didn't affect the primary enough to sway the outcome.[42][43][44][45] The controversies ultimately led to the formation of a DNC "unity" commission to recommend reforms in the party's primary process.[46][47]

Decline[edit]

Joe Biden and Chuck Schumer, 2021

Presidency of Joe Biden[edit]

The winner of the 2020 United States presidential election, was Joe Biden, who served as Vice President to Barack Obama. Joe Biden is the 46th president of the United States. In the 2020 United States House of Representatives elections, 13 Democrats lost their seats. All thirteen Democrats that lost their seats had won in the 2018 mid-term elections. Of those 13 members, 10 of them were New Democrats.

During the 117th United States Congress, the New Democrat Coalition lost its status as the largest ideological coalition in favor of the more left leaning Congressional Progressive Caucus.[citation needed]

Ideology[edit]

According to Dylan Loewe, New Democrats tend to identify as fiscally conservative and socially liberal.[1]

Columnist Michael Lind argued that neoliberalism for New Democrats was the "highest stage" of left liberalism. The counterculture youth of the 1960s became more fiscally conservative in the 1970s and 1980s but retained their cultural liberalism. Many leading New Democrats, including Bill Clinton, started out in the George McGovern wing of the Democratic Party and gradually moved toward the right on economic and military policy.[48] According to historian Walter Scheidel, both major political parties shifted towards promoting free-market capitalism in the 1970s, with Republicans moving further to the political right than Democrats to the political left. He noted that Democrats played a significant role in the financial deregulation of the 1990s.[49] Anthropologist Jason Hickel and historian Gary Gerstle contended that the neoliberal policies of the Reagan era were carried forward by the Clinton administration, forming a new economic consensus which crossed party lines.[50][51] According to Gerstle, "across his two terms, Clinton may have done more to free markets from regulation than even Reagan himself had done."[51]

New Democrats have faced criticism from those further to the left. In a 2017 BBC interview, Noam Chomsky said that "the Democrats gave up on the working class forty years ago".[52] Political analyst Thomas Frank asserted that the Democratic Party began to represent the interests of the professional class rather than the working class.[53]

Elected to public office[edit]

Presidents[edit]

  1. Bill Clinton[54] (former)
  2. Barack Obama[55] (former)
  3. Joe Biden[56][57][58]

Vice presidents[edit]

  1. Al Gore[9] (former)
  2. Joe Biden[59] (former)

Senate[edit]

  1. Chuck Schumer
  2. Evan Bayh[60] (former)
  3. Mark Begich[61] (former)
  4. Jacky Rosen
  5. Jeanne Shaheen
  6. Maria Cantwell[62]
  7. Tom Carper[62]
  8. Bob Casey Jr.[63]
  9. Max Cleland[64] (former)
  10. Hillary Clinton[62] (former)
  11. Kent Conrad[65] (former)
  12. Chris Coons[66]
  13. Joe Donnelly[67] (former)
  14. Byron Dorgan[68] (former)
  15. Dianne Feinstein[62]
  16. Al Gore[9] (former)
  17. Maggie Hassan[69]
  18. Heidi Heitkamp[70] (former)
  19. John Hickenlooper[71]
  20. Tim Johnson[72] (former)
  21. Doug Jones[73] (former)
  22. Ted Kaufman[74] (former)
  23. Amy Klobuchar[62]
  24. Kirsten Gillibrand
  25. Mary Landrieu[75] (former)
  26. Joe Lieberman[76] (former)
  27. Blanche Lincoln[77] (former)
  28. Claire McCaskill[78] (former)
  29. Bill Nelson[79][62] (former)
  30. Barack Obama[55] (former)
  31. Mark Pryor[80] (former)
  32. Ken Salazar[81] (former)
  33. Debbie Stabenow[62]
  34. Jon Tester[82]
  35. Mark Warner[26]
  36. Michael Bennett
  37. Jon Ossoff
  38. Mark Kelly
  39. Bob Menendez
  40. Martin Heinrich
  41. Tim Kaine
  42. Patty Murray
  43. Catherine Cortez Masto
  44. Ben Ray Luján
  45. Chris Van Hollen
  46. Richard Blumenthal

House of Representatives[edit]

  1. Pete Aguilar[83]
  2. Colin Allred[84]
  3. Brad Ashford[83] (former)
  4. Cindy Axne[84]
  5. Ami Bera[83]
  6. Don Beyer[83]
  7. Lisa Blunt Rochester[84]
  8. Carolyn Bourdeaux[84]
  9. Brendan Boyle[84]
  10. Anthony Brindisi[84] (former)
  11. Anthony G. Brown[84]
  12. Shontel Brown[85]
  13. Julia Brownley[84]
  14. Cheri Bustos[84]
  15. Lois Capps[83] (former)
  16. Salud Carbajal[84]
  17. Tony Cardenas[83]
  18. André Carson[83]
  19. Troy Carter[86]
  20. Sean Casten[84]
  21. Joaquin Castro[83]
  22. Gerry Connolly[83]
  23. Jim Cooper[83]
  24. Lou Correa[84]
  25. Jim Costa[84]
  26. Joe Courtney[83]
  27. Angie Craig[84]
  28. Charlie Crist[84]
  29. Jason Crow[84]
  30. Henry Cuellar[84]
  31. Sharice Davids[84]
  32. Susan Davis[83] (former)
  33. Madeleine Dean[84]
  34. John Delaney[83] (former)
  35. Suzan DelBene[83]
  36. Val Demings[84]
  37. Eliot L. Engel[83] (former)
  38. Veronica Escobar[84]
  39. Elizabeth Esty[83] (former)
  40. Lizzie Fletcher[83]
  41. Bill Foster[83]
  42. Vicente Gonzalez[83]
  43. Josh Gottheimer[84]
  44. Gwen Graham[83] (former)
  45. Josh Harder[84]
  46. Denny Heck[83] (former)
  47. Jim Himes[83]
  48. Steven Horsford[84]
  49. Chrissy Houlahan[84]
  50. Sara Jacobs[84]
  51. Bill Keating[84]
  52. Derek Kilmer[83]
  53. Ron Kind[83]
  54. Ann Kirkpatrick[83]
  55. Raja Krishnamoorthi[84]
  56. Ann McLane Kuster[83]
  57. Rick Larsen[83]
  58. Brenda Lawrence[84]
  59. Al Lawson[84]
  60. Susie Lee[84]
  61. Elaine Luria[84]
  62. Tom Malinowski[84]
  63. Sean Patrick Maloney[83]
  64. Kathy Manning[84]
  65. Lucy McBath[84]
  66. Donald McEachin[84]
  67. Gregory Meeks[83]
  68. Joe Morelle[84]
  69. Seth Moulton[83]
  70. Patrick Murphy[83]
  71. Donald Norcross[84]
  72. Beto O'Rourke[83] (former)
  73. Jimmy Panetta[84]
  74. Chris Pappas[84]
  75. Scott Peters[83][84]
  76. Ed Perlmutter[83]
  77. Dean Phillips[84]
  78. Pedro Pierluisi[83] (former)
  79. Mike Quigley[83][84]
  80. Kathleen Rice[83]
  81. Cedric Richmond[83] (former)
  82. Deborah K. Ross[84]
  83. Raul Ruiz[84]
  84. Loretta Sanchez[83] (former)
  85. Adam Schiff[83]
  86. Brad Schneider[84]
  87. Kurt Schrader[83]
  88. David Scott[83]
  89. Kim Schrier[84]
  90. Debbie Wasserman Schultz[83]
  91. Terri Sewell[83]
  92. Mikie Sherrill[84]
  93. Elissa Slotkin[84]
  94. Adam Smith[83]
  95. Darren Soto[84]
  96. Greg Stanton[84]
  97. Haley Stevens[84]
  98. Marilyn Strickland[84]
  99. Norma Torres[83]
  100. Lori Trahan[84]
  101. David Trone[84]
  102. Juan Vargas[83]
  103. Marc Veasey[84]
  104. Filemon Vela Jr.[83] (former)
  105. Jennifer Wexton[84]
  106. Susan Wild[84]
  107. Nikema Williams[85]

Governors[edit]

  1. Evan Bayh[60] (former)
  2. Mike Beebe[87] (former)
  3. Andy Beshear[88]
  4. Phil Bredesen[89] (former)
  5. Steve Bullock[90] (former)
  6. John Carney[83]
  7. Tom Carper[91] (former)
  8. Roy Cooper[92]
  9. Jim Doyle[93] (former)
  10. Mike Easley[94] (former)
  11. Dave Freudenthal[95] (former)
  12. Christine Gregoire[96] (former)
  13. Maggie Hassan[69] (former)
  14. Brad Henry[97] (former)
  15. John Hickenlooper[71] (former)
  16. Laura Kelly[98]
  17. Ted Kulongoski[99] (former)
  18. Ronnie Musgrove[100] (former)
  19. Janet Napolitano[101] (former)
  20. Jared Polis[102]
  21. Gina Raimondo[103] (former)
  22. Brian Schweitzer[104] (former)
  23. Kathleen Sebelius[105] (former)
  24. Don Siegelman[106] (former)
  25. Earl Ray Tomblin[107] (former)
  26. Mark Warner[26] (former)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cebul, Brent (July 2019). "Supply-Side Liberalism: Fiscal Crisis, Post-Industrial Policy, and the Rise of the New Democrats". Modern American History. Cambridge University Press. 2 (2): 139–164. doi:10.1017/mah.2019.9.
  • Zengerle, Jason (June 29, 2022). "The Vanishing Moderate Democrat". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2022.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although there are 50 states, the Democratic primaries include contests in six U.S. territories, and one contest of Democrats Abroad, who are American expatriates.
  2. ^ As far back as 2015, the sharp reduction of the debate schedule, as well as the days and times, had been criticized by multiple rivals as biased in Clinton's favor.[35] The DNC denied bias, claiming to be cracking down on the non-sanctioned debates that proliferated in recent cycles, while leaving the number of officially sanctioned debates the same as in 2004 and 2008.[36][37] Donna Brazile, who succeeded Debbie Wasserman Schultz as DNC chair after the first batch of leaks,[38] was shown in the emails leaking primary debate questions to the Clinton campaign before the debates were held, although a senior aide to Sanders came to Brazile's defense and tried to downplay the issue.[39]
  3. ^ Brazile went on to write a book about the primary and what she called "unethical" behavior in which the DNC (after its debt from 2012 was resolved by the Clinton campaign) gave the Clinton campaign control over hirings and press releases, and allegedly helped it circumvent campaign finance regulation.[40] Several Democratic leaders responded that the joint-fundraising agreement was standard, was for the purpose of the general election, and was also offered to the Sanders campaign. Another agreement that came to light gave the Clinton campaign powers over the DNC well before the primary was decided. Some media commentators noted that the Clinton campaign's level of influence on staffing decisions was indeed unusual and could have ultimately influenced factors such as the debate schedule.[41][42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Loewe, Dylan (September 7, 2010). Permanently Blue: How Democrats Can End the Republican Party and Rule the Next Generation. Crown/Archetype. ISBN 9780307718006 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 8, 2012). "Weighing the Effect of an Exit of Centrists". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Graham, David A. (November 5, 2018). "How Far Have the Democrats Moved to the Left?". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Podkul, Alexander R.; Kamarck, Elaine (September 14, 2018). "What's happening to the Democratic Party?". Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Marans, Daniel (November 27, 2018). "The Progressive Caucus Has A Chance To Be More Influential Than Ever". The Huffington Post. That would bring the caucus’ total to 96 members, or about 40 percent of the House Democratic Caucus ― by far the largest bloc in the party.
  6. ^ a b Wayne LeMieux, The Democrats' New Path, 2006, ISBN 978-1-4196-3872-5
  7. ^ a b c John F Harris, The Survivor:Bill Clinton in the White House, Random House, 2005, ISBN 978-0-375-50847-9
  8. ^ "ndol.org". Archived from the original on June 7, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d e Hale, Jon F. "The Making of the New Democrats." Political Science Quarterly 110, no. 2 (1995): 207-221.
  10. ^ "DLC: The New American Choice Resolutions". Democratic Leadership Council. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  11. ^ Herman, Steven L. (December 4, 1989). "The "New Democrats" are Liberals and Proud of It". Associated Press.
  12. ^ Rae, Nicol C. (1994). Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-19-508709-7.
  13. ^ Kelly, Michael (September 28, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: The Democrats; Clinton Uses Farm Speech to Begin New Offensive". New York Times.
  14. ^ a b c Lind, Michael (October 30, 2012). "Obama: Last of the "New Democrats"?".
  15. ^ Sidney Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars, 2003, ISBN 0-374-12502-3
  16. ^ Alvarez, R. Michael, and Jonathan Nagler. "Economics, Entitlements, and Social Issues: Voter Choice in the 1996 Presidential Election." American Journal of Political Science 42, no. 4 (1998): 1361.
  17. ^ "HR 3355 - Omnibus Crime Bill - Key Vote". votesmart.org. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
  18. ^ 1994 State of the Union Address Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Presidential Press Conference - 08/03/1993 Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Mounk, Yascha (January 3, 2017). "Responsibility Redefined". Democracy: A Journal of Ideas.
  21. ^ "Obama: 'I am a New Democrat'". Politico.
  22. ^ "The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade" (PDF). May 2015.
  23. ^ "Under Obama, Democrats suffer largest loss in power since Eisenhower". Quorum. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  24. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (January 10, 2017). "The Democratic Party's down-ballot collapse, explained". Vox. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  25. ^ Malone, Clare; Enten, Harry (January 19, 2017). "Barack Obama Won The White House, But Democrats Lost The Country". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved April 13, 2021. In 2001, most Democrats — 47 percent — identified themselves as “moderate,” while only 30 percent said they were “liberal.” By 2016, the proportions were reversed, with 44 percent of people within the party calling themselves “liberal” and 41 percent calling themselves “moderate.”
  26. ^ a b c "Released Emails Suggest the D.N.C. Derided the Sanders Campaign". Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  27. ^ a b Blake, Aaron (July 25, 2016). "Here are the latest, most damaging things in the DNC's leaked emails". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  28. ^ Adam Entous, Ellen Nakashima and Greg Miller (December 9, 2016). "Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  29. ^ Shane Harris, Ellen Nakashima and Craig Timberg (April 18, 2019). "Through email leaks and propaganda, Russians sought to elect Trump, Mueller finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  30. ^ "Elizabeth Warren agrees Democratic race 'rigged' for Clinton". BBC News. November 3, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  31. ^ Schleifer, Theodore (July 25, 2016). "What was in the DNC email leak?". CNN. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  32. ^ Chan, Melissa (July 24, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Calls for Debbie Wasserman Schultz to Resign After Email Leak". Time. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  33. ^ Yuhas, Alan (July 24, 2016). "Hillary Clinton campaign blames leaked DNC emails about Sanders on Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  34. ^ Flaherty, Anne (July 24, 2016). "Sanders Calls for DNC Chair's Resignation as Hacked Emails Overshadow Convention". Haaretz. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  35. ^ "Democratic primary debate schedule criticized as Clinton 'coronation'". The Guardian. August 6, 2015.
  36. ^ Andrew Prokop (August 6, 2015). "The Democrats just released their debate schedule, and it's great news for Hillary Clinton". Vox. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  37. ^ Harry Enten (May 6, 2016). "Is Six Democratic Debates Too Few?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  38. ^ Caputo, Marc (July 24, 2016). "Wasserman Schultz steps down as DNC chair". Politico. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  39. ^ "www.latimes.com/nation/politics/trailguide/la-na-trailguide-updates-former-senior-aide-to-bernie-sanders-1476297181-htmlstory.html". A Times. October 12, 2016.
  40. ^ Brazile, Donna (November 2, 2017). "Inside Hillary Clinton's Secret Takeover of the DNC". Politico. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  41. ^ Stein, Jeff (November 2, 2017). "Donna Brazile's bombshell about the DNC and Hillary Clinton, explained". Vox. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  42. ^ a b Heersink, Boris (November 4, 2017). "No, the DNC didn’t 'rig' the Democratic primary for Hillary Clinton". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  43. ^ Houle, Dana (July 25, 2016). "No, the DNC Didn’t Rig the Primary in Favor of Hillary". The New Republic. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  44. ^ Holland, Joshua (July 29, 2016). "What the Leaked E-mails Do and Don’t Tell Us About the DNC and Bernie Sanders" Archived December 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. The Nation. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  45. ^ Gaughan, Anthony J. (August 27, 2019). "Was the Democratic Nomination Rigged? A Reexamination of the Clinton-Sanders Presidential Race". University of Florida Journal of Law & Public Policy (29). SSRN 3443916. Retrieved October 29, 2020. This article ... contends that the overwhelming weight of evidence makes clear the 2016 Democratic nomination process was not rigged in favor of Hillary Clinton. Second, this article argues that the Democratic Party rules and state election laws actually hurt Clinton and benefited Sanders.
  46. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 9, 2017). "DNC 'unity' panel recommends huge cut in superdelegates". Politico. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  47. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (August 25, 2018). "Democrats strip superdelegates of power and reform caucuses in 'historic' move". NBC News. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  48. ^ Lind, Michael (August 6, 2013). Up from Conservatism. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781476761152 – via Google Books.
  49. ^ Scheidel, Walter (2017). The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century. Princeton University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-0691165028.
  50. ^ Hickel, Jason (2016). "Neoliberalism and the End of Democracy". In Springer, Simon; Birch, Kean; MacLeavy, Julie (eds.). The Handbook of Neoliberalism. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1138844001.
  51. ^ a b Gerstle, Gary (2022). The Rise and Fall of the Neoliberal Order: America and the World in the Free Market Era. Oxford University Press. pp. 137–138, 155–157. ISBN 978-0197519646.
  52. ^ "Noam Chomsky: The Most Remarkable Thing About 2016 Election Was Bernie Sanders, Not Trump (Video)". Truthdig. May 15, 2017. 3:19 minutes in. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  53. ^ Nicholas Lemann (October 13, 2016). "Can We Have a 'Party of the People'?". nybooks.com. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved October 4, 2016. review of Exit Right: The People Who Left the Left and Reshaped the American Century
  54. ^ Hale, Jon F. (January 1, 1995). "The Making of the New Democrats". Political Science Quarterly. 110 (2): 207–232. doi:10.2307/2152360. JSTOR 2152360.
  55. ^ a b "Obama: 'I am a New Democrat'". Politico.
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