New Guinea singing dog

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from New Guinea Singing Dog)
Jump to: navigation, search
New Guinea singing dog
New Guinea Singing Dog on trail-Cropped.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. dingo[2]
Trinomial name
Canis lupus dingo[3]

Canis hallstromi (Troughton, 1957)[4][5]

The New Guinea singing dog (Canis lupus dingo) is named for its unique vocalization. Some experts have referred to it as a wild dog but others disagree.[6] Little is known about New Guinea singing dogs in the wild and there are only two confirmed photographs of wild sightings.[7] Captive-bred New Guinea Singing Dogs serve as companion dogs.


The New Guinea Singing Dog, also known as Hallstrom’s dog,[8] is named for its distinctive and melodious howl, which is characterized by a sharp increase in pitch at the start and very high frequencies at the end.[9]


Refer: Canis lupus dingo - Taxonomy


Refer: Canis lupus dingo - Lineage

In 2016, a literature review found that: "there is no convincing evidence that New Guinea wildliving dogs and some, or all, pre-colonization New Guinea village dogs were distinct forms. Further, there is no definitive evidence that either high altitude wild-living dogs were formerly isolated from other New Guinea canids or that the animals that were the founding members of captive populations of New Guinea Singing Dogs were wild-living animals or the progeny of wild-living animals rather than being born and raised as members of village populations of domestic dogs. We conclude that: (1) at the time of European colonization, wild dogs and most, if not all, village dogs of New Guinea comprised a single though heterogeneous gene pool (2) eventual resolution of the phylogenetic relationships of New Guinea wild dogs will apply equally to all or most of the earliest New Guinea village-based, domesticated, dogs; and (3) there remain places in New Guinea, such as Suabi and neighbouring communities, where the local village-based population of domestic dogs continues to be dominated by individuals whose genetic inheritance can be traced to pre-colonization canid forebears."[10]


An orange dog chews on a meat-covered animal bone being offered by a human
A singing dog after a bone

In 1897, Charles Walter De Vis collected the first specimen from Mount Scratchley at about 2,400 m elevation and described it.[11][12] In 1956, Albert Speer and J.P. Sinclair obtained a pair of singing dogs in the Lavani Valley and situated in Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. The dogs were sent to Sir Edward Hallstrom who had set up a native animal study center in Nondugi, and then on to the Taronga Zoo in Sydney, Australia.[13] In 1958, Ellis Troughton examined the two singer specimens from the Taronga Zoo in Sydney.[14] Subsequently, the New Guinea singing dog was classified as a distinct species and was named Canis hallstromi (in honour of Sir Edward Hallstrom). In 2005 it was classified under Canis lupus dingo in Mammal Species of the World.

Physical description[edit]


A picture of an orange new guinea singing dog at night, illuminated by camera flash. The camera flash has caused the dog's eyes to reflect green.
Night picture with noticeable green eyeshine off the tapetum lucidum

Compared to other species in its genus, the New Guinea singing dog is described as relatively short-legged and broad-headed. These dogs have an average shoulder height of 31–46 centimetres (12–18 in) and weigh 9–14 kilograms (20–31 lb). They do not have rear dewclaws.[15]

The limbs and spine of singers are very flexible, and they can spread their legs sideways to 90°, comparable to the Norwegian Lundehund. They can also rotate their front and hind paws more than domestic dogs, which enables them to climb trees with thick bark or branches that can be reached from the ground; however their climbing skills do not reach the same level as those of the gray fox.[16]

The eyes, which are highly reflective, are almond-shaped and are angled upwards from the inner to outer corners with dark eye rims. Eye color ranges from dark amber to dark-brown. Their eyes exhibit a bright green glow when lights are shone in at them in low light conditions. Researchers believe there are two reasons for the bright reflective glow; not only do the pupils open wider and allow in more light than in other dog varieties, there is also a higher concentration of cells in the tapetum. These two features would allow singing dogs to see more clearly in low light.[16]

Black and tan-colored singing dog

New Guinea singing dogs have erect, pointed, fur-lined ears. As with other wild dogs, the ears 'perk', or lay forward, which is suspected to be an important survival features for the species. The ears can be rotated like a directional receiver to pick up faint sounds. Singer tails should be bushy, long enough to reach the hock, free of kinks, and have a white tip.


Pups are born with a dark chocolate brown pelt with gold flecks and reddish tinges, which changes to light brown by the age of six weeks. Adult coloration occurs around four months of age. For adult dogs, the colors brown, black and tan have been reported, all with white points. The sides of the neck and zonal stripes behind the scapula are golden. Black and very dark guard hair is generally lightly allocated over the hair of the spine, concentrating on the back of the ears and the surface of the tail over the white tip. The muzzle is always black on young dogs. Generally, all colors have white markings underneath the chin, on the paws, chest and tail tip. About one third also have white markings on the muzzle, face and neck. By 7 years, the black muzzle begins to turn gray.[15]


Singing dogs "scent rub" to mark their territory.

All sightings in the wild were of single dogs or pairs.[15] Some dogs are more comfortable in pairs and others in small groups, but based on singing dogs in captivity it has been inferred that wild singing dogs do not form permanent packs.[17] Flannery’s short 1988 report on dogs in the mountains of Papua New Guinea is regarded as the only available report on direct observation of wild specimens. He described them as "extraordinarily shy" and "almost preternaturally canny".[18] According to Robert Bino (a student from the University of Papua New Guinea), these dogs use their resting places under roots and ledges in New Guinea only sporadically. Bino theorized that these dogs are highly mobile and forage alone and concluded that they therefore might use several hiding places in their home range.[19]

During research observations, the examined dogs generally showed a lower threshold of behavior (e.g., scent rolling) than other domestic dogs, as well as an earlier developmental onset than other domestic dogs or grey wolves (e.g., hackle biting at two weeks compared to other domestic dogs/grey wolves at 6 weeks) and a quantitative difference (e.g., reduced expression of intraspecific affiliate behaviors). The dogs observed did not show the typical canid play bow; however, Imke Voth found this behavior during examinations in the 1980s.[20]

Several unique behaviors have been exhibited by New Guinea singing dogs:[15]

  • Head toss: This behavior, shown by every observed dog, is a prompt for attention, food or a sign of frustration, expressed in varying degrees depending on the level of arousal. In the complete expression, the head is swept to one side, nose rotated through a 90° arc to midline, then rapidly returned to the starting position. The entire sequence takes 1–2 seconds. The mildest expression is a slight flick of the head to the side and back. During this behavior, the characteristic contrasting black and white chin markings are displayed.
  • Copulatory scream: At the copulatory tie, the female emits a repetitive sequence of loud, high-pitched yelps lasting about 3 minutes. This scream has a strong arousal effect on most domestic dogs.
  • Copulatory contractions: About 3 minutes after the start of the tie, females begin a series of rhythmic abdominal contractions. During each contraction, the skin of the flanks and lumbar area is drawn forward. These contractions are accompanied by groans and occur regularly, several seconds apart (they may pause intermittently), continuing for the length of the tie.
  • Additionally, singers have an unusual form of auto-erotic stimulation, which includes a strong tendency to target the genitals for both playful and aggressive bites, a cheek-rub that may be a marking behavior and a tooth-gnashing threat.

During estrus, when potential partners are present, same-sex singers often fight to the point of severe injury. Furthermore, adults also display a high degree of aggression towards unfamiliar dogs, which would indicate that they are strongly territorial.[15] Their distinctive aggression could not be observed to that extent among Australian dingoes (who live without human contact).[21]

Researchers have noted rough play behavior by the mothers towards their pups, which often switched over to agonistic behavior, as well as "handling". The mothers did not adequately react to the pups' shouts of pain but rather interpreted it as further "invitation" for "playing". The researchers stated that this behavior was noted in their subjects only and does not necessarily apply to all singers.[21]


Singers have a distinctive "song".

New Guinea singing dogs are named for their distinctive and melodious howl, which is characterized by a sharp increase in pitch at the start and very high frequencies at the end.[9] According to observations made by Ortolani,[22] the howling of these dogs can be clearly differentiated from that of Australian dingoes, and differs significantly from that of grey wolves and coyotes.

An individual howl lasts an average of 3 seconds, but can last as long as 5 seconds. At the start, the frequency rises and stabilizes for the rest of the howling, but normally shows abrupt changes in frequency. Modulations can change quickly every 300–500 milliseconds or every second. Five to eight overtones can generally be distinguished in a spectrographic analysis of the howling.[15]

New Guinea singing dogs sometimes howl together which is commonly referred to as chorus howling. During chorus howling, one dog starts and others join in shortly afterward. In most cases, chorus howling is well synchronized, and the howls of the group end nearly simultaneously. Spontaneous howling is most common during the morning and evening hours.[21] A trill, with a distinctly "bird-like" character, is emitted during high arousal. It is a high-frequency pulsed signal whose spectral appearance suggests a continuous source that is periodically interrupted, and might last as long as 800 milliseconds. Such a sound is not known for any other canid; however, a similar sound (with lower frequency) has been described for a dhole at the Moscow Zoo.[15] When they are kept with dogs that bark, singers may mimic the other dogs.[21]


Male New Guinea singing dog puppy born in Autumn of 2010

Like other dingo types, female singers come into heat once a year rather than twice a year normally associated with domestic breeds. Their breeding season generally starts in August and ends during December. Gestation averages 63 days. In Tierpark Berlin, 80% of the litters were born in October and November and the gestation period was 58 to 64 days. The litter size was 1 to 6 pups.[23] Reports of 25 female singers in captivity showed that when they did not conceive during their first annual estrus, about 65% have a second estrus cycle, sometimes even a third,[12] 8–16 weeks later.[15]

Males in captivity often participate in raising the pups, including the regurgitation of food. Female singers are protective of their young and will aggressively attack their male counterpart if they feel he poses a danger to the puppies. During the first breeding season following their birth, especially if there is a potential mate present, pups are often aggressively attacked by the same-sex parent.[15]


Reports from local sources in Papua New Guinea from the 1970s and the mid-1990s indicate that singer-like wild dogs found in New Guinea, whether they were pure singers or hybrids, fed on small to middle-sized marsupials, rodents, birds and fruits. Robert Bino stated that they their prey consisted of cuscuses, wallabies, dwarf cassowaries and other birds.[12][15] Singers in captivity do not require a specialized diet but they seem to thrive on lean raw meat diets based on poultry, beef, elk, deer, or bison.[24]

Status and distribution[edit]

Status in the wild[edit]

Varietal status within IUCN Vulnerable dingo subspecies[edit]

As of 2015, since New Guinea singing dogs are, in taxonomic candidates, subspecies or varietals and not at the species level, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) treats of them only as an subset of dingoes, Canis lupus ssp. dingo, so their evident rarity is obscured by dingoes as a whole being "previously. . .listed as Lower Risk/least concern" though "[i]mproved information since then has resulted in the taxon being reassessed as Vulnerable." IUCN does note that "Dingo's [sic] were formerly widespread throughout the world (Corbett 1995) and although populations of wild dogs remain abundant in Australia and other countries, the proportion of pure dingoes is declining through hybridization with domestic dogs." However, "in New Guinea, the Department of Environment and Conservation has indicated that measures will be initiated to protect New Guinea singing dogs (I.L. Brisbin pers. comm.)."[25]

Wild provenance, sightings and distribution[edit]

Since 1956, New Guinea singing dogs have been obtained or sighted in the wild chiefly in mountainous terrain around the central segment of the New Guinea Highlands, a major island-extensive East-West running mountain range formation, as the 1956 dogs obtained by Speer and Sinclair (see 'History and classification' section above) were in what's now typically spelled the Lavani Valley slightly to the East, the Star Mountains slightly to the West of center sited reports through 1976. Reports of Kalam people capturing NGSDs in the mid-1970s imply the human tribe's range just off center East on the Northeast mainland coast (see 'Relationship with humans' section below). The 1989 and perhaps later locations of Timothy Flannery's photograph and sightings is not known for purposes of this article, but may be detailed in his 1998 book. A 2007 sighting in the Kaijende Highlands was East of center. The 2012 sighting was near Puncak Mandala slightly to the West, all in the highlands around the range's spine.

The reported habitat of the New Guinea singing dog consists of mountains and swampy mountain regions of Papua New Guinea at an altitude of 2,500 to 4,700 meters. The main vegetation zones are the mixed forest, beech and mossy forest, sub-alpine coniferous forest and alpine grassland. Based on archaeological, ethnographic, and circumstantial evidence, it can be assumed that singers were once distributed over the whole of New Guinea and later restricted to the upper mountains.[15] Since there have been no verified sightings of these dogs in Papua New Guinea since the 1970s until an August, 2012 photograph in the wild, these dogs are now apparently rare.[9][26]

There were reports of singers in the Star Mountains until 1976, and in the mid-1970s reports of capture and training but not breeding by Kalam people, whose Kalam language is part of the Madang languages in Northeast coastal mainland New Guinea and a bit offshore (see 'Relationship with humans' section below).

In 1989, Tim Flannery was able to take a picture of a black-and-tan dog in a dokfuma.[18] It is important to note that although Flannery made sightings of dogs, there was no way for him to verify them as pure or hybrid or that they were, in fact NGSD at all. In his 1998 book Throwim Way Leg, Flannery states that the dokfuma (which he describes as subalpine grassland with the ground being sodden moss, lichens and herbs growing atop a swamp) at 3,200 meters elevation had plenty of singing dogs which could usually be heard at the beginning and end of each day. It is also important to note that the word "plenty" is a subjective term with meaning based on personal opinion with no scientific evidence provided. No count was taken in any scientific manner and no DNA testing has been conducted in order to verify purity. When alone in his campsite one day a group of canines came within several hundred meters of him. Flannery apparently did not have his camera along or ready since he reported no pictures taken.

In 1996 Robert Bino undertook a field study of these dogs, but was not able to observe any wild singers and instead used signs, such as scats, paw prints, urine markings and prey remnants, to make conclusions about their behavior. No DNA sampling was conducted. There have been reports from local residents that wild dogs have been seen or heard in higher reaches of the mountains.[16]

In a 2007 report, a more recent sighting was the fleeting glimpse of a dog at Lake Tawa in the Kaijende Highlands. Local assistants assured the researchers that the dogs at Lake Tawa were wild-living dogs since there were no villages near that location. It needs to be made clear, however, that "wild-living" does not necessarily mean that canines observed by natives are NGSD. It is possible that they are simply feral domestic dogs or NGSD hybrids.[27]

On August 24, 2012, the second known photograph of a New Guinea singing dog in the wild was taken by Tom Hewitt, Director of Adventure Alternative Borneo, in the Jayawijaya Mountains or Star Mountains of Papua Province, Indonesia, Western New Guinea by a trek party returning from Puncak Mandala, at approximately 4,760m high the highest peak in the Jayawijaya range and second highest freestanding mountain of Oceania, Australasia, New Guinea and Indonesia (though Hewitt himself seems to erroneously say this peak is in the Star Mountains which are adjacent to the Jayawijaya range, and also casually calls the region 'West Papua' rather than Indonesia's Papua Province in the Western geopolitical 'half' of the New Guinea landmasses, while his identification of the peak is quite clear, including its estimated elevation which is distinctive among New Guinea's peaks). In a valley flanked by waterfalls on both sides among approximately 4 km high limestone peaks, replete with such flora and fauna as cycads, grasses and blooms of the highlands, cuscuses, possums, tree kangaroos unidentified ground-nesting birds in swamp grass, and a bird-of-paradise species heard but not seen, Hewitt relates that his veteran trek guide called out "dog" four times and pointed to fetch Hewitt and his trek client from their explorations behind large boulders and have them realize that ahead and above the guide and camp cook on a rocky outcrop was a dog, in Hewitt's words "not scared, but. . . genuinely curious. . . as we were of it, and it certainly felt like a rare meeting for both sides. The guides and cook were also surprised.” While the guide had at first approached "quite close", the dog retreated as the party came toward it, though it stayed on the hillside while being photographed for a mutual observation session of about 15 minutes. Hewitt only became fully aware of the importance of his party's sighting and photograph of this dog when he contacted Tom Wendt, New Guinea Singing Dog International (NGSDI)'s founder upon returning home, then regretting that he did not videorecord the encounter. Hewitt and Wendt observe that West Papuan locals report that sightings are rare, and that New Guinea singing dogs have not been domesticated by current human inhabitants of their area.[26][28]

Captive status and distribution[edit]

In 2016, a literature review found that "there is no definitive evidence that...the founding members of captive populations of New Guinea Singing Dogs were wild-living animals or the progeny of wild-living animals rather than being born and raised as members of village populations of domestic dogs."[10]

Pedigreed domestic breed[edit]

According to New Guinea Singing Dog International as of 2015, "today. . .we have maybe 40 to 50 Singers in the" out-of-zoo captive (human) breeder-tended "breeding program but 100's [sic] of them in North America that are currently without traced and verified pedigrees", most sourced from zoo stock.[29]

Global zoo list[edit]

According to the New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society as of 2015, the complete list of zoos around the world where captive New Guinea singing dogs are kept is short relative to most zoo species, highlighting their varietal endangered condition after suspected extinction in the wild, the paucity of the zoo gene pool, and comments by New Guinea Singing Dog International that the pedigree breeder pool is highly inbred and small:[30]

Name City/town State/province/county Country
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Cleveland Ohio USA
Columbian Park Zoo Lafayette Indiana USA
Conservators Center Burlington North Carolina USA
Exmoor Zoo Exmoor North Devon England
Gentleshaw Wildlife Centre Stafford Staffordshire England
Gulf Breeze Zoo Gulf Breeze Florida USA
Hemker Park & Zoo Oak township Minnesota USA
Kansas City Zoo Kansas City Missouri USA
Living Desert Zoo Palm Desert California USA
Miami Metrozoo Miami Florida USA
Miller Park Zoo Bloomington Illinois USA
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere Nashville Tennessee USA
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park West Palm Beach Florida USA
San Diego Wild Animal Park Escondido California USA
San Diego Zoo San Diego California USA
Single Vision Melrose Florida USA
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo Tampa Florida USA
Idaho Falls Zoo at Tautphaus Park Idaho Falls Idaho USA
Tierpark Neumünster Neumünster Germany
Toronto Zoo Toronto Ontario Canada
Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary Candy Kitchen New Mexico USA
Wildlife World Zoo Litchfield Park Arizona USA
Zoo Zlín Zlin Czech Republic
Zoonimal Wild Encounters Geilenkirchen Germany

Relationship with humans[edit]

Singer being trained for rare breed show competition

In highland areas, the dogs occasionally kept company with native humans, but more often they lived independently without masters. In the lowland villages, they were more apt to take up residence with the many native villagers who inhabited the area.[citation needed]

The onset of European culture with their domesticated dogs spelled the beginning of the end for pure New Guinea singing dogs in the lowlands. "Singing Dogs are very gentle and friendly with people, though inclined to be a bit shy with strangers at first," wrote New York owner Phillip Persky. "They are not at all aggressive with people" Sharon McKenzie said. "I've never heard of a case of a Singing Dog biting anyone." "They are notorious escape artists," Mr. Persky reported, "and can climb and jump with cat-like agility, so enclosures have to be secure." They are great diggers and can climb fences as easily as a squirrel. They can get through a space you would not have thought a snake could get through," Sharon laughed. "This is the only breed I know of in which bitches are dominant", Sharon observed. "Bitches really call the shots."[13]

According to reports from the late 1950s and mid-1970s, wild dogs believed to be singers were shy and avoided contact with humans. It was reported in the mid-1970s that the Kalam in the highlands of Papua caught young singers and raised them as hunting aids but did not breed them. Some of these dogs probably stayed with the Kalam and reproduced. The Eipo tribe kept and bred wild dogs as playmates for their children. Although the majority of the highland tribes never used village dogs as a food source, it is known that even today they attempt to catch, kill and eat wild dogs. Some local myths mention these dogs as bringers of fire and speech or as the spirits of the deceased. Dog-findings in archaeological sites of New Guinea are rare, mostly consisting of teeth (used as ornaments) and trophy-skulls. One grave has been discovered. The earliest singer remains was a tooth found in the lowlands. It was estimated to be about 5,500 years old. Findings from the highlands were thought to be of similar age, on a stratigraphical basis, but as of 2001 had not been dated. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the inhabitants of the highlands started to keep chickens, and singers had a penchant for poultry. To add to the problem, natives kept other domestic dogs. The crossbred dogs were generally larger in size, as well as less of a challenge to train, so they tended to be of more value than singing dogs. One might conclude that the relationship between the contemporary New Guineans and their dogs will give information about how they treated the singers, but modern "village dogs" are not genetically representative of pure New Guinea singing dogs.[12][15][16]

Conservation and preservation[edit]

A New Guinea singing dog at the Conservators Center in North Carolina
Old Dingo the New Guinea Singing Dog

In the past, the New Guinea singing dog was considered "unworthy" of scientific study, as it was regarded as an insignificant variety of feral domestic dog. However, due to its potential value as a resource for the determination of the process of canid evolution and domestication, particularly in relation to the dingo, as well as several of its unique genetic, behavioral, ecological, reproductive and morphological characteristics, limited research has been undertaken.[15] The New Guinea Department of Environment and Conservation has announced protection measures.[9]

Hybridization is one of the most serious threats facing the New Guinea dingo. NGD are handicapped, as are many canids such as the Australian dingo, by their susceptibility to being bred by canines other than those of their own kind. This vulnerability has and is still causing a "watering down " of dingo genes needed to maintain purity.

There are two organizations that exist for the sole purpose of conserving and preserving New Guinea singing dogs. The organizations, New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society founded in 1997[31] and New Guinea Singing Dog International, a preservation, captive breed, adoption and pet education group.[32] Both are based in the United States.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Corbett, L.K. (2008). "Canis lupus ssp. dingo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ Smithsonian - Animal Species of the World database. "Canis lupus". 
  4. ^ Troughton, E. (1957). "A new native dog from the Papuan Highlands, Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1955–1956": 93–94. 
  5. ^ Smithsonian - Animal Species of the World database. "Canis lupus dingo". 
  6. ^ Vanak, ABI Tamim; Gompper, Matthew E. (2009). "Dogs Canis familiarisas carnivores: Their role and function in intraguild competition". Mammal Review. 39 (4): 265. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2009.00148.x. 
  7. ^ Crew, Becky (5 July 2013). "Expedition to Find the New Guinea Singing Dog: The Rarest Dog in the World". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  8. ^ Gergits WF; Brisbin IL Jr. (1995). "A taxonomic reassessments of the New Guinea Singing Dog". Abstract 181, 75th Annual Meeting, American Society of Mammalogists, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. 
  9. ^ a b c d Laurie Corbett (2004). "Dingo" (PDF). Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 February 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Dwyer, Peter D.; Minnegal, Monica (2016). "Wild dogs and village dogs in New Guinea: Were they different?". Australian Mammalogy. 38: 1. doi:10.1071/AM15011. 
  11. ^ DE VIS CW, 1911. A wild dog from British New Guinea. Annals of the Queensland Museum 10:19-20.
  12. ^ a b c d Koler-Matznick, Janice; Brisbin Jr, I. Lehr; Yates, S; Bulmer, Susan (2007). "The New Guinea singing dog: its status and scientific importance". The Journal of the Australian Mammal Society. 29 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1071/AM07005. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  13. ^ a b Flamholtz, Cathy J. (1991). A Celebration of Rare Breeds Vol.II. Centreville, AL, U.S.: OTR Publications. pp. 147–151. ISBN 0-940269-06-6. 
  14. ^ Funk, Holger (2005). "Shiba and Dingo". Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Koler-Matznick, Janice; Brisbin Jr, I. Lehr; Feinstein, Mark; Bulmer, Susan (2003). "An updated description of the New Guinea Singing Dog (Canis hallstromi, Troughton 1957)" (PDF). J. Zool., Lond. 261 (2): 109–118. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004060. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  16. ^ a b c d Janice Koler Matznick (20 January 2004). "The New Guinea Singing Dog" (PDF). KENNEL CLUB BOOK. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  17. ^ Voth, I. (1988). Social behavior of New Guinea dingoes (Canis lupus f. familiaris): expressive behavior, social organization and rank relationships. PhD(Vet.) thesis, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich
  18. ^ a b Flannery, Tim (1995). Mammals of New Guinea (2nd ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 
  19. ^ Bino, R. (1996). "Notes on Behavior of New Guinea Singing Dogs". Science in New Guinea. 22 (1). pp. 43–47.  Field Study of NGSD
  20. ^ Janice Koler-Matznick; I. Lehr Brisbin Jr. & Mark Feinstein (March 2005). "An Ethogram for the New Guinea Singing (Wild) Dog (Canis hallstromi)" (PDF). The New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society. Retrieved 7 April 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d Dorit Urd Feddersen-Petersen (2008). Ausdrucksverhalten beim Hund. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 978-3-440-09863-9. 
  22. ^ Ortolani, A. (1990). Howling vocalizations of wild and domestic dogs: a comparative behavioral and anatomical study. Unpublished BSc thesis, Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachusetts.
  23. ^ Christian Matschai (2005). "Haltung und Zucht von Hallstromhunden oder Urwalddingos (Cams lupus f. hallstromi) Tierpark Berlin" (in German). Der Zoologische Garten. 
  24. ^ Ehrlich, Don (Summer 2011). "Singers Singing-Hear the Cry of the New Guinea Singing Dog". Zoological Association of America Newsletter & Journal. 5 (2). 
  25. ^ "Canis lupus ssp. dingo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Crew, Beck (December 10, 2012). "First photo of rare, wild New Guinea singing dog in 23 years". Scientific American. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  27. ^ Kristofer M. Helgen; Stephen J. Richards; Robert Sine; Wayne Takeuchi; Bruce M. Beehler (2007). "A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of the Kaijende Highlands, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea" (PDF). Conservation International. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  28. ^ Hewitt, Tom, blog author, himself also writing in the third person, or with another in his company blog (12 November 2012). "First Ever Photo of a Wild Singing Dog?". Adventure Alternative travel comopany. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  29. ^ "History of the New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD)". New Guinea Singing Dog International. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  30. ^ "Zoos That Have New Guinea Singing Dogs". New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  31. ^ "Home page". New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  32. ^ "Home page". New Guinea Singing Dog International. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 

External links[edit]