New Hampshire Republican primary, 2016

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New Hampshire Republican primary, 2016

← 2012 February 9, 2016 (2016-02-09) 2020 →

  Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg Governor John Kasich.jpg Ted Cruz, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg
Candidate Donald Trump John Kasich Ted Cruz
Home state New York Ohio Texas
Delegate count 11 4 3
Popular vote 100,735 44,932 33,244
Percentage 35.2% 15.7% 11.6%

  Jeb Bush by Gage Skidmore 2 (cropped).jpg Senator Rubio official portrait (cropped 2).jpg Chris Christie April 2015 (cropped).jpg
Candidate Jeb Bush Marco Rubio Chris Christie
Home state Florida Florida New Jersey
Delegate count 3 2 0
Popular vote 31,341 30,071 21,089
Percentage 11.0% 10.5% 7.4%

New Hampshire Republican Presidential Primary Election Results by County, 2016.svg
New Hampshire results by county
  Donald Trump

The 2016 New Hampshire Republican presidential primary, which took place on February 9, was the second major vote of the cycle. Donald Trump was declared the winner with 35.3% of the popular vote and picked up 11 delegates, while John Kasich emerged from a pack of candidates between 10-20% to capture second place with 15.8% of the vote and picked up four delegates.[1]

It occurred on the same day as the Democratic one.

Campaign[edit]

Politico describes the 2016 Republican primary in New Hampshire as a "topsy-turvy" campaign that has seen "an all-out assault" on "establishment" politics.[2]

Donald Trump dominated the polling results,[3] with Chris Christie, John Kasich, Marco Rubio, and Jeb Bush vying to place second and emerge as the leading mainstream alternative to Trump and to Ted Cruz.[4] In November Chris Christie gained the endorsement of the New Hampshire Union Leader.[5] Candidates receiving the endorsement later received a boost of on average 8 points in the polls, but the endorsed candidate only won a Republican primary in half of the elections from 1980 to 2012.[6] But in late January the Boston Globe and the Concord Monitor endorsed Kasich, leading Politico to dub him the winner of the "newspaper primary."[2]

Major debates and forums[edit]

Two major televised gatherings of major candidates took place during the 2015-16 campaign, both took place at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics of Saint Anselm College in Goffstown, New Hampshire.

August 3, 2015 – Voters First Presidential Forum[edit]

The 2016 Voters First Presidential Forum was moderated by Jack Heath of WGIR radio, who asked questions of each of the participating candidates based on a random draw.[7] Candidates each had three opportunities to speak: two rounds of questions, and a closing statement.[8] Topics of discussion during the forum were partially selected based on the results of an online voter survey.[9] The facilities were provided by the New Hampshire Institute of Politics and Political Library of St. Anselm College. The forum was organized in response[10] to the top-ten invitation limitations placed by Fox News and CNN on their first televised debates (see descriptions below).

Eleven of the candidates participated: Senators Ted Cruz, Rand Paul, and Marco Rubio participated in the forum via satellite to avoid missing a vote.[11] Three major Republican candidates who did not participate were Donald Trump (who chose not to attend),[7] Jim Gilmore (who missed the cutoff deadline)[7] and Mike Huckabee (who was invited, but did not respond).[7] Mark Everson did not receive an invitation, albeit after a "serious look."[12][13]

The Voters First forum was broadcast nationally[14] by C-SPAN[15] as the originating source media entity, beginning at 6:30 p.m. EDT and lasting[citation needed] from 7 to 9 p.m. The event was also simulcast and/or co-sponsored by television stations KCRG-TV in Iowa, New England Cable News in the northeast, WBIN-TV in New Hampshire,[16] WLTX-TV in South Carolina, radio stations New Hampshire Public Radio, WGIR in New Hampshire, iHeartRadio on the internet (C-SPAN is also offering an online version of the broadcast), and newspapers the Cedar Rapids Gazette in Iowa, the Union Leader in New Hampshire, and the Post and Courier in Charleston South Carolina.[7] There was a live audience, with tickets to the event awarded via a lottery.[10]

Lesser known candidates forum at Goffstown[edit]

One of the highlights of the campaign is when the nonrecognized candidates gather together to introduce themselves to the public at this event, which first was held in 1972.[17] Five candidates participated. They were Stephen Comley, Tim Cook, Walter Iwachiw, Andy Martin, and Joe Robinson.

February 6, 2016 – Goffstown, New Hampshire[edit]

Candidate Airtime[18] Polls[19]
Trump 15:32 33.2%
Cruz 17:34 20.7%
Rubio 18:14 13.3%
Carson 8:46 7.8%
Bush 12:30 4.5%
Christie 12:53 3.0%
Kasich 10:33 2.8%

The eighth debate was held in New Hampshire, the first state to hold primaries, was organized by ABC News and the Independent Journal Review. It was scheduled to be held in the St Anselm's College Institute of Politics.[20] The eighth debate did not feature an undercard event.[21] David Muir and Martha Raddatz were moderaters, along with WMUR political director Josh McElveen and Mary Katherine Ham.[22]

To participate in the debate, a candidate must either have placed among the top 3 candidates in the popular vote of the Iowa caucus, or placed among the top 6 candidates in an average of New Hampshire or national polls recognized by ABC News. Only polls conducted no earlier than January 1 and released by February 4 were included in the averages.[23]

On February 4, 2016, Jeb Bush, Ben Carson, Chris Christie, Ted Cruz, John Kasich, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump were invited to the debate.[24] Carly Fiorina and Jim Gilmore were not invited as they did not meet the criteria.[25]

The debate was notable for Rubio's poor performance, where he repeated the same phrase four times, including once while Christie was criticizing him for making "canned" remarks.[26][27]

Municipal results of the New Hampshire Republican primaries, 2016.
  Donald Trump
  John Kasich
  Ted Cruz
  Tie
  Not reported[a]

Candidates[edit]

Twenty-six total candidates were on the ballot in the New Hampshire primary.[29] The following notable candidates were listed in five major polls and participated in authorized debates. U.S. Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina and former Governors Bobby Jindal of Louisiana and George Pataki of New York withdrew from the race, but remained on the ballot.

The following have been listed in national polls and have participated in at least one nationally televised debate.

Candidate Résumé Portrait popular vote percentage Delegates won
Donald Trump CEO of The Trump Organization (campaign) Donald Trump August 19, 2015 (cropped).jpg 100,406 [1] 35.3%[1] 11
John Kasich Governor of Ohio since 2011; U.S. Representative from Ohio 1983–2001; presidential candidate in 2000 (campaign)[30][31] Governor of Ohio John Kasich at FITN in Nashua, NH by Michael Vadon 02 (cropped).jpg 44,909[1] 15.8%[1] 4
Ted Cruz U.S. Senator from Texas since 2013; Solicitor General of Texas 2003–2008 (campaign)[32] Ted Cruz by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg 33,189[1] 11.7%[1] 3
Jeb Bush Governor of Florida 1999–2007; Florida Secretary of Commerce 1987–1988 (campaign)[33][34] Jeb Bush Feb 2015.jpg 31,310[1] 11%[1] 3
Marco Rubio U.S. Senator from Florida since 2011; Florida Speaker of the House 2007–2008 (campaign)[35][36][37] Marco Rubio by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg 30,032[1] 10.6%[1] 2
Chris Christie Governor of New Jersey since 2010, U.S. Attorney from the district of New Jersey (campaign)[38][39] Chris Christie April 2015 (cropped).jpg 21,069[1] 7.4%[1] none
Carly Fiorina former Hewlett-Packard CEO 1999–2005; nominee for Senate in California in 2010 (campaign)[40][41] Carly Fiorina by Gage Skidmore 3 (cropped).jpg 11,706[1] 4.1%[1] none
Ben Carson author and former Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital 1984–2013 (campaign)[42][43][44] Ben Carson by Gage Skidmore 6.jpg 6,509[1] 2.3%[1] none
Jim Gilmore presidential candidate in 2008, Governor of Virginia 1998–2002 (campaign)[45][46] Jim Gilmore 2015.jpg 133[47] 0.05%[47] none

The following have been listed in national polls and have participated in at least one nationally televised debate, but withdrew their candidacies before the New Hampshire primary.

Candidate Résumé Portrait popular vote percentage Delegates won
Lindsey Graham U.S. Senator from South Carolina since 2003; U.S. Representative from South Carolina 1995–2003 (campaign)[48][49] Lindsey Graham by Gage Skidmore 3.jpg 70[47] 0% none (withdrew from the race earlier)
Mike Huckabee Governor of Arkansas 1996–2007; presidential candidate in 2008 (campaign)[50][51] Mike Huckabee by Gage Skidmore 6.jpg 215[47] 0% none (withdrew from race after Iowa caucuses)
Bobby Jindal Governor of Louisiana since 2008; U.S. Representative from Louisiana 2005–2008 (campaign)[52][53] Bobby Jindal 26 February 2015.jpg 64[47] 0% none (withdrew from race earlier)
George Pataki Governor of New York 1995–2006 (campaign)[54][55] Governor Pataki 2015.jpg 80[47] 0% none (withdrew from race earlier)
Rand Paul U.S. Senator from Kentucky since 2011 and Ophthalmologist (campaign)[56][57][58] Rand Paul by Gage Skidmore 13.jpg 1,900[47] 0.67% none (withdrew from race after Iowa caucuses)[59]
Rick Santorum U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania 1995–2007; U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania 1991–1995; presidential candidate in 2012 (campaign)[60][61] Rick Santorum by Gage Skidmore 11.jpg 155[47] 0% none (withdrew from race after Iowa caucuses)

The following candidates have not been listed in major independent polls nor participated in Republican party sanctioned debates:

  • Stephen B. Comley, Sr., Massachusetts (31 votes)
  • Tim Cook, North Carolina (77 votes)
  • Brooks A. Cullison, Illinois (54 votes)
  • Matt Drozd, Pennsylvania (5 votes)
  • J. Daniel Dyas, Sr., Alabama (14 votes)
  • Kevin Glenn Huey, Colorado (7 votes)
  • Walter N. Iwachiw, New York (9 votes)
  • Frank Lynch, Florida (47 votes)
  • Robert L. Mann, Indiana (5 votes)
  • Andy Martin, New Hampshire (169 votes)
  • Peter Messina (5 votes)
  • Stephen John McCarthy, Ohio (12 votes)
  • Chomi Prag, Wisconsin (14 votes)
  • Joe Robinson, Massachusetts (44 votes)
  • Richard P.H. Witz, Massachusetts (105 votes)[47]
New Hampshire Republican primary, February 9, 2016
Candidate Votes Percentage Actual delegate count
Bound Unbound Total
America Symbol.svg Donald Trump 100,735 35.23% 11 0 11
John Kasich 44,932 15.72% 4 0 4
Ted Cruz 33,244 11.63% 3 0 3
Jeb Bush 31,341 10.96% 3 0 3
Marco Rubio 30,071 10.52% 2 0 2
Chris Christie 21,089 7.38% 0 0 0
Carly Fiorina 11,774 4.12% 0 0 0
Ben Carson 6,527 2.28% 0 0 0
Rand Paul (withdrawn) 1,930 0.68% 0 0 0
Write-ins 2,912 1.02% 0 0 0
Mike Huckabee (withdrawn) 216 0.08% 0 0 0
Andy Martin 202 0.07% 0 0 0
Rick Santorum (withdrawn) 160 0.06% 0 0 0
Jim Gilmore 134 0.05% 0 0 0
Richard Witz 104 0.04% 0 0 0
George Pataki (withdrawn) 79 0.03% 0 0 0
Lindsey Graham (withdrawn) 73 0.03% 0 0 0
Brooks Andrews Cullison 56 0.02% 0 0 0
Timothy Cook 55 0.02% 0 0 0
Bobby Jindal (withdrawn) 53 0.02% 0 0 0
Frank Lynch 47 0.02% 0 0 0
Joe Robinson 44 0.02% 0 0 0
Stephen Bradley Comley 32 0.01% 0 0 0
Chomi Prag 16 0.01% 0 0 0
Jacob Daniel Dyas 15 0.01% 0 0 0
Stephen John McCarthy 12 0% 0 0 0
Walter Iwachiw 9 0% 0 0 0
Kevin Glenn Huey 8 0% 0 0 0
Matt Drozd 6 0% 0 0 0
Robert Lawrence Mann 5 0% 0 0 0
Peter Messina 5 0% 0 0 0
Unprojected delegates: 0 0 0
Total: 285,916 100.00% 23 0 23
Source: The Green Papers

NOTE: Of the 25 candidate/hopefuls, five candidates garnered delegates.

Analysis[edit]

According to exit polls, Trump was able to win over all genders, income levels, and age groups, but his particular strength was among gun-owners, voters worried about the economy and immigration, and voters who described themselves as "dissatisfied" or "angry" at the federal government, a norm within the electorate in a state with a rebellious nature.[62] He also won white voters; the electorate was 96% white. An overwhelming majority of voters supported Trump's proposed Muslim ban.

While a plurality of the 53% of voters with a college degree backed Trump, he managed a 42-13 routing over Cruz among voters without a college degree. Trump swept all voters' family financial situations, but showed considerable strength among those who are "holding steady" or "falling behind." He won 37-15 over Cruz among the 47% of voters who felt betrayed by Republican politicians, and a 62-10 landslide among those 50% of voters who wanted a candidate from outside the political establishment. In terms of party affiliation, Trump won a 33% plurality of registered Republicans, and a 39% plurality of undeclared/independent voters.

Trump won along the seacoast 32-17 over Kasich, in the Manchester/Nashua area 33-16, in Concord 32-20, in Southern New Hampshire 40-13, and in Northern New Hampshire 36-17. Mr. Trump swept rural, urban and suburban areas of the state.[63]

The New York Times described Mr. Trump's commanding victory in the Granite State as a "harness [of] working-class fury" and noted Mr. Trump amassed the largest margin of victory in a New Hampshire Republican primary since 2000. In his victory speech, Mr. Trump promised, "I am going to be the greatest jobs president that God ever created," and that he will "knock the hell out of ISIS."[64]

Following the primary, Chris Christie, Carly Fiorina and Jim Gilmore, who had all invested heavily in New Hampshire but picked up no delegates, suspended their campaigns following a poor showing. Christie endorsed Trump following the primary, while Fiorina endorsed Ted Cruz.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ The Associated Press did not report results from municipalities where there were five or fewer registered voters.[28]
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Results from the 2016 New Hampshire primary". LA Times. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Gass, Nick (26 January 2016). "Kasich wins the New Hampshire newspaper primary". Politico. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  3. ^ Rappeport, Alan (26 January 2016). "Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump Far Ahead in New Hampshire, Poll Finds". New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Stokols, Eli (27 December 2015). "The GOP's New Hampshire nightmare". Politico. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "For our safety, our future: Chris Christie for President". New Hampshire Union Leader. November 28, 2015. 
  6. ^ Enten, Harry (30 November 2015). "Will The New Hampshire Union Leader's Endorsement Help Chris Christie?". Fivethirtyeight. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Paul Feely (August 1, 2015). "Voters First Forum levels the playing field". New Hampshire Union-Leader. Retrieved August 3, 2015. 
  8. ^ Brian Stelter (August 3, 2015). "Republican forum begins Monday without Donald Trump". CNNMoney. 
  9. ^ "Voters First Forum Topics". On Monday, August 3, candidates ... will be broadcast live on C-SPAN at 7 p.m. Topics for the forum will be determined by you, the voters. Please choose the top five topics you would like to see discussed. ...from these [five] identical drop-down lists: Iran nuclear deal, Homeland Security (Terrorism), Defense, International Trade, Immigration, Russia, Climate change, Crime, Drugs/heroin, Death penalty, Euthanasia, U.S. debt/deficit, Taxes, Economy and jobs, Campaign spending Reform, Social Security, Medicare, Healthcare/Obamacare, Gay marriage, Religious freedom, Privacy/surveillance, Education/Common Core, Abortion, 1st Amendment, 2nd Amendment, Race. 
  10. ^ a b "Trump tells Union Leader: No endorsement, no show". New Hampshire Union Leader. July 29, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Senate roll vote on Planned Parenthood". Associated Press. August 3, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015. 
  12. ^ Jon Ward, Senior Political Correspondent (July 29, 2015). "New Hampshire thumbs its nose at Fox News over presidential debates". The Union Leader considered allowing Mark Everson, the commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service from 2003 to 2007, to take part. Everson announced his candidacy in March. "We had discussions with Mark Everson about whether or not he would qualify. We didn't want to do what Fox did, which was cut the field arbitrarily," Spiner said. "We took a serious look to see if we were missing something here, and we decided we weren't." 
  13. ^ Ben Jacobs. "Who is Mark Everson? Why, he's the 18th Republican candidate, of course". the Guardian. 
  14. ^ "Outfoxed: Voters Forum to be first for GOP". New Hampshire Union Leader. July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Radio 2016 Republican Candidates Voters First". C-SPAN. 
  16. ^ "UPDATED: Bush, Walker, Paul in, Trump out of Voters First forum". New Hampshire Union Leader. July 24, 2015. 
  17. ^ "The existential pleasures of the Lesser Known Candidates presidential debate". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  18. ^ Sprunt, Barbara. "On The Clock: Rubio Gets The Most Talking Time In Tonight's Debate". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  19. ^ "2016 Republican Presidential Nomination". realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  20. ^ "Scheduled Presidential Candidate Visits & Other Forums - LWV of New Hampshire". lwvnh.org. Retrieved 2015-12-16. 
  21. ^ Kamisar, Ben (26 January 2016). "Rand Paul makes main debate stage". The Hill. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  22. ^ Anthony, Bennett (February 3, 2016). "When Is the Next GOP Debate?". Heavy.com. Retrieved February 4, 2016. 
  23. ^ ABC News (2016-01-27). "ABC News Announces Criteria For New Hampshire Republican Debate". ABC News. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  24. ^ "ABC News Announces New Hampshire Republican Debate Candidate Lineup". ABC News. February 4, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016. 
  25. ^ Kamisar, Ben (February 4, 2016). "Carly Fiorina misses debate stage". The Hill. Retrieved February 4, 2016. 
  26. ^ Tom LoBianco. "Chris Christie: 'Whole race changed' after GOP debate". CNN. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  27. ^ "How Chris Christie owned Marco Rubio in Saturday's GOP debate". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  28. ^ Mihalik, Lily; Anthony, Pesce; Ben, Welsh (February 10, 2016). "Live results from the 2016 New Hampshire primary". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 
  29. ^ "NHSOS". nh.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  30. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (July 21, 2015). "John Kasich Enters Crowded 2016 Race Facing Job of Catch-Up". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  31. ^ "John Kasich FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Ted Cruz FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. March 23, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  33. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (June 15, 2015). "Jeb Bush Makes 2016 Run Official". NBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  34. ^ "Jeb Bush FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  35. ^ Parker, Ashley (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio Announces 2016 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  36. ^ Nelson, Rebecca (April 13, 2015) "Marco Rubio Makes His Pitch as the Fresh Face of the GOP in 2016", National Journal. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  37. ^ "Marco Rubio FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. April 13, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  38. ^ Barbaro, Michael (June 30, 2015). "Chris Christie Announces Run, Pledging 'Truth' About Nation's Woes". New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Christopher J. Christie FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  40. ^ Gass, Nick (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina: 'Yes, I am running for president'". Politico. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  41. ^ "Carly Fiorina FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  42. ^ Terris, Ben (May 3, 2015). "Ben Carson announces presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  43. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (May 4, 2015). "Ben Carson Announces 2016 Run". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  44. ^ "Ben Carson FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  45. ^ Allen, Cooper (July 30, 2015). "Jim Gilmore formally joins GOP presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  46. ^ "Jim Gilmore FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 29, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i New Hampshire presidential primary, WMUR-TV, Last Updated February 10, 2016. Accessed February 10, 2016
  48. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (June 1, 2015) "Graham bets on foreign experience in White House bid announcement", CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  49. ^ "Lindsey Graham FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  50. ^ Trip, Gabriel (May 5, 2015). "Mike Huckabee Joins Republican Presidential Race". New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  51. ^ "Mike Huckabee FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  52. ^ Fahrenthold, David A.; Hohmann, James (June 24, 2015). "Bobby Jindal announces entry into 2016 presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  53. ^ "Bobby Jindal FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  54. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (May 28, 2015). "George Pataki announces presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  55. ^ "George Pataki FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  56. ^ Lambert, Lisa (April 7, 2015). "Republican Rand Paul announces 2016 presidential run on website". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  57. ^ Killough, Ashley (April 7, 2015). "Rand Paul: 'I am running for president'". CNN. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
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  59. ^ Malone, Clare. "Goodbye, Rand Paul; Goodbye, GOP Dovishness". fivethirtyeight. Retrieved 3 Feb 2015. 
  60. ^ Jackson, David (May 27, 2015). "Santorum officially begins 2016 presidential campaign". USA Today. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  61. ^ "Rick Santorum FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  62. ^ Noonan, Peggy (2016-02-12). "Trump, Sanders and the American Rebellion". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
  63. ^ "2016 Election Center". CNN. Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
  64. ^ Healy, Patrick; Martin, Jonathan (2016-02-09). "Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Win in New Hampshire Primary". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-10-02.