New Holland (Australia)
New Holland is a historical European name for mainland Australia. The name was first applied to Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman, who named it Niev Nederlandt Dutch for "New Holland", after the whole of the Dutch Republic. The name Hollandia Nova in several languages continued to be used to refer to Australia for at least 180 years.
After the establishment of a British settlement at New South Wales in 1788, which encompassed the eastern part of the territory, the term New Holland was more often used to refer only to that part of the continent that had not yet been annexed to New South Wales; thus it referred to the western half of the continent.
In 1804, the British navigator and cartographer Matthew Flinders rejected the name "New Holland" in favor of the name "Australia," recommending its official adoption by the British government. His suggestion was initially rejected, but the new name was officially approved by the United Kingdom in 1824. Nevertheless, as late as 1837, in official correspondence between the British government in London and the colony of New South Wales, the term "New Holland" was still being used to refer to the continent as a whole.
New Holland was exporting agar to China for culinary use as of 1832. The American author Edgar Allan Poe used the name New Holland to refer to Australia as late as 1833, in his prize-winning short story "MS. Found in a Bottle": "the hulk flew at a rate defying computation (...) and we must have run down the coast of New Holland".
In 1851, Herman Melville wrote, in a chapter of his novel Moby Dick, entitled "DOES THE WHALE'S MAGNITUDE DIMINISH? -WILL HE PERISH?" "...may the great whale outlast all hunting, since he has a pasture to patiate in, which is precisely twice as large as all Asia, both Americas, Europe and Africa, New Holland, and all the Isles of the sea combined." 
In 1854, another American writer, Henry David Thoreau, mentioned the term New Holland (referring to the territory of the "wild" indigenous Australians) in his book Walden; or, Life in the Woods, in which he writes: "So, we are told, the New Hollander goes naked with impunity, while the European shivers in his clothes. Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man?"
In the Netherlands, the continent continued to be called Nieuw Holland until the end of the 19th century. The Dutch name today is Australië.
- Dampier, William,(1981) A voyage to New Holland : the English voyage of discovery to the South Seas in 1699 edited with an introduction by James Spencer. Gloucester : Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-904387-75-5
- Richards, J., The Secret War: A True History of Queensland's Native Police, 2008, p. 49)
- Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 138.
- (page 8)