Jersey City, New Jersey
|Jersey City, New Jersey|
|City of Jersey City|
View of Jersey City from the Hudson River
|Nickname(s): "Wall Street West", "J.C.", "Chilltown"|
|Motto: "Let Jersey Prosper"|
Location of Jersey City within Hudson County and the state of New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Jersey City, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 22, 1838|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Steven Fulop (term ends June 30, 2017)|
|• Deputy Mayor||Vivian Brady-Phillips and Marcos Vigil|
|• Business Administrator||Robert Kakoleski|
|• Municipal clerk||Robert Byrne|
|• Total||21.080 sq mi (54.596 km2)|
|• Land||14.794 sq mi (38.316 km2)|
|• Water||6.286 sq mi (16.281 km2) 29.82%|
|Area rank||133rd of 566 in state
1st of 12 in county
|Elevation||20 ft (6 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Total||247,597 (75th)|
|• Estimate (2016)||264,152|
|• Rank||2nd of 566 in state
1st of 12 in county
|• Density||16,736.6/sq mi (6,462.0/km2)|
|• Density rank||10th of 566 in state
6th of 12 in county
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|ZIP codes||07097, 07302-07308, 07310-07311|
|GNIS feature ID||0885264|
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city. As of 2015, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 264,290, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 6.7% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597, ranking the city the 75th-largest in the nation.
Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles (49.4 km) of waterfront and significant rail connections, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Financial and service industries as well as direct rapid transit access to Manhattan in New York City have played a prominent role in the redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront and the creation of one of the nation's largest downtown central business districts.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a low of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since then, the city's population has grown, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 (+3.1%) from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 (+5.0%) from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 3.1 2010 Census
- 3.2 2000 Census
- 3.3 Community diversity
- 3.3.1 Latin American
- 3.3.2 Asian American
- 3.3.3 European American
- 3.3.4 African American
- 3.3.5 Arab American
- 3.3.6 Muslim American
- 3.3.7 Jewish American
- 3.3.8 Same-sex couples
- 3.3.9 Artists-in-residence
- 4 Economy
- 5 Art and culture
- 6 Government
- 7 Education
- 8 Media
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Lenape and New Netherland
The land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by the Lenape, a collection of tribes (later called Delaware Indian). In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen (English: Half Moon) at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, and elsewhere along what was later named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years. He chose the west bank of the North River (Hudson River) and purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, however, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633. That year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, which had been named Pavonia (the Latinized form of Pauw's name, which means peacock). Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, and whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, and led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War, approximately eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643.
Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Harsimus, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck, Awiehaken, and other lands "behind Kil van Kull". The first village (located inside a palisaded garrison) established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, and is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey.
Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House (1690), the Van Vorst Farmhouse (1740), and the Van Wagenen House (1742). During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names also seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes (Grove, Varick, Mercer, Wayne, Monmouth, and Montgomery among them). During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, and again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became completely independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County.
Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide that only contiguous towns could be consolidated. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City. The consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years later the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to merge into the Greater Jersey City.
1853 to 1859; New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company original Jersey City terminal: Job Male, six year Superintendent of Construction of the NJRR, 1853–1859, built this complete terminal in Jersey City. He was designer and builder of terminal, docks, ferry houses, and piers, and possibly the Maintenance facility between Washington and Green streets built during his term as Superintendent. Reclaiming the natural river front, which included all that section of Hudson Street lying between Essex and Wayne Streets. He planned and built for the company the old circular-roofed depot, which was 500 feet (150 m) in length and 100 feet (30 m) wide, and which was situated on Montgomery Street where the 1858 Pennsylvania Railroad depot was built.
In the late 1880s, three passenger railroad terminals opened in Jersey City next to the Hudson River (Pavonia Terminal, Exchange Place and Communipaw). Tens of millions of immigrants passed through these stations as they made their way westward from Ellis Island into the United States. The railroads transformed the geography of the city by building the Erie Cut as well as several large freight rail yards. The railroads became and would remain the largest employers in Jersey City into and during the early 20th century.
20th and 21st centuries
Jersey City was a dock and manufacturing town for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Much like New York City, Jersey City has always been a destination for new immigrants to the United States. In its heyday before World War II, German, Irish, and Italian immigrants found work at Colgate, Chloro or Dixon Ticonderoga. In 1908, the first permanent, drinking water disinfection system in the U.S. was installed on the water supply for the City by John L. Leal. The Hudson Tubes opened in 1911, allowing passengers to take the train to Manhattan as an alternative to the extensive ferry system. The Black Tom explosion occurred on July 30, 1916, as an act of sabotage on American ammunition supplies by German agents to prevent the materials from being used by the Allies in World War I.
From 1917 to 1947, Jersey City was governed by Mayor Frank Hague. Originally elected as a candidate supporting reform in governance, the Jersey City History Web Site says his name is "synonymous with the early twentieth century urban American blend of political favoritism and social welfare known as bossism". Hague ran the city with an iron fist while, at the same time, molding governors, United States senators, and judges to his whims. Boss Hague was known to be loud and vulgar, but dressed in a stylish manner earning him the nickname "King Hanky-Panky". In his later years in office, Hague would often dismiss his enemies as "reds" or "commies". Hague lived like a millionaire, despite having an annual salary that never exceeded $8,500. He was able to maintain a fourteen-room duplex apartment in Jersey City, a suite at the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan, and a palatial summer home in the seaside community of Deal, and travel to Europe yearly in the royal suites of the best ocean liners.
After Hague's retirement from politics, a series of mayors including John V. Kenny, Thomas J. Whelan and Thomas F. X. Smith attempted to take control of Hague's organization, usually under the mantle of political reform. None were able to duplicate the level of power held by Hague, but the city and the county remained notorious for political corruption for years. By the 1970s, the city experienced a period of urban decline that saw many of its wealthy residents leave for the suburbs, due to rising crime, civil unrest, political corruption, and economic hardship. From 1950 to 1980, Jersey City lost 75,000 residents, and from 1975 to 1982, it lost 5,000 jobs, or 9% of its workforce.
Beginning in the 1980s, development of the waterfront in an area previously occupied by rail yards and factories helped to stir the beginnings of a renaissance for Jersey City. The rapid construction of numerous high-rise buildings increased the population and led to the development of the Exchange Place financial district, also known as 'Wall Street West', one of the largest banking centers in the United States. Large financial institutions such as UBS, Goldman Sachs, Chase Bank, Citibank, and Merrill Lynch occupy prominent buildings on the Jersey City waterfront, some of which are among the tallest buildings in New Jersey. Simultaneous to this building boom, the light-rail network was developed. With 18,000,000 square feet (1,700,000 m2) of office space, it has the nation's 12th-largest downtown.
City Ordinance 13.097, passed in October 2013, requires employers with ten or more employees to offer up to five paid sick days a year. The bill impacts all businesses employing workers who work at least 80 hours a calendar year in Jersey City.
In November 2015, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump made the claim that "thousands and thousands" of Muslims in Jersey City cheered as they watched the Twin Towers burn after their collapse during the September 11 terrorist attacks, and used the unsubstantiated allegation as justification for his proposal that certain mosques in the United States should be monitored by authorities.
Jersey City is the seat of Hudson County, New Jersey, and the second-largest city in New Jersey. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 21.080 square miles (54.596 km2), including 14.794 square miles (38.316 km2) of land and 6.286 square miles (16.281 km2) of water (29.82%). As of the 1990 Census, it had the smallest land area of the 100 most populous cities in America.
Jersey City is bordered to the east by the Hudson River, to the north by Secaucus, North Bergen, Union City and Hoboken, to the west, across the Hackensack, by Kearny and Newark, and to the south by Bayonne. Given their proximity and accessibility by rapid transit to Manhattan, Jersey City and Hudson County are sometimes referred to as New York City's Sixth Borough.
Jersey City includes most of Ellis Island.
Jersey City (and most of Hudson County) is located on the peninsula known as Bergen Neck, with a waterfront on the east at the Hudson River and New York Bay and on the west at the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. Its north-south axis corresponds with the ridge of Bergen Hill, the emergence of the Hudson Palisades. The city is the site of some of the earliest European settlements in North America, which grew into each other rather expanding from a central point. This growth and the topography greatly influenced the development of the sections of the city and the neighborhoods within them. The city is divided into six wards.
Downtown Jersey City
Downtown Jersey City is the area from the Hudson River westward to the Newark Bay Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 78) and the New Jersey Palisades; it is also bounded by Hoboken to the north and Liberty State Park to the south.
Historic Downtown is an area of mostly low-rise buildings to the west of the waterfront that is highly desirable due to its proximity to local amenities and Manhattan. It includes the neighborhoods of Van Vorst Park and Hamilton Park, which are both square parks surrounded by brownstones. This historic downtown also includes Paulus Hook, the Village and Harsimus Cove neighborhoods. Grove Street, a main thoroughfare in Downtown Jersey City, has seen a lot of development and the surrounding neighborhoods have many stores and restaurants. The Grove Street PATH station is in the process of being renovated and a number of new residential buildings are being built around the stop, including a proposed 50-story building at 90 Columbus. Historic Downtown is home to many cultural attractions including the Jersey City Museum, the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Powerhouse (planned to become a museum and artist housing) and the Harsimus Stem Embankment along Sixth Street, which a citizens' movement is working to turn into public parkland that would be modeled after the High Line in Manhattan.
Newport and Exchange Place are redeveloped waterfront areas consisting mostly of residential towers, hotels and office buildings. Newport is a planned mixed-use community, built on the old Erie Lackawanna Railway yards, made up of residential rental towers, condominiums, office buildings, a marina, schools, restaurants, hotels, Newport Centre Mall, a waterfront walkway, transportation facilities, and on-site parking for more than 15,000 vehicles. Newport had a hand in the renaissance of Jersey City although, before ground was broken, much of the downtown area had already begun a steady climb (much like Hoboken). In recent years, this area of Jersey City has undergone gentrification that has seen the improvement in neighborhoods. This has also caused a rise of the standard of living throughout the city. Downtown also includes the Newport Centre area, which is also home of the Westin Hotel. Prior to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Jersey City had three office towers over 100 meters. Since then, three more office towers and 10 residential buildings over 100 meters have been completed. In January 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration gave navigational clearance for construction of a 79-story, 900-foot (270 m) residential and commercial tower planned by the Chinese Overseas America Corporation, which would succeed the Goldman Sachs Tower, also in Downtown Jersey City, as the tallest skyscraper in New Jersey.
Bergen-Lafayette, formerly Bergen City, New Jersey, lies between Greenville to the south and McGinley Square to the north, while bordering Liberty State Park and Downtown to the east and the West Side neighborhood to the west. Communipaw Avenue, Bergen Avenue, Martin Luther King Drive, and Ocean Avenue are main thoroughfares. The former Jersey City Medical Center complex, a cluster of Art Deco buildings on a rise in the center of the city, has been converted into residential complexes called The Beacon. Berry Lane Park, which is the largest municipal park in Jersey City, is located along Garfield Avenue in the northern section of Bergen-Lafayette.
The Heights or Jersey City Heights is a district in the north end of Jersey City atop the New Jersey Palisades overlooking Hoboken to the east and Croxton in the Meadowlands to the west. Previously the city of Hudson City, The Heights was incorporated into Jersey City in 1869. The southern border of The Heights is generally considered to be north of Bergen Arches and The Divided Highway, while Paterson Plank Road in Washington Park is its main northern boundary. Transfer Station is just over the city line. Its postal area ZIP Code is 07307. The Heights mostly contains two- and three-family houses and low rise apartment buildings, and is similar to North Hudson architectural style and neighborhood character.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jersey City has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Jersey City is within USDA hardiness zone 7a on the West side of the city and hardiness zone 7b on the East side.
1840–1920 1840 1850–1870
1850 1870 1880–1890
1930–1990 2000 2010
* = Gained territory in previous decade.
|Black or African American||25.8%||29.7%||21.0%||4.5%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||27.6%||24.2%||9.1%||n/a|
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 247,597 people, 96,859 households, and 57,631 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,736.6 per square mile (6,462.0/km2). There were 108,720 housing units at an average density of 7,349.1 per square mile (2,837.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 32.67% (80,885) White, 25.85% (64,002) Black or African American, 0.51% (1,272) Native American, 23.67% (58,595) Asian, 0.07% (161) Pacific Islander, 12.81% (31,726) from other races, and 4.42% (10,956) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.57% (68,256) of the population.
There were 96,859 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.5% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 37.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.2 years. For every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 96.0 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $54,280 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,460) and the median family income was $58,533 (+/- $2,116). Males had a median income of $49,582 (+/- $1,968) versus $43,458 (+/- $1,837) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $30,490 (+/- $668). About 15.1% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.1% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 Census, Jersey City experienced an increase of 7,542 residents (3.1%) from its 2000 Census population of 240,055. Since it was believed the earlier population was under documented, the 2010 census was anticipated with the possibility that Jersey City might become the state's most populated city, surpassing Newark. The city hired an outside firm to contest the results, citing the fact that development in the city between 2000 and 2010 substantially increased the number of housing units and that new populations may have been undercounted by as many as 30,000 residents based on the city's calculations. Preliminary findings indicated that 19,000 housing units went uncounted.
As of the 2000 United States Census, the population was 240,055 making Jersey City the 72nd-most-populous city in the U.S. Among cities with a population higher than 100,000 ranked in the 2000 Census, Jersey City was the fourth most densely populated large city in the United States, behind New York City; Paterson, New Jersey; and San Francisco. There were 88,632 households, and 55,660 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,093.7/mi2 (6,212.2/km2). There were 93,648 housing units at an average density of 6,278.3 per square mile (2,423.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 34.01% White, 28.32% African American, 0.45% Native American, 16.20% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 15.11% from other races, and 5.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.31% of the population.
Of all 88,632 households, 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living there, 36.4% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.2% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.37.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 35.1% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.
The median income of its households was $37,862, and the median income of its families was $41,639. Males had a median income of $35,119 versus $30,494 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,410. About 16.4% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.
Jersey City is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world. The city is a major port of entry for immigration to the United States and a major employment center at the approximate core of the New York City metropolitan region; and given its proximity to Manhattan, Jersey City has evolved a globally cosmopolitan ambiance of its own, demonstrating a robust and growing demographic and cultural diversity with respect to metrics including nationality, religion, race, and domiciliary partnership.
There were an estimated 68,857 Hispanic Americans in Jersey City, 27.4% of the population, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 0.9% increase from 68,256 Hispanic Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census. Immigrants from South America, led by Ecuador, are a growing component of Jersey City's population/ Puerto Rican Americans constitute the largest Hispanic group in Jersey City. While Cuban Americans are not as highly concentrated in Jersey City as they are in northern Hudson County, Jersey City has hosted the annual Cuban Parade and Festival of New Jersey at Exchange Place on its downtown waterfront since it was established in 2001.
Puerto Rican American
There were an estimated 27,108 Puerto Rican Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 5.6% increase from 25,677 Puerto Rican Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census.
There were an estimated 60,922 Asian Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 4.0% increase from 58,595 Asian Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census.
India Square, also known as "Little India" or "Little Bombay", home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere, is a rapidly growing Indian American ethnic enclave in Jersey City. Indian Americans constituted 10.9% of the overall population of Jersey City in 2010, the highest proportion of any major U.S. city. India Square has been home to the largest outdoor Navratri festivities in New Jersey as well as several Hindu temples; while an annual, color-filled spring Holi festival has taken place in Jersey City since 1992, centered upon India Square and attracting significant participation and international media attention. There were an estimated 27,603 Indian Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 1.8% increase from 27,111 Indian Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census.
Filipino people make up 7% of Jersey City's population. The Five Corners district is home to a thriving Filipino community and Jersey City's Little Manila, which is the second-largest Asian American subgroup in the city. A variety of Filipino restaurants, shippers and freighters, doctors' officers, bakeries, stores, and an office of The Filipino Channel have made Newark Avenue their home. The largest Filipino-owned grocery store on the East Coast of the United States, Phil-Am Food, has been there since 1973. An array of Filipino-owned businesses can also be found at the section of West Side of Jersey City, where many of its residents are of Filipino descent. In 2006, a Red Ribbon pastry shop, one of the Philippines' most famous food chains, opened its first branch on the East Coast in the Garden State. Manila Avenue in Downtown Jersey City was named for the Philippine capital city because of the many Filipinos who built their homes on this street during the 1970s. A memorial, dedicated to the Filipino American veterans of the Vietnam War, was built in a small square on Manila Avenue. A park and statue dedicated to Jose P. Rizal, a national hero of the Philippines, is located in downtown Jersey City. Jersey City is the host of the annual Philippine-American Friendship Day Parade, an event that occurs yearly in June, on its last Sunday. The City Hall of Jersey City raises the Philippine flag in correlation to this event and as a tribute to the contributions of the Filipino community. The Santacruzan Procession along Manila Avenue has taken place since 1977. There were an estimated 16,974 Filipino Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 4.7% increase from 16,213 Filipino Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census.
Jersey City, highly accessible to Lower Manhattan in New York City and its Chinatown by rapid transit, was home to an estimated 7,437 Chinese Americans, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a notably rapid growth of 31.8% from the 5,643 Chinese Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census. Chinese nationals have also been obtaining EB-5 immigrant visas by investing US$500,000 apiece in new Downtown Jersey City skyscrapers.
New Jersey's largest Vietnamese American population resides in Jersey City. There were an estimated 1,947 Vietnamese Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a robust 21.1% increase from 1,607 Vietnamese Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census.
There were an estimated 54,626 non-Hispanic whites in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 2.6% increase from 53,236 non-Hispanic whites enumerated in the 2010 United States Census. Many non-Hispanic whites have settled in the newer developments in the Newport and Exchange Place neighborhoods along the Jersey City waterfront.
Ever since the settling of New Netherland in the 1600s, comprising what is now the Gateway Region of northeastern New Jersey as well as portions of Downstate New York in the New York City metropolitan area, the Dutch and British, along with German and Irish Americans, have established an integral role in the subsequent long-term development of Jersey City over the centuries.
There were an estimated 65,604 African Americans in Jersey City, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 2.5% increase from 64,002 African Americans enumerated in the 2010 United States Census. This is in contrast with Hudson County overall, where there were an estimated 83,576 African Americans, according to the 2013 American Community Survey, representing a 0.4% decrease from 83,925 African Americans enumerated in the county in the 2010 United States Census. However, modest growth in the African immigrant population, most notably the growing Nigerian American and Kenyan American populations in Jersey City, is partially offsetting the decline in the city's American-born black population, which as a whole has been experiencing an exodus from northern New Jersey to the Southern United States.
Arab Americans numbered an estimated 14,518 individuals in Hudson County as per the 2012 American Community Survey, representing 2.3% of the county's total population. the second highest percentage in New Jersey after Passaic County. Arab Americans are most concentrated in Jersey City, led by Egyptian Americans, including the largest population of Coptic Christians in the United States. There is a notable Moroccan American population in Jersey City.
Muslims constitute 4.2% of religious adherents in Jersey City. The growing Muslim American population in Jersey City and Hudson County includes a significant Latino contingent comprising adherents converting from other religious affiliations. Pakistani Americans, Bangladeshi Americans, and Arab Americans compose a significant proportion of Jersey City's Muslim population.
A growing Jewish American population has been noted in Jersey City, including 3.3% of religious adherents. The 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey calculated a Jewish population of 6,000 in Jersey City.
A 2011 survey of census data shows Jersey City to have one the nation's highest percentages of artists-in-residence, leading The Atlantic magazine to call it the 10th-most-artistic city in the USA.
Jersey City is a regional employment center with over 100,000 private and publc sector jobs, which creates a daytime swell in population. Many jobs in the financial and service sectors, as well as in shipping / distribution, wholesale and retail.
Jersey City's tax base grew by $118 million in 2014 giving Jersey City the largest municipal tax base in the State of New Jersey.
Wall Street West
Jersey City's Hudson River waterfront, from Exchange Place to Newport, is known as Wall Street West and has over 13 million square feet of Class A office space. One third of the private sector jobs in the city are within the financial services: more than 60 percent are in the securities industry; 20 percent are in banking; and 8 percent in insurance.
Jersey City is home to the headquarters of Verisk Analytics and Lord Abbett, a privately held money management firm. Companies such as Computershare, NEX Group, ADP, and Fidelity Investments also conduct operations in the city. In 2014, Forbes magazine moved its headquarters to the district, having been awarded a $27 million tax grant in exchange for bringing 350 jobs to the city over a ten-year period.
Jersey City has several shopping districts, some of which are traditional main streets for their respective neighborhoods, such as Central, Danforth, and West Side Avenues. Journal Square is a major commercial district. Newport Mall is a regional shopping area. Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. In February 2014, New Jersey State Senate President Stephen Sweeney argued that Jersey City, among other distressed cities, could benefit from a casino—were construction of one outside of Atlantic City eventually permitted by New Jersey.
Port Jersey is an intermodal freight transport facility that includes a container terminal located on the Upper New York Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The municipal border of the Hudson County cities of Jersey City and Bayonne runs along the long pier extending into the bay.The north end of the facility houses the Greenville Yard, a rail yard located on a manmade peninsula that was built in the early 1900s by the Pennsylvania Railroad, in addition to the Claremont Terminal, once part of the Lehigh Valley Terminal Railway operations. The central area of the facility contains GCT Bayonne, a major post-panamax shipping facility operated by Global Container Terminals that underwent a major expansion in June 2014. The largest ship ever to call at the Port of New York-New Jersey, the MOL Benefactor, docked at Port Jersey in July 2016 after sailing from China through the newly widened Panama Canal.
Art and culture
- See List of Registered Historic Places in Hudson County, New Jersey
- Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty Island (Liberty Island and part of Ellis Island are located in New York)
- Liberty Science Center
- The Katyń Memorial by well-known Polish-American artist Andrzej Pitynski on Exchange Place is the first memorial of its kind to be raised on American soil to honor the dead of the Katyń Forest Massacre.
- The Colgate Clock, promoted by Colgate-Palmolive as the largest in the world, sits in Jersey City and faces Lower New York Bay and Lower Manhattan (it is clearly visible from Battery Park in lower Manhattan). The clock, which is 50 feet (15 m) in diameter with a minute hand weighing 2,200 pounds, was erected in 1924 to replace a smaller one that was relocated to a plant in Jeffersonville, Indiana.
- The Landmark Loew's Jersey Theatre, one of the five Loew's Wonder Theatres constructed in the 1920s and the only one located outside of New York City, is located in Journal Square. Currently presenting classic films, live performances, and events while the theatre undergoes restoration by volunteers.
Museums and libraries
The Jersey City Free Public Library has five regional branches, some of which have permanent collections and host exhibitions. At the Main Library, the New Jersey Room contains historical archives and photos. The Greenville Branch is home to the Afro-American Historical and Cultural Society Museum. The Five Corners Branch specializes in works related to music and the fine arts, and is a gallery space. The library system also supports a bookmobile and five neighborhood libraries.
Liberty State Park is home to Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, the Interpretive Center, and Liberty Science Center, an interactive science and learning center. The center, which first opened in 1993 as New Jersey's first major state science museum, has science exhibits, the world's largest IMAX Dome theater, numerous educational resources, and the original Hoberman sphere. From the park, ferries travel to both Ellis Island and the Immigration Museum and Liberty Island, site of the Statue of Liberty.
Hudson County Shakespeare Festival
Since 1992, the Hudson Shakespeare Company has been the resident Shakespeare festival of Hudson County performing a free Shakespeare production for each month of the summer throughout various parks in the city. The group regularly performs at Hamilton Park (9th Street & Jersey Avenue), Van Vorst Park (Jersey Avenue & Montgomery Street), and The Historic Jersey City and Harsimus Cemetery (435 Newark Avenue).
Jersey City is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) form of municipal government by a mayor and a nine-member city council. The city council consists of six members elected from wards and three elected at large, all elected to four-year terms on a concurrent basis in non-partisan elections.
As of 2016[update], the mayor is Steven Fulop, who won the mayoral election in 2013. The Business Administrator is Robert Kakoleski. The City Clerk is Robert Byrne. Members of the City Council are Council President Rolando R. Lavarro Jr., Council Vice President Joyce Watterman (at Large), Daniel Rivera (at Large), Frank Gajewski (Ward A – Greenville), Chris L. Gadsden (Ward B – West Side), Richard Boggiano (Ward C – Journal Square), Michael Yun (Ward D – The Heights), Candice Osborne (Ward E – Downtown) and Diane Coleman (Ward F – Bergen/Lafayette), all of whom are serving concurrent terms of office running from July 1, 2013 until June 30, 2017.
Federal, state and county representation
Jersey City is split between the 8th and 10th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 31st and 33rd state legislative districts. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Jersey City had been in the 31st, 32nd and the 33rd state legislative districts. Prior to the 2010 Census, Jersey City had been split between the 9th Congressional District, 10th Congressional District and the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. The split that went into effect in 2013 placed 111,678 residents living in the city's north and east in the 8th District, while 139,519 residents in the southwest portion of the city were placed in the 10th District.
New Jersey's Eighth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York). New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 31st Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Sandra Bolden Cunningham (D, Jersey City) and in the General Assembly by Nicholas Chiaravalloti (D, Bayonne) and Angela V. McKnight (D, Jersey City). For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 33rd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Brian P. Stack (D, Union City) and in the General Assembly by Raj Mukherji (D, Jersey City) and Annette Chaparro (D, Hoboken). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
The city encompasses three Hudson County freeholder districts in their entirety, while three others are shared with adjacent municipalities. The Hudson County Executive, elected at-large, is Thomas A. DeGise. Hudson County Board of Chosen Freeholders Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 are located partially or entirely in Jersey City. District 1 comprises neighboring Bayonne and a small part of Jersey City, Country Village, and is represented by Doreen McAndrew DiDomenico. District 2 includes the West Side and parts of the Marion Section and Journal Square and is represented by William O'Dea. District 3, which stretches from Paulus Hook through Bergen Hill to the east side of Greenville is represented by Jeffrey Dublin. District 4 includes Harsimus, Hamilton Park, and portions of Journal Square and the Heights  and is represented by Eliu Rivera. District 5, comprising portions of the Heights and all of neighboring Hoboken, is represented by Anthony Romano. District 8 compromises all of North Bergen, the North End of Secaucus and the northern tip of the city near Transfer Station. It is represented by Thomas Liggio.
As of March 23, 2011, there was a total of 120,229 registered voters in Jersey City, of whom 58,194 (48.4%) were registered as Democrats, 7,655 (6.4%) were registered as Republicans, and 54,293 (45.2%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 87 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 85.5% of the vote (64,052 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 13.5% (10,120 votes), and other candidates with 1.0% (751 votes), among the 75,506 ballots cast by the city's 133,197 registered voters (583 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 56.7%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 81.8% of the vote (65,780 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 16.8% (13,529 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (584 votes), among the 80,381 ballots cast by the city's 139,158 registered voters, for a turnout of 57.8%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 74.5% of the vote (52,979 ballots cast), out polling Republican George W. Bush with 22.8% (16,216 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (559 votes), among the 71,130 ballots cast by the city's 119,723 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 59.4.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 66.5% of the vote (20,421 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 31.8% (9,784 votes), and other candidates with 1.7% (514 votes), among the 32,347 ballots cast by the city's 139,265 registered voters (1,628 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 23.2%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 76.2% of the vote (29,817 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 18.7% (7,336 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 3.2% (1,263 votes) and other candidates with 0.9% (371 votes), among the 39,143 ballots cast by the city's 120,269 registered voters, yielding a 32.5% turnout.
- Jersey City Fire DepartmentDue to budget cuts, several companies are placed out of service or "off duty" daily on a rotational basis. (JCFD) has 550 uniformed firefighters operating out of 17 stations.
- Jersey City Medical Center Emergency Medical Services
- Jersey City Police Department (JCPD) dates back to the appointment of watchmen in 1829.
- Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department
- Hudson County Sheriff's Office (Patrol, municipal buildings and county parks in Jersey City)
- United States Park Police (Ellis Island, Liberty Island, and the screening facilities for the ferries located in Jersey City)
- National Park Service Emergency Medical Services (Ellis Island)
- New Jersey State Park Police (Liberty State Park located in Jersey City)
- CSX Railroad Police (The CSX and Conrail rail road lines running through Jersey City)
- New Jersey Transit Police (The Hudson-Bergen lightrail line running through Jersey City)
- New Jersey State Police (The turnpike and turnpike extension running through Jersey City)
Colleges and universities
Jersey City is home to the New Jersey City University (NJCU) and Saint Peter's University, both of which are located in the city's West Side district. It is also home to Hudson County Community College, which is located in Journal Square. The University of Phoenix has a small location at Newport, and Rutgers University offers MBA classes at Harborside Center. Hudson County Community College, a junior college located in the Journal Square area offering courses to help the transition into a larger university, is praised for the culinary department and program.
The Jersey City Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement that the state cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its 38 schools had an enrollment of 30,845 students and 2,389.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.9:1.
High schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are William L. Dickinson High School Academy of the Sciences (2,185; 9-12), James J. Ferris High School Academy of International Enterprise (1,232; 9-12), Infinity Institute (261; 6-12), Innovation High School (9-12), Liberty High School (197; 9-12), Lincoln High School Academy of Governance and Social Sciences (830; 9-12), Dr. Ronald E. McNair Academic High School (716; 9-12), Renaissance Institute (9-12) and Henry Snyder High School Academy of the Arts (993; 9-12).
Dr. Ronald E. McNair Academic High School was the second-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked second in 2008 out of 316 schools. and was selected as 41st best high school in the United States in Newsweek magazine's national 2011 survey. William L. Dickinson High School is the oldest high school in the city and one of the largest schools in Hudson County in terms of student population. Opened in 1906 as the Jersey City High School it is one of the oldest school sites in the city, it is a four-story Beaux-Arts building located on a hilltop facing the Hudson River. Liberty High School is the district's only high school that focuses on all academics.
Among Jersey City's elementary and middle schools is Academy I Middle School and Frank R. Conwell Middle School #4, which is part of the Academic Enrichment Program for Gifted Students. Another school is Alexander D. Sullivan P.S. #30, an ESL magnet school in the Greenville district, which serves nearly 800 Pre-k through 5th grade students.
Jersey City also has 12 charter schools, which are run under a special charter granted by the Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Education, including the Mathematics, Engineering, Technology and Science Charter School (for grades 6 – 12) and the Dr. Lena Edwards Charter School (for K-8), which were approved in January 2011. BelovED Community Charter School opened in 2012 and has purchased a half-acre parcel of land on Grand Street to make room for a new 40,000-square-foot (3,700 m2), $12 million middle school building designed to serve 240 students in sixth through ninth grades.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark maintains a network of elementary and secondary Catholic schools serve every area of Jersey City. High schools administered by the Archdiocese are Hudson Catholic Regional High School, St. Anthony High School, Saint Dominic Academy and St. Peter's Preparatory School. St. Mary High School closed in June 2011 due to declining enrollment.
Catholic K-8 elementary schools include Our Lady of Czestochowa School, Sacred Heart School, Saint Aloysius Elementary Academy, St. Joseph School and St. Nicholas School. In 2015, Our Lady of Czestochowa School was one of 15 schools in New Jersey, and one of six private schools, recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School in the exemplary high performing category by the United States Department of Education.
In the face of declining enrollment and rising expenses, the Newark Archdiocese closed Our Lady of Mercy Academy (founded in 1964) and Resurrection School at the end of the 2012-13 school year. St. Anne School closed at the end of the 2011-12 school year after 112 years, as enrollment declined from 700 students in 1976 to 240 in 2010-11 and 188 in the school's final year of operation.
Other private schools
Other private high schools in Jersey City include First Christian Pentecostal Academy and Stevens Cooperative School. Kenmare High School is operated through the York Street Project as part of an effort to reduce rates of poverty in households headed by women, through a program that offers small class sizes, individualized learning and development of life skills.
The French American Academy is a private bilingual school PK-2 to 5. is located in a 3-story building, built a century ago which offers 23 classrooms and gymnasium for physical education or indoor recess. It will open its middle school in September 2018.
A number of other private schools are also available. Genesis Educational Center is a private Christian school located in downtown Jersey City for ages newborn through 8th grade. The Jersey City Art School is a private art school located in downtown Jersey City for all ages.
Jersey City is located within the New York media market, and most of its daily papers are available for sale or delivery. The daily newspaper The Jersey Journal, located at its namesake Journal Square, covers Hudson County, its morning daily, Hudson Dispatch now defunct. The Jersey City Reporter is part of The Hudson Reporter group of local weeklies. The Jersey City Independent is a web-only news outlet that covers politics and culture in the city. The River View Observer is another weekly published in the city and distributed throughout the county. Another countywide weekly, El Especialito, also serves the city. The Jersey City Independent is an online newspaper covering Jersey City and surrounding municipalities. It also publishes JCI Magazine, a print quarterly magazine. The Daily News maintains extensive publishing and distribution facilities at Liberty Industrial Park.
Jersey City is the filming location for the 2012 reality television series Snooki & JWoww, a spinoff of Jersey Shore that stars Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi and Jennifer "JWoww" Farley living at a former firehouse at 38 Mercer Street at Grove Street in Downtown Jersey City.
Of all Jersey City commuters, 8.17% walk to work, and 46.62% take public transit. This is the second highest percentage of public transit riders of any city with a population of 100,000+ in the United States, behind only New York City and ahead of Washington, D.C. 40.67% of Jersey City households do not own an automobile, the second-highest of all cities in the United States with 50,000 to 250,000 residents.
- Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) is the closest of the metropolitan area's three major airports
- LaGuardia Airport (LGA) is in northern Queens
- John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) is on Jamaica Bay in southern Queens
- Teterboro Airport, in the Hackensack Meadowlands, serves private and corporate planes
- Newport Helistop Heliport at Hudson River at Newport
- Hudson-Bergen Light Rail: One of the most popular forms of transportation in the city. Of the 24 HBLR stations that connect its three terminus points, 13 are located in Jersey City.
- PATH: 24-hour rapid transit system with four stations in Jersey City: Exchange Place, Newport, Grove Street, and Journal Square to Hoboken Terminal (HOB), midtown Manhattan (33rd) (along 6th Ave to Herald Square/Pennsylvania Station), World Trade Center (WTC), and Newark Penn Station (NWK).
- Hoboken Terminal-NJ Transit Hoboken Division: Main Line (to Suffern, and in partnership with MTA/Metro-North, express service to Port Jervis), Bergen County Line, and Pascack Valley Line, all via Secaucus Junction (where transfer is possible to Northeast Corridor Line); Montclair-Boonton Line and Morris and Essex Lines (both via Newark Broad Street Station); North Jersey Coast Line (limited service as Waterfront Connection via Newark Penn Station to Long Branch and Bay Head); Raritan Valley Line (limited service via Newark Penn Station).
- NY Waterway ferries operate between Paulus Hook Ferry Terminal, Liberty Harbor, Port Liberté to Manhattan at Battery Park City Ferry Terminal, Pier 11/Wall Street, and West Midtown Ferry Terminal, where free transfer is available to a variety of "loop" buses.
- Statue Cruises provides service to and between Ellis Island and Liberty Island
- Liberty Water Taxi operates ferries between Liberty Landing Marina, Warren Street and the World Financial Center.
The Journal Square Transportation Center, Exchange Place and Hoboken Terminal (just over the city line's northeast corner) are major origination/destination points for buses. Service is available to numerous points within Jersey City, Hudson County, and some suburban areas as well as to Newark on the 1, 2, 6, 10, 22, 64, 67, 68, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 123, 125, 305, 319 lines. Also serving Jersey City are various lines operated by Academy Bus and A&C Bus. Increased use of jitneys, locally known as dollar vans, have greatly affected travel patterns in Hudson County, leading to decreased bus ridership on traditional bus lines. After studies examining existing systems and changes in public transportation usage patterns it was determined that a Journal Square-Bayonne bus rapid transit system should be investigated. In 2012, the Board of Chosen Freeholders authorized the identification of possible BRT corridors.
As of 2016[update] two Taiwanese airlines, China Airlines and EVA Air, provide private bus services to and from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City for customers based in New Jersey. These bus services stop in Jersey City.
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 218.57 miles (351.75 km) of roadways, of which 189.88 miles (305.58 km) were maintained by the municipality, 10.34 miles (16.64 km) by Hudson County and 12.23 miles (19.68 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 6.12 miles (9.85 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
- Holland Tunnel: From Boyle Plaza in downtown Jersey City to its eastern terminus at Canal Street, Manhattan (carries I-78 / Route 139)
- Highways include the New Jersey Turnpike Extension (/ I-78); the Pulaski Skyway ( US 1/9); Route 139; and Route 440.
A part of the East Coast Greenway, a planned unbroken bike route from Maine to the Florida Keys, will travel through the city. In June 2012, part of the route was officially designated in Lincoln Park and over the Lincoln Highway Hackensack River Bridge. Both the Hudson River Waterfront Walkway and Hackensack RiverWalk are bicycle friendly. In April 2012, the city initiated the Morris Canal Greenway Plan to investigate the establishment of a greenway, including a bicycle path, that would follow the route of the Morris Canal to the greatest extent possible. in the same month, the city established bikes lanes along the length Grove Street, originally meant to temporary. In December 2012, the city announced that Grove Street lanes would become permanent and that it would add an additional 54 miles (87 km) of both dedicated and shared bike lanes. The Harbor Ring is an initiative to create a 50-mile bike route along the Lower Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, and Kill van Kull that would incorporate bike paths in the city. In 2013, the city simplified the application and reduced the cost for business and residences to install bike racks as well as making them obligatory for certain new construction projects. Hudson County has initiated exploration of a bike-share program. Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken intended to operate the program starting 2014 but delayed the launch due to lack of sponsorship. The revamped program officially launched on September 21, 2015 as Citi Bike with membership working in New York City.
Jersey City has participated in the sister city program since establishing a relationship with Cusco, Peru in 1988. Currently they have relationships with 12 international cities, showing a spirit of economic and cultural exchange and mutual friendship.
- Timeline of Jersey City area railroads
- Hudson River Waterfront Walkway
- Hackensack RiverWalk
- Demographics of New Jersey
- Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region
- St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Church
- Gateway Region
- Gold Coast, New Jersey
- Bergen Township
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- Nathan, Sarah (December 7, 2012). "Move over, drivers: Jersey City plans to add 54 miles of bike lanes". The Jersey Journal. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Cruz, Vera (February 24, 2013). "New York Harbor and New Jersey meet Bike and pedestrian route planned to encourage recreation and transportation". Hudson Reporter. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "The Harbor Ring". Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Goodyear, Sarah (October 12, 2012). "Could You One Day Ride Your Bike All the Way Around New York Harbor?". Atlantic Cities. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Copeland, Dennis (March 18, 2013). "Two major new bike initiatives to enhance Jersey City's bike infrastructure". The Jersey Journal. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
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- Benazil, Kathryn (December 17, 2013). "Ready to roll: Hoboken, Jersey City and Weehawken plan regional bike-sharing program". The Jersey Journal. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Tangel, Andrew. "North Jersey Bike-Sharing Program Faces Delays; Program Won't Roll Out for at Least Several Months in Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken", The Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2014. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- Sister Cities, Destination Jersey City. Accessed August 30, 2015.
- "Position Paper on Sister State and Sister City Relations Between Australia and China", Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales, dated November 14, 2001. Accessed August 30, 2015.
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