New London County, Connecticut

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New London County
County of Connecticut
Former New London County Courthouse
Former New London County Courthouse
Map of Connecticut highlighting New London County
Location within the U.S. state of Connecticut
Map of the United States highlighting Connecticut
Connecticut's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°28′N 72°06′W / 41.47°N 72.1°W / 41.47; -72.1
Country United States
State Connecticut
Founded1646 by John Winthrop, Jr.
Named forLondon, England
Seatnone (since 1960)
New London, Connecticut (before 1960)
Largest cityNorwich
Area
 • Total772 sq mi (2,000 km2)
 • Land665 sq mi (1,720 km2)
 • Water107 sq mi (280 km2)  13.8%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total268,555 Decrease
 • Density403.8/sq mi (155.9/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district2nd
Interactive map of New London County, Connecticut

New London County is in the southeastern corner of Connecticut and comprises the Norwich-New London, Connecticut Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Hartford-East Hartford, Connecticut Combined Statistical Area. There is no county government and no county seat, as is the case with all eight of Connecticut's counties; towns are responsible for all local government activities, including fire and rescue, snow removal, and schools.

New London County contains reservations of four of the five state-recognized Indian tribes, although the Paugassett were historically located farther west. The population was 268,555 as of the 2020 census.[1]

History[edit]

Southeastern New England was dominated by the Pequot people at the time of English colonization. They spoke the Mohegan-Pequot language and were one of the Algonquian-speaking tribes in the coastal areas. After years of conflict, the Colonists and their Indian allies defeated the Pequots in the Pequot War of 1637, ending their dominance. Two descendant Pequot tribes are recognized by the state today, as are three other tribes.

New London County was one of four original counties in Connecticut that were established on May 10, 1666 by an act of the Connecticut General Court, which states:

This Court orders that from the Paukatuck River wth
Norridge to ye west bounds of Homonoscet Plantation[a] shalbe
for future one County, wch County is called the County of
N: London. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe
held at N. London the first Wednesday in June and the third
Thursday in September yearly.[2]

New London County in 1666 consisted of the towns of Stonington, Norwich, New London, and Saybrook. The "Homonoscet Plantation" was settled in March 1663, at first as Kenilworth, but was incorporated as the town of Killingworth in 1667.[3] Several new towns were incorporated and added to New London over the next few decades: Preston in 1687, Colchester in 1699, and Lebanon in 1700. The settlements along the Quinebaug Valley were placed in New London County in 1697, and incorporated as Plainfield in 1699. By 1717, more towns were established in northeastern Connecticut and added to New London County between the Quinebaug Valley and the Rhode Island border.

Windham County was constituted from Hartford and New London counties on May 12, 1726, consisting of towns in northeastern Connecticut. New London County lost the towns of Voluntown, Pomfret, Killingly, Canterbury, Plainfield, and Lebanon to the newly formed county. In 1785, Middlesex County was constituted, consisting of towns along the lower Connecticut River Valley, taking away the towns of Killingworth and Saybrook from New London County. Several additional boundary adjustments took place in the 19th century: the establishment of the town of Marlborough in 1803, the transfer of the town of Lebanon from Windham County in 1824, and the transfer of the town of Voluntown from Windham County in 1881.[4]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 772 square miles (2,000 km2), of which 665 square miles (1,720 km2) is land and 107 square miles (280 km2) (13.8%) is water.[5]

The terrain of the county is mostly level, becoming more elevated only in its northern extreme. The highest point in the county is Gates Hill in the Town of Lebanon at approximately 660 feet (201 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is sea level.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Government and municipal services[edit]

As of 1960, counties in Connecticut do not have any associated county government structure. All municipal services are provided by the towns. Regional councils of governments were established throughout the state in 1989 in order to address regional issues concerning infrastructure, land use, and economic development. Most of the towns of New London County are part of the Southeastern Connecticut Council of Governments, the exceptions being the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme, and Lebanon. Lyme and Old Lyme are part of the Connecticut River Estuary Regional Planning Agency, while Lebanon is part of the Windham Regional Council of Governments.

Judicial[edit]

The geographic area of the county is coterminous with the New London judicial district, with the superior courts located in the cities of New London and Norwich.

Law enforcement[edit]

Law enforcement within the geographic area of the county is provided by the respective town police departments. Prior to 2000, a County Sheriff's Department existed for the purpose of executing judicial warrants, prisoner transport, and court security. These responsibilities have now been taken over by the Connecticut State Marshal System.

Fire protection[edit]

Fire protection in the county is provided by the towns. Several towns also have fire districts that provide services to a section of the town.

Water service[edit]

Water service to 12 of the 21 towns of New London County is provided by a regional non-profit public corporation known as the Southeastern Water Authority. The Southeastern Water Authority supplies water to participating towns within New London County and is one of only two such county-wide public water service providers in the state. Seven towns receive water service from one or more private corporations. The city of Norwich and most of the town of Groton provide for their own water service.

Garbage disposal[edit]

Several towns in New London County have organized the Southeastern Connecticut Regional Resources Recovery Authority. The participating towns are East Lyme, Griswold, Groton, Ledyard, Montville, New London, North Stonington, Norwich, Preston, Sprague, Stonington, and Waterford.

Education[edit]

Education in the county area is usually provided by the individual town governments. The less populated towns of Lyme and Old Lyme have joined together to form a single, regional school district (Region 18).

School districts include:[6]

K-12:

Elementary only:

There is also a privately-endowed publicly-funded school, Norwich Free Academy.

Politics[edit]

Since 1952, New London County has voted for the presidential candidate that won Connecticut.

United States presidential election results for New London County, Connecticut[7]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 57,110 40.91% 79,459 56.92% 3,035 2.17%
2016 54,058 43.76% 62,278 50.42% 7,192 5.82%
2012 46,119 40.07% 67,144 58.33% 1,839 1.60%
2008 48,491 38.83% 74,776 59.88% 1,607 1.29%
2004 49,931 42.19% 66,062 55.81% 2,367 2.00%
2000 41,168 37.72% 60,449 55.38% 7,530 6.90%
1996 33,039 32.05% 54,377 52.74% 15,679 15.21%
1992 34,567 29.35% 49,808 42.29% 33,392 28.35%
1988 52,681 51.22% 48,882 47.53% 1,288 1.25%
1984 63,121 61.59% 38,857 37.91% 509 0.50%
1980 47,217 47.96% 36,628 37.21% 14,603 14.83%
1976 47,231 50.40% 45,908 48.98% 581 0.62%
1972 58,516 63.40% 32,935 35.68% 850 0.92%
1968 37,116 44.41% 41,507 49.66% 4,951 5.92%
1964 24,391 30.88% 54,551 69.06% 49 0.06%
1960 38,070 48.38% 40,625 51.62% 1 0.00%
1956 43,453 61.40% 27,317 38.60% 0 0.00%
1952 38,148 54.76% 31,374 45.03% 148 0.21%
1948 27,416 47.42% 29,425 50.90% 973 1.68%
1944 24,153 44.94% 29,304 54.53% 285 0.53%
1940 23,389 45.18% 28,286 54.63% 98 0.19%
1936 21,367 44.79% 24,999 52.41% 1,337 2.80%
1932 19,721 49.11% 19,576 48.75% 858 2.14%
1928 21,378 56.30% 16,299 42.93% 292 0.77%
1924 18,205 62.34% 8,615 29.50% 2,381 8.15%
1920 17,422 63.31% 9,209 33.46% 889 3.23%
1916 8,283 48.51% 8,322 48.74% 469 2.75%
1912 5,543 35.13% 6,942 44.00% 3,292 20.87%
1908 9,941 58.70% 6,549 38.67% 446 2.63%
1904 10,385 58.23% 7,093 39.77% 357 2.00%
1900 9,582 57.39% 6,824 40.87% 290 1.74%
1896 8,395 66.88% 3,352 26.70% 806 6.42%
1892 6,186 49.32% 5,902 47.05% 455 3.63%
1888 6,080 49.21% 5,790 46.87% 484 3.92%
1884 5,442 46.05% 5,912 50.03% 464 3.93%

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
179032,918
180034,8886.0%
181034,707−0.5%
182035,9433.6%
183042,20117.4%
184044,4635.4%
185051,82116.5%
186061,73119.1%
187066,5707.8%
188073,1529.9%
189076,6344.8%
190082,7588.0%
191091,25310.3%
1920104,61114.6%
1930118,96613.7%
1940125,2245.3%
1950144,82115.6%
1960185,74528.3%
1970230,65424.2%
1980238,4093.4%
1990254,9576.9%
2000259,0881.6%
2010274,0555.8%
2020268,555−2.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010-2018[12]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 259,088 people, 99,835 households, and 67,188 families residing in the county. The population density was 389 people per square mile (150/km2). There were 110,674 housing units at an average density of 166 per square mile (64/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 87.00% White, 5.29% Black or African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.96% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, and 2.68% from two or more races. 5.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.8% were of Irish, 12.7% Italian, 10.8% English, 7.9% German, 7.1% Polish and 6.4% French ancestry, 90.1% spoke English, 4.5% Spanish and 1.1% French as their first language.

There were 99,835 households, out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.70% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 24.40% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $50,646, and the median income for a family was $59,857. Males had a median income of $41,292 versus $30,525 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,678. About 4.50% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.80% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 274,055 people, 107,057 households, and 69,862 families residing in the county.[14] The population density was 412.2 inhabitants per square mile (159.2/km2). There were 120,994 housing units at an average density of 182.0 per square mile (70.3/km2).[15] The racial makeup of the county was 82.2% white, 5.8% black or African American, 4.2% Asian, 0.9% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.2% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.5% of the population.[14] In terms of ancestry, 18.9% were Irish, 15.2% were Italian, 14.8% were English, 11.6% were German, 9.6% were Polish, and 3.7% were American.[16]

Of the 107,057 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, and 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 40.4 years.[14]

The median income for a household in the county was $65,419 and the median income for a family was $80,425. Males had a median income of $54,352 versus $41,721 for females. The per capita income for the county was $32,888. About 5.0% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over.[17]

Demographic breakdown by town[edit]

Income[edit]

Data is from the 2010 United States Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[18][19]

Rank Town Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
1 Lyme Town $64,506 $88,500 $98,500 2,406 1,033
2 Stonington Borough $64,224 $74,583 $96,667 929 531
3 Old Lyme Town $52,037 $92,024 $107,174 7,603 3,172
4 Stonington Town $42,184 $72,445 $86,029 18,545 8,115
5 Salem Town $41,414 $95,000 $106,875 4,151 1,525
6 North Stonington Town $39,588 $88,869 $96,125 5,297 2,052
7 Bozrah Town $38,339 $75,000 $99,625 2,627 1,007
8 Waterford Town $37,690 $69,810 $91,893 19,517 8,005
9 Ledyard Town $37,663 $85,321 $97,152 15,051 5,634
10 East Lyme Town $37,019 $79,815 $102,864 19,159 7,192
11 Colchester Town $35,479 $92,431 $101,860 16,068 5,915
12 Lebanon Town $34,608 $72,431 $80,566 7,308 2,644
13 Lisbon Town $33,685 $77,872 $86,469 4,338 1,659
14 Preston Town $32,956 $77,377 $86,435 4,726 1,869
15 Voluntown Town $32,760 $73,980 $76,197 2,603 1,002
16 Franklin Town $31,518 $74,226 $87,237 1,922 729
17 Sprague Town $31,226 $68,241 $78,438 2,984 1,135
18 Groton Town $31,110 $56,904 $67,465 40,115 15,809
19 Griswold Town $29,421 $59,295 $75,870 11,951 4,646
20 Groton City $28,872 $49,464 $52,366 10,389 4,182
21 Montville Town $28,492 $65,349 $80,156 19,571 6,942
22 Norwich City $26,702 $52,186 $62,616 40,493 16,599
23 Jewett City Borough $23,876 $39,334 $55,781 3,487 1,466
24 New London City $21,110 $43,551 $49,811 27,620 10,373

Race[edit]

Data is from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races."[20]

Rank Town Population White Black Asian American
Indian
Other Hispanic
1 Groton Town 40,190 83.9% 9.1% 6.1% 2.4% 4.8% 9.4%
2 Norwich City 40,085 79.4% 14.5% 8.3% 2.2% 5.6% 10.0%
3 New London City 27,550 64.5% 20.4% 5.0% 2.5% 13.5% 27.7%
4 Montville Town 19,505 82.8% 6.2% 7.1% 4.0% 3.8% 6.8%
5 Waterford Town 19,451 92.9% 3.7% 3.5% 0.4% 1.7% 4.1%
6 East Lyme Town 19,080 85.9% 5.8% 5.5% 1.1% 4.1% 6.7%
7 Stonington Town 18,482 96.0% 2.2% 2.2% 0.7% 1.3% 2.7%
8 Colchester Town 15,929 97.3% 3.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 3.8%
9 Ledyard Town 15,016 91.7% 2.3% 5.2% 4.4% 0.9% 4.0%
10 Griswold Town 11,837 94.6% 2.3% 3.3% 0.7% 0.9% 5.2%
11 Groton City 10,305 78.8% 14.9% 6.3% 2.5% 5.2% 11.0%
12 Old Lyme Town 7,583 99.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 0.3% 1.5%
13 Lebanon Town 7,268 98.5% 1.1% 2.3% 2.1% 0.6% 3.9%
14 North Stonington Town 5,272 96.6% 1.9% 1.1% 0.9% 0.5% 3.5%
15 Preston Town 4,729 89.8% 1.6% 8.5% 3.3% 1.0% 2.5%
16 Lisbon Town 4,322 96.8% 2.3% 1.9% 3.6% 0.0% 0.2%
17 Salem Town 4,118 94.3% 1.0% 6.7% 1.8% 0.5% 4.8%
18 Jewett City Borough 3,445 86.8% 6.6% 8.4% 0.5% 1.2% 8.2%
19 Sprague Town 2,983 90.5% 0.6% 6.1% 0.0% 2.7% 2.7%
20 Bozrah Town 2,603 94.7% 2.9% 1.6% 1.5% 1.0% 2.7%
21 Voluntown Town 2,603 98.4% 2.6% 1.2% 5.1% 0.2% 1.1%
22 Lyme Town 2,327 97.6% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 2.8% 1.5%
23 Franklin Town 1,958 98.8% 0.1% 0.2% 3.9% 0.2% 2.1%
24 Stonington Borough 1,069 98.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.0% 0.1% 3.2%

Communities[edit]

Map of New London County, Connecticut showing cities, boroughs, towns, CDPs, and Indian Reservations

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Villages are named localities within towns, but have no separate corporate existence from the towns they are in.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: New London County, Connecticut". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 20, 2021.
  2. ^ "CCR: Volume 02, Page 39". Archived from the original on April 28, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  3. ^ Frances Manwaring Caulkins, History of New London, Connecticut: From the first survey of the coast in 1612, to 1852 (New Haven) 1852, p. 249: "New London County extended from Pawkatuck River to the west bounds of Hammonasset Plantation (Killingworth), including all the eastern parts of the colony".
  4. ^ Newberry Library -- Connecticut Atlas of Historical County Boundaries Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  6. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: New London County, CT" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2022. - Text list
  7. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  12. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  14. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  15. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  16. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  17. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  18. ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  19. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 21, 2019. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  20. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2013.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Hammonasset River still bears this Indian place name.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°28′N 72°06′W / 41.47°N 72.10°W / 41.47; -72.10