In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000 of the Gregorian calendar. It is the third and current period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.
- 1 Events
- 2 Predicted events
- 2.1 Time capsules
- 2.2 Astronomical events
- 2.3 Biological events
- 2.4 Calendric predictions
- 2.5 Technological predictions
- 2.6 Social predictions
- 3 Significant people
- 4 Inventions and discoveries
- 5 Centuries and decades
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
|21st century||2001 African Union established
2003-2009 War in Darfur
2010 Arab Spring
2011–present Libyan Crisis
|1964–present Colombian conflict
2001 September 11 attacks
2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt
2006-present Mexican Drug War
|2003-2011 Iraq War
2011 Tōkohu earthquake and tsunami
2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
2011–present Syrian Civil War
|2004-2013 Enlargement of the European Union
2008 Russo-Georgian War
2014 Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
2015–present European migrant crisis
|2013 Tasmanian Bushfires|
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As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades of 21st century (the past 2000s and the current 2010s), are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century (2020s to 2090s) and longer-term trends (22nd to 30th century) are researched in futures studies. Here are some possible events that will happen in those particular years:
- April 27, 2109 – A time capsule placed under the floor boards of the Old Queens Building at Rutgers University, in New Jersey, United States buried on April 27, 2009, is scheduled to be opened on April 27, 2109.
- 2968 – The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument in Amarillo, Texas, contains four separate time capsules, the last of which is intended to be opened 1,000 years after the Time Columns Monument was locked in 1968.
- August 12, 2045 – A total solar eclipse will take place in the United States, producing a path from California to Florida. Some parts of Florida are predicted to experience totality for six minutes, the longest in US history.
- Mid-2061 – Next appearance of Comet Halley.
- November 11, 2069 – Transit of Mercury
- October 27, 2088 – Mercury occults Jupiter, the first time since 1708, but very close to the Sun and impossible to view with the naked eye.
- September 23, 2090 – Total solar eclipse in the UK. The next total eclipse visible in the UK follows a track similar to that of August 11, 1999, but shifted slightly further north and occurring very near sunset. Maximum duration in Cornwall will be 2 minutes and 10 seconds. Same day and month as the eclipse of September 23, 1699.
- April 7, 2094 – Mercury occults Jupiter; it will be very close to the Sun and impossible to view with naked eye.
- December 11, 2117 – Transit of Venus.
- September 14, 2123 – At 15:28 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.
- December 8, 2125 – Transit of Venus.
- July 29, 2126: At 16:08 UTC, Mercury will occult Mars.
- December 3, 2133 – At 14:14 UTC, Mercury will occult Venus.
- September 2, 2197 – Venus occults Spica.
Last occultation of Spica by Venus was on November 10, 1783.
- December 24, 2197 – Earth's Moon will occult Neptune.
- 2209 and 2284 – perihelion of Comet Halley.
- May 27, 2221 – near-Earth asteroid (285263) 1998 QE2 will pass Earth at a distance of 0.038 AU (5,700,000 km; 3,500,000 mi).
- 2221 – Triple conjunction of Mars and Saturn.
- December 2, 2223 – At 12:32 UTC, Mars will occult Jupiter.
- 2238/39 – Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (whose last triple conjunction was in 1981).
- August 12, 2243 – At 04:52 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
- June 11, 2247 – Transit of Venus.
- March 4, 2251 – At 10:52 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
- In 2252, the planetoid Orcus will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2004, based upon current orbital measurements which give it a period of 248 Earth years.
- August 1, 2253 – Mercury occults Regulus (last occultation of Regulus by Mercury was on August 13, 364 BC).
- June 9, 2255 – Transit of Venus.
- 2256 to 2258 – Eris will reach perihelion for the first time since discovery.
- October 6, 2271 – Close conjunction between Venus and Regulus, perhaps occultation of Regulus by Venus.
- 2279 – Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.
- 2281/82 – Grand Trine of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This last occurred in 1769 and 1770.
- Sunday, August 28, 2287 – Closest approach between Mars and Earth since Wednesday, August 27, 2003.
- In 2288, the planetoid Quaoar will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2002, which, based upon current orbital measurements, gives it a period of 286 Earth years.
- September 11, 2307 – At 22:50 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
- 2313 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2319 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- June 4, 2327 – At 00:54 UTC, Venus will occult Mars.
- October 8, 2335 – At 14:51 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.
- April 7, 2351 – At 17:22 UTC, Mercury will occult Uranus.
- December 13, 2360 – Transit of Venus.
- 2365 – Perihelion of Comet Halley.
- December 10, 2368 – Transit of Venus.
- 2388 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- May 11, 2391 – Partial transit of Mercury.
- November 17, 2400 – Venus will occult Antares (last occultation of Antares by Venus was on September 17, 525 BC).
- December 30, 2419 – At 01:38 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
- 2426 – Pluto's second orbit, since its discovery.
- 2456 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- August 29, 2478 – At 23:11 UTC, Mars will occult Jupiter.
- June 12, 2490 – Transit of Venus.
- May 6, 2492 – Belgian astronomer Jean Meeus asserts that the orbits of all eight planets and Pluto will be within the same 90° arc of the Solar System. The last time this is believed to have occurred was on February 1, 949.
- June 10, 2498 – Transit of Venus.
- April 7, 2515 – At 10:37 UTC, Mars will occult Neptune.
- January 25, 2518 – At 22:41 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
- 2562 – The dwarf planet Eris will have completed one orbit of the Sun, since its discovery in 2005.
- 2599 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- May 5, 2600 – First total solar eclipse visible from London since 2151.
The width of its path is predicted to be exceptionally wide at its maximum point.
- December 16, 2603 – Transit of Venus.
- May 13, 2608 – Grazing Transit of Mercury.
- December 13, 2611 – Partial transit of Venus.
- 2626/27 – Triple conjunction Mars–Saturn.
- 2629 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- February 16, 2649 – At 11:17 UTC, Venus will occult Neptune.
- September 3, 2650 – The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55,651,582.118 km.
It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (by 37,000 km) than the previous one of the August 28, 2287.
The following closer encounter will be on September 8, 2729.
- 2655/56 – Triple conjunction Jupiter-Saturn.
- 2663 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- 2699/2700 – Triple conjunctions between Mars-Jupiter, Mars-Neptune and Jupiter-Neptune.
- October 24, 2714 – Transit of Jupiter from Uranus. First one since May 3, 1914.
- September 8, 2729 – The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55,651,033.122 km.
It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (just 549 km) than the previous one of the September 3, 2650.
- June 15, 2733 – Transit of Venus.
- June 13, 2741 – Transit of Venus.
- 2742 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2744 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2761 – Triple conjunction Mars–Saturn.
- December 3, 2781 – At 06:45 UTC, Venus will occult Neptune.
- 2791 – Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2794/95 – Triple conjunction Jupiter–Saturn.
- The remnants of Comet Ikeya-Seki are expected to return to the inner solar system.
It was last seen from Earth in 1965–1966, and broke into three pieces as it approached the Sun.
- March 25, 2816 – At 15:47 UTC, Mercury will occult Jupiter.
- March 6, 2817 – At 9:36 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
- April 11, 2818 – At 20:41 UTC, Mercury will occult Mars.
- February 6, 2825 – At 10:50 UTC, Mars will occult Uranus.
- 2829/30 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- December 15, 2830 – At 09:40 UTC, Venus will occult Mars.
- 2842/43 – Triple conjunction Mars-Jupiter.
- December 16, 2846 – Transit of Venus.
- December 14, 2854 – Partial transit of Venus.
- July 20, 2855 – At 05:15 UTC, Mercury will occult Jupiter.
- 2866 – Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- March 16, 2880 – Predicted possible impact date for asteroid (29075) 1950 DA, the near-Earth object with the highest known probability of crashing into Earth.
- 2099 – According to one study, 83% of the Amazon rainforest may have been destroyed.
- By 2100, 12% (about 1250) of the bird species existing at the beginning of the 21st century are expected to be extinct or threatened with extinction.
- By 2100, emperor penguins could be pushed to the brink of extinction due to global climate change, according to a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution study from January 2009. The study applied mathematical models to predict how the loss of sea ice from climate warming would affect an Antarctica colony of emperor penguins, and they forecast a decline of 87% in the colony's population by the end of the century.
- January 19, 2038 – 32-bit computer clocks overflow to represent the date as December 31, 1969.
- 2096 is the last leap year before 2100, which will not be a leap year.
- On March 1, 2100 (which will be February 16, 2100 in the Julian calendar), the difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar reaches 14 days. Since 14 is divisible by 7, this will be the first time in history since its inception that the Gregorian calendar will have the same day of the week for each day of the month for the whole year as the Julian calendar. This will last until February 28, 2200 of the Gregorian Calendar.
- 2100 will not be a leap year since it qualifies as a year that is divisible by 100, but not by 400.
- FAT file systems theoretically support dates up to December 31, 2107 (though officially only up to December 31, 2099).
- The Year type in MySQL supports dates up to December 31, 2155.
- March 17, 2160 – Unless changes are made as to when Easter can be observed, this particular March 17 will fall within Holy Week for the first time since 2008 and fall on the same day (Monday) as it did in that year, likely requiring the movement of the Feast of Saint Patrick's Day to another date.
- Unless changes are made in the religious calendar, in 2285, the Western Easter will fall on March 22 for the first time since 1818, the earliest possible date on which Easter can occur.
- Expected completion of a space elevator by 2050.
- Predictions have been made for commercial hypersonic air travel by 2050.
- Denmark's energy supply is planned to be supplied only by renewable energies in 2050.
- Work on cleaning up the site of the Oldbury Nuclear Power Station near Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, England, which was decommissioned on 29 February 2012, is scheduled to be complete between 2092 and 2101.
- According to the Discovery Channel documentary, Extreme Engineering, the Japanese proposed Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid could be complete by 2110.
- The One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100) initiated by Stanford University will be concluded in 2115.
- 2162 or later: The satellite Envisat, declared "dead" in 2012, is expected to deorbit and burn up in the atmosphere no earlier than 2162.
- By 2200, it is predicted that Earth will become a Type I civilization on the Kardashev scale, according to Nikolai Kardashev's extrapolation of 1% energy usage growth per year.
- As of December 2009[update], the United States Census Bureau projects a world population of 8.4 billion by 2030.
- French demographist Emmanuel Todd predicts the level of literacy amongst the world population to reach near 100% by 2030.
- Gerontologist Aubrey De Grey predicts there is a "50/50 chance" of curing aging by around the year 2036.
- World population is predicted to reach 9.3 billion people by 2050, according to United Nations Population Division.
- French demographist Emmanuel Todd predicts worldwide zero population growth birth rates by 2050.
- The United Kingdom could have the largest population in Europe by 2050 and be the third biggest recipient of migrants in the world, UN projections suggest.
- 2050s – China, United States, India, Brazil and Mexico will be the largest economies in the world, according to a Goldman Sachs study.
- 2160 – Some scientists believe there are babies born in 2010 who may still be alive in 2160.
- According to the UN Population Bureau, life expectancy in 2200 is predicted to be around 100 for developed countries and the world population is estimated to be about 8.5 billion. The UN says that these projections could be invalidated by changes and progression in future life extension technology and discoveries, as well as changes in future birthrates.
- 22nd century – In his book The Next 100 Years, American political scientist George Friedman predicts that as the century begins, an ongoing confrontation between an increasingly powerful Mexico and the United States will be taking place. Mexico will be an economically and militarily powerful country capable of challenging the United States, while a Mexican majority in southern regions of the United States will have made them a de facto extension of Mexico, with increasing secessionist sentiment. Both countries will be competing for dominance over North America, which will remain the international centre of gravity throughout the next few centuries.
- 2250 – According to the theory of historian Max Ostrovsky, the latest probable emergence of the World State, following at least one more World War.
The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
|21st century||Muammar Gaddafi
|George W. Bush
|Osama bin Laden
Inventions and discoveries
|Communication and technology||Math and science||Manufacturing||Transportation and
Centuries and decades
- 2000 is generally considered the last year of the 2nd millennium, but there is some dispute.
- 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium.
- United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?"
- "When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?". Royal Observatory Greenwich
- Associated Press (2001-01-01). "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- "How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?". 2004. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
- "Fires rage across Tasmania". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2015-10-25.
- Diduch, Mary (April 27, 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum. Rutgers University: College Media Network. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration.
- HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2117 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Articles – Occultation – OPT Telescopes Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Optcorp.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2125 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- "Occultation – Mutual planetary transits and occultations – Encyclopedia II". Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
- Dr. Lance A. M. Benner (May 28, 2013). "(285263) 1998 QE2 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning". NASA/JPL Asteroid Radar Research. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Griffith Observatory (non accessible)
- Mutual Planetary Transits; Fifteen millennium catalog; Period 2 001 AD – 3 000 AD Archived January 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
- Solar eclipse of May 5, 2600
- Solar eclipse of June 14, 2151
- [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, by Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
- [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, par Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
- "No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world". NewScientist.
- Pimm, Stuart; et al. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". PNAS. 103 (29): 10941–10946. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC . PMID 16829570.
- Dunham, Will. "Melting Sea Ice May Doom Emperor Penguins, Study Finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Nevans-Pederson, Mary (2008-03-13). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- Rebecca Boyle (23 February 2012). "Japanese Construction Company Plans Space Elevator By 2050". Australian Popular Science. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "Our future energy" (PDF). The Danish government. The Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy. November 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-26.
- Enoch, Nick (February 29, 2012). "World's oldest nuclear power station closes... but it will take 90 more years and £954m to clear it completely". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- New Mega-City Challenge – Concept. Geekwidget (2010-03-29). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- on YouTube
- "Stanford to host 100-year study on artificial intelligence". Stanford University. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Study to Examine Effects of Artificial Intelligence". The New York Times. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "One-Hundred Year Study of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing". Eric Horvitz. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Wall, Mike (2012-05-11). "Dead Satellite Envisat May Be Space Junk for 150 Years". Huffington Post. Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Kaku, Michio (April 26, 2004). "How Advanced Could They Be?". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- "Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050". U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X.
- Health and Science Correspondent Kate Kelland. "Who wants to live forever? Scientist sees aging cured". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- "World population to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, UN projects". UN News Center. 24 February 2005.
- "Britain 'biggest in EU by 2050'". BBC News. 12 March 2009.
- Wilson, Dominic; Stupnytska, Anna (March 28, 2007). "The N-11: More Than an Acronym" (PDF). Global Economics Paper. 153.
- Laurance, Jeremy (2010-05-12). "Has the elixir of youth come of age?". The Independent. London: The Independent. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- World population in 2300. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Friedman, George (2009) The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, Anchor, ISBN 0767923057.
- Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007).
- "Chronology – Quarter 1 1949".
- Mackenzie, Dana (2006-12-22). "The Poincaré Conjecture--Proved". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 314 (5807): 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17185565.
- "Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Witze (February 11, 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- "India's Mars satellite successfully enters orbit, bringing country into space elite". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.