New wave music
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Cultural origins||Mid-1970s, United States and United Kingdom|
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock. New wave moved away from blues and rock and roll sounds to create pop music that incorporated disco, mod, and electronic music. Initially new wave was similar to punk rock, before becoming a distinct genre. It subsequently engendered subgenres and fusions, including synth-pop.
New wave differs from other movements with ties to first-wave punk as it displays characteristics common to pop music, rather than the more "artsy" post-punk. Although it incorporates much of the original punk rock sound and ethos, new wave exhibits greater complexity in both music and lyrics. Common characteristics of new wave music include the use of synthesizers and electronic productions, the importance of styling and the arts, as well as diversity.
New wave has been called one of the definitive genres of the 1980s, after it grew partially fixated on MTV (the Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" music video was broadcast as the first music video to promote the channel's launch), and the popularity of several new wave artists, attributed to their exposure on the channel. In the mid-1980s, differences between new wave and other music genres began to blur. New wave has enjoyed resurgences since the 1990s, after a rising "nostalgia" for several new wave-influenced artists. Subsequently, the genre influenced other genres.[excessive citations][improper synthesis?] During the 2000s, a number of acts, such as the Strokes, Interpol, Franz Ferdinand and The Killers explored new wave and post-punk influences. These acts were sometimes labeled "new wave of new wave".
- 1 Etymology and usage
- 2 Related styles and subgenres
- 3 United States
- 4 Post-1980s revivals and influence
- 5 Parallel movements
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Etymology and usage
The catch-all nature of new wave music has been a source of much confusion and controversy. The 1985 discography Who's New Wave in Music listed artists in over 130 separate categories. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock calls the term "virtually meaningless", while AllMusic mentions "stylistic diversity".
New wave first emerged as a rock genre in the early 1970s, used by critics including Nick Kent and Dave Marsh to classify such New York-based groups as the Velvet Underground and New York Dolls. It gained currency beginning in 1976 when it appeared in UK punk fanzines such as Sniffin' Glue and newsagent music weeklies such as Melody Maker and New Musical Express. In November 1976 Caroline Coon used Malcolm McLaren's term "new wave" to designate music by bands not exactly punk, but related to the same musical scene. The term was also used in that sense by music journalist Charles Shaar Murray in his comments about the Boomtown Rats. For a period of time in 1976 and 1977, the terms new wave and punk were somewhat interchangeable. By the end of 1977, "new wave" had replaced "punk" as the definition for new underground music in the UK.
In the United States, Sire Records chairman Seymour Stein, believing that the term "punk" would mean poor sales for Sire's acts who had frequently played the club CBGB, launched a "Don't Call It Punk" campaign designed to replace the term with "new wave". As radio consultants in the United States had advised their clients that punk rock was a fad, they settled on the term "new wave". Like the filmmakers of the French new wave movement (after whom the genre was named), its new artists were anti-corporate and experimental (e.g. Ramones and Talking Heads). At first, most U.S. writers exclusively used the term "new wave" for British punk acts. Starting in December 1976, The New York Rocker, which was suspicious of the term "punk", became the first American journal enthusiastically used the term starting with British acts, later appropriating it to acts associated with the CBGB scene. Part of what attracted Stein and others to new wave was the music’s stripped back style and upbeat tempos, which they viewed as a much needed return to the energetic rush of rock and roll and 1960s rock that had dwindled in the 1970s with the ascendance of overblown progressive rock and stadium spectacles.
Music historian Vernon Joynson claimed that new wave emerged in the UK in late 1976, when many bands began disassociating themselves from punk. Music that followed the anarchic garage band ethos of the Sex Pistols was distinguished as "punk", while music that tended toward experimentation, lyrical complexity or more polished production, came to be categorized as "new wave". In the U.S., the first new wavers were the not-so-punk acts associated with the New York club CBGB (e.g. Talking Heads, Mink DeVille and Blondie).
CBGB owner Hilly Kristal, referring to the first show of the band Television at his club in March 1974, said, "I think of that as the beginning of new wave." Furthermore, many artists who would have originally been classified as punk were also termed new wave. A 1977 Phonogram Records compilation album of the same name (New Wave) features US artists including the Dead Boys, Ramones, Talking Heads and the Runaways.
New wave is much more closely tied to punk and came and went more quickly in the United Kingdom than in the United States. At the time punk began, it was a major phenomenon in the United Kingdom and a minor one in the United States. Thus when new wave acts started getting noticed in America, punk meant little to the mainstream audience and it was common for rock clubs and discos to play British dance mixes and videos between live sets by American guitar acts.
Post-punk music developments in the UK became mainstream and were considered unique cultural events. By the early 1980s, British journalists largely had abandoned the term "new wave" in favor of subgenre terms such as "synthpop". By 1983, the term of choice for the US music industry had become "new music", while to the majority of US fans it was still a "new wave" reacting to album-based rock.
Synonym of synthpop
New wave died out in the mid-1980s, knocked out by guitar-driven rock reacting against new wave. For most of the remainder of the 1980s the term "new wave" was widely applied to nearly every new pop, dance pop or pop rock artist that predominantly used synthesizers.
In the 21st century United States, "new wave" was used to describe artists such as Morrissey, Duran Duran, Cyndi Lauper and Devo. Late 1970s new wave acts such as the Pretenders and the Cars were more likely to be found on classic rock playlists than on new wave playlists there. Reflecting its British origins, the 2004 study Popular Music Genres: An Introduction had one paragraph dedicated to 1970s new wave artists in its punk chapter in contrast to a 20-page chapter on early 1980s synthpop.
Related styles and subgenres
New wave represented a break from the blues and rock & roll sounds of late 1960s to mid-1970s rock music. According to Simon Reynolds, the music had a twitchy, agitated feel to it. New wave musicians often played choppy rhythm guitars with fast tempos, and keyboards were common as were stop-start song structures and melodies. Reynolds noted that new wave vocalists sounded high-pitched, geeky and suburban. A nervous, nerdy persona was a common characteristic of new wave fans and acts such as Talking Heads, Devo and Elvis Costello. This took the forms of robotic dancing, jittery high-pitched vocals and clothing fashions such as suits and big glasses that hid the body.
This seemed radical to audiences accustomed to post-counterculture forms such as disco dancing and macho "cock rock" that emphasized a "hang loose" philosophy, open sexuality and sexual bravado. The majority of American male new wave acts of the late 1970s were from Caucasian middle-class backgrounds, and Theo Cateforis of Syracuse University theorized that these acts intentionally presented these exaggerated nerdy tendencies associated with their "whiteness" either to criticize it and/or to reflect their identity.
Singer-songwriters who were "angry" and "intelligent" and who "approached pop music with the sardonic attitude and tense, aggressive energy of punk" such as Elvis Costello, Joe Jackson and Graham Parker were also part of the new wave music scene.
The idea of rock music as a serious art form started in the late 1960s and was the dominant view of the genre at the time of new wave's arrival. New wave looked back or borrowed in various ways from the years just prior to this occurrence. One way this was done was by taking an ironic look at consumer and pop culture of the 1950s and early 1960s. The B-52's became most noted for a kitsch and camp presentation with their bouffant wigs, beach party and sci-fi movie references. Other groups that referenced the pre-progressive rock era were the Go-Go's, Blondie and Devo.
In the early 1980s, new wave acts embraced a crossover of rock music with African and African-American styles. Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow, both acts with ties to former Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren, used Burundi-style drumming. The Talking Heads album Remain in Light was marketed and positivity reviewed as a breakthrough melding of new wave and African styles, although drummer Chris Frantz said that he found out about this supposed African influence after the fact. The 1981 U.S. number 1 single "Rapture" by Blondie was an homage to rap music. The song name-checked rap artists and Fab 5 Freddie appeared in the video for the song. Second British Invasion acts were influenced by funk and disco.
Power pop continued the guitar-based, singles-oriented British invasion sound of the mid-1960s into the 1970s and the present day. Although the name "power pop" had been around before punk (it is believed to have been coined by Pete Townshend in 1967) it became widely associated with new wave when Bomp and Trouser Press magazines (respectively in March and April 1978) wrote cover stories touting power pop as a sound that could continue new wave's directness without the negativity associated with punk. Cheap Trick, the Romantics, the Records, Shoes, the Motors, the Only Ones, the Plimsouls, the dB's, the Beat, XTC, the Vapors, 20/20 and Squeeze were groups that found success playing this style. The Jam was the prime example of the mod sensibility of British power pop. By the end of 1979 a backlash had developed against power pop in general, particularly in regards to the Los Angeles scene. The skinny ties worn by LA power pop groups, epitomized by the Knack, became symbolic of the supposed lack of authenticity of the genre. Power pop's association with the genre was later forgotten.
Punk and post-punk
The term "post-punk" was coined to describe groups such as Public Image Ltd, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Gang of Four, Wire, the Fall, Magazine, The Cure, and Echo and the Bunnymen which were initially considered part of new wave but were more ambitious, serious and challenging, as well as darker and less pop-oriented. Some of these groups would later adopt synths. While punk rock wielded a major influence on the popular music scene in the UK, in the US the music’s stigma of violence and sexual deviance made it virtually unmarketable. Although distinct, punk, new wave and post-punk all shared common ground: an energetic reaction to what they perceived as the overproduced, uninspired popular music of the 1970s.
New Romantic and synthpop
The New Romantic scene developed in the London nightclubs Billy's and the Blitz in the late 1970s. Club-goers wore flamboyant, eccentric costumes and make-up derived from the historical Romantic era. Beginning at "Bowie and Roxy Music" themed nights at these clubs, the scene was spearheaded by Steve Strange of Visage, with other soon-to-be pop acts also as regular fixtures such as Boy George of Culture Club, and Spandau Ballet. Around the same time, Duran Duran emerged from a similar scene in Birmingham. Many of the acts that arose from the New Romantic club scene adopted synthpop in their own music, though all would credit David Bowie and Roxy Music as primary influences, both musically and visually.
Kraftwerk were acclaimed for their groundbreaking use of synthesizers. Their 1975 pop single "Autobahn" reached number 11 in the United Kingdom. In 1978, Gary Numan saw a synthesizer left by another music act and started playing around with it. In 1979 he released two number one albums and two number one singles (one of each under his band name Tubeway Army). Numan's admitted amateurism and deliberate lack of emotion was a sea change from the masculine and professional image that professional synth players had in an era when elaborate, lengthy solos were the norm. His open desire to be a pop star broke from punk orthodoxy. The decreasing price and ease of use of the instrument led acts to follow in Kraftwerk and Numan's footsteps. While Numan also utilized conventional rock instruments, several acts that followed used only synthesizers. Synthpop (or "technopop" as it was described by the U.S. press) filled a void left by disco, and grew into a broad genre that included groups such as the Human League, Eurythmics, Depeche Mode, Soft Cell, a-ha, New Order, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Yazoo, Ultravox, Kajagoogoo, and the Thompson Twins.
In the summer of 1977 both Time and Newsweek wrote favorable lead stories on the "punk/new wave" movement. Acts associated with the movement received little or no radio airplay or music industry support. Small scenes developed in major cities. Continuing into the next year, public support remained limited to select elements of the artistic, bohemian and intellectual population, as arena rock and disco dominated the charts.
Starting in late 1978 and continuing into 1979, acts associated with punk and acts that mixed punk with other genres began to make chart appearances and receive airplay on rock stations and rock discos. Blondie, Talking Heads, the Police and the Cars charted during this period. "My Sharona", a single from the Knack, was Billboard magazine's number one single of 1979. The success of "My Sharona" combined with the fact that new wave albums were much cheaper to produce during a time when the music industry was in its worst slump in decades, prompted record companies to sign new wave groups. New wave music scenes developed in Ohio and Athens, Georgia. 1980 saw brief forays into new wave-styled music by non-new wave artists Billy Joel, Donna Summer and Linda Ronstadt.
Early in 1980, influential radio consultant Lee Abrams wrote a memo saying that with a few exceptions, "we're not going to be seeing many of the new wave circuit acts happening very big over here (referring to America). As a movement, we don't expect it to have much influence." Lee Ferguson, a consultant to KWST, said in an interview that Los Angeles radio stations were banning disc jockeys from using the term and noted, "Most of the people who call music new wave are the ones looking for a way not to play it." Despite the success of Devo's socially critical but widely misperceived song "Whip It", second albums by artists who had successful debut albums, along with newly signed artists, failed to sell, and radio pulled most new wave programming.
The arrival of MTV in 1981 would usher in new wave's most successful era in the United States. British artists, unlike many of their American counterparts, had learned how to use the music video early on. Several British acts on independent labels were able to outmarket and outsell American artists on major labels. Journalists labeled this phenomenon a "Second British Invasion". MTV continued its heavy rotation of videos by new wave-oriented acts until 1987, when it changed to a heavy metal and rock dominated format.
In a December 1982 Gallup poll, 14% of teenagers rated new wave music as their favorite type of music, making it the third most popular. New wave had its greatest popularity on the West Coast. Unlike other genres, race was not a factor in the popularity of new wave music, according to the poll. Urban Contemporary radio stations were the first to play dance-oriented new wave artists such as the B-52's, Culture Club, Duran Duran and ABC.
New wave soundtracks were used in mainstream Brat Pack films such as Valley Girl, Sixteen Candles, Pretty in Pink, and The Breakfast Club. John Hughes, the director of several of these films, was enthralled with British new wave music and placed songs from acts such as the Psychedelic Furs, Simple Minds and Echo and the Bunnymen in his films, helping to keep new wave in the mainstream. Several of these songs remain standards of the era. Critics described the MTV acts of the period as shallow or vapid. The homophobic slurs "faggot" and "art fag" were openly used to describe new wave musicians. Despite the criticism, the danceable quality of the music and the quirky fashion sense associated with new wave artists appealed to audiences.
The use of synthesizers by new wave acts influenced the development of house music in Chicago and techno in Detroit. In September 1988, Billboard launched their Modern Rock chart. While the acts on the chart reflected a wide variety of stylistic influences, new wave's legacy remained in the large influx of acts from Great Britain and acts that were popular in rock discos, as well as the chart's name, which reflected how new wave had been marketed as "modern". New wave's indie spirit would be crucial to the development of college rock and grunge/alternative rock in the latter half of the 1980s and beyond.
Post-1980s revivals and influence
In the aftermath of grunge, the British music press launched a campaign to promote the New Wave of New Wave. This campaign involved overtly punk and new wave-influenced acts such as Elastica but was eclipsed by Britpop. Other acts of note during the 1990s included No Doubt, Metric, Six Finger Satellite and Brainiac. During that decade, the synthesizer-heavy dance sounds of British and European new wave acts influenced various incarnations of Euro disco and trance. Chris Martin was inspired to start Coldplay by a-ha.
During the 2000s, a number of acts emerged that mined a diversity of new wave and post-punk influences. Among these were the Strokes, the Bravery, Interpol, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Franz Ferdinand, the Epoxies, VHS or Beta, the Rapture, She Wants Revenge, Bloc Party, Foals, Kaiser Chiefs and the Killers. These acts were sometimes labeled "New New Wave". The new wave revival reached its apex during the mid-2000s with acts such as the Sounds, the Ting Tings, Melody Club, Hot Chip, Passion Pit, the Presets, La Roux, Ladytron, Shiny Toy Guns, Hockey, Gwen Stefani and Ladyhawke. While some journalists and fans regarded this as a revival, others argued that the phenomenon was a continuation of the original movements.
The Drums are an example of the trend in the U.S. indie pop scene that employs both the sounds and attitudes of the British new wave era. A new wave-influenced genre called chillwave also developed in the late 2000s, exemplified by artists like Toro Y Moi, Neon Indian, Twin Shadow and Washed Out.
In electronic music
During the late 1990s, new wave received a sudden surge of attention when it was fused with electro and techno during the short-lived electroclash movement. It received popular attention from musical acts such as I-F, Peaches, Fischerspooner and Vitalic, but largely faded when it combined with tech house to form the electro house genre.
During the mid 2000s, new rave combined new wave with elements from several other genres, such as indie rock and electro house, and added aesthetic elements archetypal of a rave, such as light shows and glow sticks. Despite the term itself stimulating controversy to the point where many affiliated artists rejected it, new rave as a musical genre was adopted by artists such as the Klaxons, NYPC, Shitdisco and Hadouken!
In the 2010s, Nostalgia for 1980s new wave has seen a resurgence in the form of synthwave, which is primarily characterized by new wave, soundtrack influences and a retrofuturistic, cyberpunk-like visual aesthetic. This term is applied to the music of artists such as Kavinsky, College, Power Glove, and Mitch Murder and soundtracks of films and video games such as Drive, Tron: Legacy, Hotline Miami, Kung Fury, Turbo Kid, and Far Cry 3: Blood Dragon.[dubious ]
- Dark wave
- Neue Deutsche Welle
- No wave
- New Music (United States-specific umbrella term)
- Movida española
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 9–12.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "New Wave". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 11. ISBN 1-899855-13-0.
- "Keyboard Magazine, June 1982". Synthpunk.org. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Disco inferno". The Independent. UK. 11 December 2004. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Bernard Edwards, 43, Musician In Disco Band and Pop Producer The New York Times 22 April 1996 "As disco waned in the late 70s, so did Chic's album sales. But its influence lingered on as new wave, rap and dance-pop bands found inspiration in Chic's club anthems"
- Cooper, Kim, Smay, David, Bubblegum Music is the Naked Truth (2001), page 248 "Nobody took the bubblegum ethos to heart like the new wave bands"/
- Martin 2002, p. 99.
- Lynch, Joe (14 January 2016). "David Bowie Influenced More Musical Genres Than Any Other Rock Star". Billboard. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Cateforis 2011, p. 69
- Adams, Bobby. "Nick Lowe: A Candid Interview", Bomp magazine, January 1979, reproduced at . Retrieved 21 January 2007.
- "Born in 1959: The last happy generation". Helsingin Sanomat. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
- Pirnia, Garin (13 March 2010). "Is Chillwave the Next Big Music Trend?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Synth Pop at AllMusic
- Filipinojournal.com Archived 12 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. A Tribute to the '80s Philippine New Wave Scene
- Božilović, Jelena (2013). "New Wave in Yugoslavia-Socio-Political Context" (PDF). Facta Universitatis. Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History. 12 (1): 69–83.
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 9–12
- "Music Genres – AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Reynolds, Simon "Rip It Up and Start Again PostPunk 1978–1984" p160
- Peake, Steve. "Top 10 New Wave Artists of the '80s". About.com Entertainment.
- The Death of New Wave Theo Cateforis Assistant Professor of Music History and Cultures in the Department of Art and Music Histories at Syracuse University 2009
- Peter Childs; Mike Storry (1999). Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-415-14726-2.
- New Wave/Post Punk Revival Allmusic
- Paoletta, Michael (17 September 2004). "New wave is back – in hot new bands,". MSNBC. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Gill, Andy (4 June 2010). "Album: The Drums, The Drums". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Gordon, Claire (23 October 2009). "The decade that never dies Still '80s Fetishizing in '09 Yale Daily News". Yaledailynews.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Lopez, Korina (30 August 2010). "Indie singers storm the scene with style and spectacle". USA Today. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Q&A with Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s the University of Michigan Press 2011" (PDF). umich.edu.
- Cateforis 2011, p. 11
- "AboutNew Wave". allmusic.com.
- Cateforis 2011, p. 20
- Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press), pp. 269–270.
- Clinton Heylin, Babylon's Burning (Conongate, 2007), pp. 140, 172.
- Murray, Charles Shaar. Sleevenotes to CD reissue of The Boomtown Rats, reproduced at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 2016-02-05.. Retrieved on 21 January 2007.
- Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 12. ISBN 1-899855-13-0.
For a while in 1976 and 1977 the terms punk and new wave were largely interchangeable. By 1978, things were beginning to change, although the dividing line between punk and new wave was never very clear.
- "John Foxx Interviewed – The Quiet Man Speaks". The Quietus. 7 November 2008.
- Cateforis 2011, p. 25
- Source: The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd edition New 3 September 2014
- Cateforis, Theo. "New Wave." The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press. 3 Sep. 2014.
- Clinton Heylin, Babylon's Burning (Conongate, 2007), p. 17.
- Savage, Jon. (1991) England's Dreaming, Faber & Faber
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 46–47
- Cateforis 2011, p. 62
- Cateforis 2011, p. 254
- Cateforis 2011, p. 56
- Cateforis 2011, p. 63
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 57–62
- ABC News. "Where Are They Now: '80s New Wave Musicians". ABC News.
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 217–223
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 123–151
- Cateforis 2011, p. 220
- Cateforis 2011
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 71–94
- Album Review Look Sharp
- "Ska Revival – Music Highlights – AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 95–122
- "The Jam Information Pages:The Gigs". Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 185–201
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 203–211
- Bondie One Way or Another BBC documentary 2006
- Cateforis 2011, p. 203
- Power Pop genre Allmusic
- "Post-Punk – Music Highlights – AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Greil Marcus, Ranters and Crowd Pleasers, p.109.
- "Punk Rock Brings out a New Wave". Google. Associated Press. 29 October 1977. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- D. Rimmer (2003), New Romantics: The Look, London: Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-9396-3
- Cateforis 2011, p. 51
- Prato, Greg (19 April 2002). "Allmusic bio Yazoo". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "St. James encyclopedia of Pop Culture". Findarticles.com. 29 January 2002. Retrieved 15 May 2011.[dead link]
- Thomas, Stephen. "Kajagoogoo Allmusic bio". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Thomas, Stephen. "Allmusic Thompson Twins Allmusic bio". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Synth Britannia BBC 2009
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 152–181
- "Anthems of the Blank Generation". Time. 11 July 1977. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Genre Punk/New Wave Allmusic
- Cateforis 2011, p. 37
- American Punk Rock Allmusic
- "Is New-Wave Rock on the Way Out?". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Allmusic Whip It Review"But even though most of the listening public took "Whip It" as just a catchy bit of weirdness with nonsensical lyrics about a vaguely sexy topic, the song's actual purpose – like much of Devo's work – was social satire. Putting the somewhat abstract lyrics together, "Whip It" emerges as a sardonic portrait of a general, problematic aspect of the American psyche: the predilection for using force and violence to solve problems, vent frustration, and prove oneself to others"
- Rip It Up and Start Again Postpunk 1978–1984 by Simon Reynolds Pages 340,342–343
- "1986 Knight Ridder news article". Nl.newsbank.com. 3 October 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Holden, Stephen (15 June 1988). "The Pop Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Rock Still Favorite Teen-Age music". Gainesville Sun. 13 April 1983. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Crossover: Pop Music thrives on black-white blend". Knight Ridder News Service. 4 September 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "But what does it all mean? How to decode the John Hughes high school movies". The Guardian. UK. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Gora, Susannah (7 March 2010). "Why John Hughes Still Matters". MTV. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Cateforis 2011, p. 233, reference number 28
- "Instant Club Hit – You'll Dance To Anything" by the Dead Milkman 1987
- Cateforis 2011, pp. 65–66
- Mark Deming. "Metric". AllMusic.
- Strauss, Neil (18 April 1996). "POP REVIEW; Knowing Just How Hard It Is to Be a Teen-Ager,". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Coldplay, A-Ha and Mew Members Form Apparatjik". Spinner. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Marisa Brown. "Foals". AllMusic.
- Pareles, Jon (7 February 2010). "A British Band's Cerebral Electronics". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Pareles, Jon (27 July 2008). "The Week Ahead". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Passion Pit turn up the heat at the Ritz Ybor in Tampa". Blogs.tampabay.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Modular Christmas Party Sydney Morning Herald 1 December 2006 "the "new new wave" of the Presets"
- "Ladytron returns with disco heartbreak". Brisbane Times. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Ladytron Moves Towards the Light | MTV Hive". Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Shiny Toy Guns Allmusic bio
- Hockey Allmusic bio
- "Gwen Stefani MTV biography". Mtv. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Gwen Stefani's New Video Hits YouTube". People. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Indie-rock band The Bravery records all the time and everywhere". The Daily Gazette. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Daily Disc: The Ting Tings, We Started Nothing,". Network.nationalpost.com. CanWest News Service. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Download this: Ting Tings". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 7 June 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Critics' Choice New CDs,". The New York Times. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Feathers fly over Ladyhawke's origins". Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Reynolds, Simon. Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984 p. 398
- Tudor, Silke (11 September 2002), House of Tudor, retrieved 25 June 2007
- "MTV Artist biography The Sounds". Mtv. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Music review: Shy La Roux still brings the party to 9:30 Club". The Washington Post. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Pirnia, Garin (13 March 2010). "Is Chillwave the Next Big Music Trend?". The Wall Street Journal.
- Phares, Heather (28 September 2010). "Forget – Twin Shadow". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Caramanica, Jon (12 July 2011). "Going into the Haze in Their Debut Albums". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
- Cateforis, Theo. Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- McCasker, Toby (22 June 2014). "Riding the Cyber Doom Synthwave With Perturbator | NOISEY". Noisey.vice.com. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
Electronic music has lost a lot of its musicality lately. It's all drops and bass lines looped for five minutes non-stop. Back in the '80s, you had classic themes and iconic melodies. I try to take the best of '80s music and the best of what modern electro has. The 80s were the golden age of synths too, with master composers like Vangelis and Tangerine Dream, who are huge inspirations for most of us in this genre. There’s this special imagery that comes up in your mind when you think about this decade. There's a lot of '80s cliché that I find to be extremely cool, like gory practical effects or over-saturated neon colours.
- Lynskey, Dorian (22 March 2002). "Out with the old, in with the older". Guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011.
- Caramanica, Joe (9 May 2003). "The Electroclash Mix by Larry Tee". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- Klingman, Jeff (8 August 2012). "10 Electroclash Songs That Still Hold Up in 2012". Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Newman, Jason (7 February 2013). "Electroclash: 12 Artists You Need to Know". fuse.tv. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- "Electro House". Tumblr. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
It was in the early 2000s when a big movement of electroclash being mixed with synthpop. Meanwhile, tech house was also becoming more known and gaining some serious buzz. When the two were combined that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now. ... 'Satisfaction' was one of those songs that people would have stuck in their head for days. This song still continues to receive a lot of attention even now. It won world wide rewards as well as make Benny Benassi the father of Electro House.
- The Observer. 5 October 2006 Rousing Rave from the Grave. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- BBC News. 3 January 2007. "Sound of 2007: Klaxons". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- The Guardian. 3 February 2007. "The Future's Bright...". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- Times Online. 12 November 2006. "Here We Glo Again". Retrieved 131 February 2009.
- Harris, John. 13 October 2006. "New Rave? Old Rubbish". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- Entertainment Wise. 1 November 2006. "Klaxons: We're Not New Rave". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- "We Will Rock You: Welcome To The Future. This is Synthwave". letoilemagazine.com. 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
- NerdGlow. "The 7 Most Essential Synthwave Artists". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- McCasker, Toby. "Riding the Cyber Doom Synthwave With Perturbator". Vice. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Cateforis, Theo (2011). Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-03470-7. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Coon, Caroline. "1988": the New Wave [and] Punk Rock Explosion. Orbach and Chambers, 1977. ISBN 0-8015-6129-9.
- Bukszpan, Daniel. The Encyclopedia of New Wave. Sterling Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4027-8472-9
- Majewski, Lori: Bernstein, Jonathan Mad World: An Oral History of New Wave Artists and Songs That Defined the 1980s. Abrams Image, 15 April 2014. ISBN 978-1-4197-1097-1
- New Wave Complex – the original page dedicated to New Wave music since 1996
- New wave albums statistics and tagging at Last.FM
- New wave tracks statistics and tagging at Last.FM
- Encyclopædia Britannica Definition
- A Real New Wave Rolls Out of Ohio Robert Christgau for the Village Voice 17 April 1978
- 1997 Interview with Brat Pack Film Director John Hughes Published MTV 7 August 2009
- Walking on the Moon: The Untold Story of the Police and the Rise of New Wave book by Chris Campion previewed by Google Books
- Rock Against the Bloc A look back at the Punk/New wave movement in Poland by the Krakow Post 1 February 2010
- Drowning In My Nostalgia Philippine Inquirer 7 September 2002 A critic looks back at her teenage fan days in the Philippines and Los Angeles
- And then came the wave When he was growing up in 1970s Northampton, Andrew Collins would have killed anyone who'd called his favourite bands new wave by Andrew Collins The Guardian 18 March 2005
- New Wave artists aging gracefully. An 80s world gone by